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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, bj 

in the C!erk'» Offic-e of the District Court of Massachuset^ 





Raphael Ktjhnee, the author of the following Grammar, was 
boi*n at Gotha, in 1802. Among his early classical teachers were 
Doring, Rost, and Wiistemann. At the University of Gottingen, 
he enjoyed the instructions of Mitscherlich, Dissen, and Ottfried 
Midler, men of gi'eat distinction in classical philology. For more 
than twenty years, he has been a teacher in the Lyceum at Hano- 
ver, one of the principal German gymnasia, and has consequently 
had the most favorable opportunities, as a practical teacher, to un- 
derstand the wants of students and to be able to meet them. 

In addition to several other important works, Dr. Klihner has 
published three Greek Grammars : 

1. A Copious Greek Grammar, containing 1150 octavo pages, 

which has been translated by W. E. Jelf, M. A., of the 
University of Oxford. 

2. A School Greek Grammar, which has been translated and 

published in this country. 

3. An Elementary Greek Grammar, the original of the present 

work, from the second edition of which a very faithful trans- 
lation was made by John H. Millard, St. John's College, 
Cambridge, the Greek and English exercises and the accom- 
panying Vocabularies, however, having been omitted. 
The grammatical principles of the present work, so far as they 
extend, are the same as those contained in the Larger Grammar 
already pubUshed in this country, the latter being designed to carry 
forward the student in the same course which he had commenced in 
the former. The work enjoys the highest reputation among classi- 
cal scholars both in Europe and America. It is based on a thor- 


ough acquaintance with the laws and usages of the language. The 
author has evidently studied the genius of the Greek, and has thus 
prepared himself to exhibit its forms and changes, and general phe- 
nomena, in an easy and natural manner. His rules and statements 
are comprehensive, embracing under one general principle a variety 
of details. The analysis of the forms can hardly be improved. The 
prefixes and suffixes, the strengthening and euphonic letters, are 
readily distinguished from the root of the word. The explanation 
of the Verb in particular, is so clear and satisfactory, that, after a 
little practice, the student can take the root of any verb, and put it 
into any given form, or take any given form and resolve it into its 
elements. The rules of Syntax, too, are illustrated by so full a col- 
lection of examples, that the attentive student cannot fail to under- 
stand their appHcation. 

The work is designed to be sufficiently simple for beginners, and 
also to embrace all the more general principles of the language. 
The plan is admirably adapted to carry the student forward under- 
standingly, step by step, in the acquisition of grammatical knowl- 
edge. As soon as the letters and a few introductory principles, to- 
gether with one or two forms of the verb, have been learned (the 
sections marked with a [f] being omitted), the student begins to 
translate the simple Greek sentences into English, and the English 
into Greek. As he advances to new forms or grammatical princi- 
ples, he finds exercises appropriate to them, so that whatever he 
commits, whether forms or rules, is put in immediate practice. The 
advantage of this mode of study is evident. The practical appHca- 
tion of what is learned is at once understood ; the knowledge ac- 
quired is made definite ; the forms and rules are permanently fixed 
in the mind, and there is a facility in the use of them whenever 
they may be needed. The student, who attempts to commit any 
considerable portion of the Grammar without illustrative examples, 
finds it difficult to retain in his memory what he has learned. There 
is a confusion and indistinctness about it. One form often runs into 
another, and one rule is confounded with another. But if each suc- 
cessive principle is carefully studied, and then immediately put in 


practice, in translating the Greek and English exercises, and is af- 
terwards frequently reviewed, there will, in the end, be an immense 
saving of time, the student will be prepared to advance with plea- 
sure from the less to the more difficult principles, and in the subse- 
quent part of his course, he will experience no difficulty in regard 
to grammatical forms and rules. One of the most serious hin- 
drances to the rapid and profitable advancement in the Greek and 
Latin Languages, is a want of an intimate acquaintance with their 
elementary principles. 

The plan of the author proposes that the vocabularies accompa- 
nying the exercises, be committed to memory. In doing this, the 
student should be made to understand the value of the ear, as well 
as of the eye, the advantage to be derived from the former being 
altogether too much neglected in the acquisition of a foreign lan- 
guage. When the student first sees a new word, let him fix the 
form distinctly in his mind, and associate with it its meaning, so 
that the meaning may afterwards readily recall the word, or the 
word the meaning. Then, too, let him pronounce the word, and 
associate its meaning with its sound, so that when the word is again 
heard, the meaning may at once suggest itself. The child acquires 
its knowledge of language almost wholly by the ear ; and if the 
student in his effiDrts to learn a new language, would imitate the 
child in this respect, his progress would undoubtedly be much more 
rapid. This method would require that the words be often pro- 
nounced, their definitions being at the same time carefully associa- 
ted with them. This will in no way be so successfully accomplished 
as by requiring the vocabularies to be committed to memory. If 
the student knows that, when the Greek words are pronounced by 
his teacher, he must give the definition, or that, when the definition 
is giTen him, the corresponding Greek will be required, his atten 
tion will be more carefully and perseveringly directed to the forms 
and sounds of the words in his exercises ; he will soon have at his 
command an extensive vocabulary of the words in more common 
use, and vsdll save much time, which is so often lost in turning 
again and again to the same word in the lexicon. Such a process, 



too, will be of great service in cultivating the habit of fixed and 
close attention. In addition to the exercises contained in the 
book, it will awaken new interest in the class, if the teacher give 
exercises of his own, either in Greek or Enghsh, and require these 
'to be translated at once by the members of the class. It will be 
profitable, also, for any one of the class to propose exercises for the 
others to translate. On this subject generally, however, the expe- 
rienced teacher will be able to point out the best course to his pupils. 

In preparing the present work, it has been the aim of the trans- 
lator to adapt it to the wants of students in this country. He has 
occasionally, therefore, made slight changes in the original, where it 
seemed desirable. Occasionally, too, he has given explanations of 
his own in the body of the book, where he supposed the wants of 
the younger pupils might require them. But all the principles of 
the Grammar and nearly all the arrangement are retained as they 
were given by the author. The translator has endeavored to make 
such a book as the author himself would have done, under similar 

The Enghsh exercises in the Etymological Part of the Grammar, 
were taken from the Greek Delectus of the late Dr. Alexander Al- 
len, London, as they had been translated by him from the Elemen- 
tary Grammar of Kijhner. The exercises in the Syntax were trans- 
lated by Mr. John N. Putnam, of the Theological Seminary, An- 

In conclusion, the translator would acknowledge his special obli- 
gations to Mr. R. D. C. Robbins, Librarian, Theological Seminary, 
Andover, and to Mr. A. J. Phipps, Instructor in Phillips Academy, 
for the highly valuable assistance they have rendered in correcting 
the proofs. 

Akdoveb, May 1, 1846. 


CHAP. I. — The Letters and theik Sounds. 

1. Alphabet . . . Page 1 

2. Pronunciation of particular Let- 

ters .... 2 

3. Division of the Vowels. — Diph- 

thongs ... 2 

4. Division of the Consonants 3 

§ 5. Breathings . . Page 4 

6. Marks of Crasis and Elision 5 

7. Movable Consonants at the end 

of a word ... 5 

8. Change of Consonants in Inflec- 

tion and Derivation . 6 

CHAP. IL— Syllables. 

9. Quantity of Syllables . 9 

10. Accentuation ... 9 

11. Change and Eemoval of the Ac- 

cent by Inflection and Con- 
traction . . .10 

12. Change and Eemoval of the Ac- 

cent in connected Discourse 12 

13. Atonies or Proclitics 

14. Enclitics 

15. Inclination of the Accent 

16. Enclitics accented 

17. Division of Syllables 

18. Punctuation-marks . 


CHAP. in. — 19. Some General Views op the Verb, Page 15. 
CHAP. IV. — Substantive and Adjective. 

20. Nature and Division of the Sub- 

stantive . . .17 

21. Gender of Substantives . 17 

22. Number, Case and Declension 18 

23. Nature and Gender of the Adjec- 

tive .... 19 

24. General View of the Preposi- 

tions .... 19 

25. Eirst Declension . . 20 

25. Endings of the fii'st Declension 20 

26. Eeminine Nouns of the first De- 

clension ... 20 

27. Masculine Nouns of the first De- 

clension ... 24 

28. Second Declension . . 25 

29. Contraction of the second De- 

clension ... 28 

30. Attic second Declension . 30 

31. Third Declension . . 32 

32. Remarks on the Case-endings of 

the third Declension . 32 
S3. Gender, Quantity and Accentua- 
tion of the third Declension 33 

A. Words which in the Genititb 
hate a Consonant before the 
ending -Of, i. e. Words whosk 
Stem ends in a Consonant. 



§ 34. I. The Nommative exhibits the 
pure Stem ... 34 

35. n. The Nominative lengthens the 

short final vowel of the Stem 35 

36. S}Ticopatecl nouns, e. g. Trar/yp, 

etc 37 

37. The Nominative appends cr to 

the Stem ... 38 

38. The Stem ends in a Tan -mute 39 

39. Neuters ending in r and kt 40 

40. The Stem ends in v or vr 42 
B. "Words which in the Genitive 

HAVE A Vowel before the end- 
ing -Of .... 43 

41. I. Substantives in -evg, -avg, 

'Ovg .... 43 

§ 42. 11. Words in -rj^, -eg . 45 

43. Words in -og (Gen. -uog), and in 

-cog and -o (Gen. -oog) 46 

44. Words in -ag (Gen. -aog), and in 

-og (Gen. -eog) . . 47 

45. in. Words in -ig, -vg . 49 

46. Words in -Ig, -I, -vg, -v . 49 

47. LTegular Nouns of the third De- 

clension . . .51 

48. IiTCgular Adjectives . 52 

49. Comparison of Adjectives 54 

50. A. First form of Comparison 54 

51. B. Second form of Comparison 58 

52. Anomalous forms of Compari- 

son 59 

CHAP, v.— Adverb. 

53. Nature, Division and Formation I 54. Comparison of Adverbs 
of the Adverb . . 60 1 


55. Nature and 

nouns . 

56. Personal Pronouns 

57. Reflexive Pronouns 

58. Reciprocal Pronoun 

59. Possessive Pronouns 

CHAP. VI.— Pronoun. 
Division of 


60. Demonstrative Pronouns . 66 

61. Relative Pronouns . . 66 

62. Indefinite and Interrogative Pro- 

nouns . . .67 

63. Correlative Pronouns 


64. Lengthening of Pronouns 69 

CHAP. Vn.— Numerals. 

65. Nature and Division of the Nu- 

merals . . . .69 

66. Numeral Signs . .70 

67. Summary of the Cardinals and 

Ordinals ... 70 

68. Declension of the first four Nu- 

merals .... 72 

69. Numeral Adverl)S . . 73 

CHAP. VHI.— The Verb. 

70. Nature of the Verb 

71. Classes of Verbs 





Participials. — Infinitive and Par- 
ticiple .... 75 

Numbers and Persons of the 
Verb .... 75 

76. Conjugation of the Verb . 75 

77. Stem, Augment and Redujilica- 

tion. — Verb-characteristic 75 

78. Inflection-endings . . 76 

79. (a) Tense-characteristic and 

Tense-endings . . 76 
79. (b) Personal-endings and Mode- 
vowels . . 77 



^ 80. Eemarks on the Pei-sonal-cndings 
and Mode-vowels . 77 

81 Conjugation of the regular Verb 

in -6j . . . . 79 

82 Eemarks on the Paradigm 84 

83 Remarks on the Formation of the 

Attic Future . . 84 

84 Accentuation of the Verb 85 
85. More particular view of the Aug- 
ment and Reduplication 91 

85. Syllabic Augment . . 91 

86. Temporal Augment . 92 

87. Remarks on the Augment 92 

88. Reduplication ... 93 

89. Attic RedupKcation . 94 

90. Augment and Reduplication in 

Compound "Words . 95 

91. Remarks on Augment and Redu- 

plication . . .96 

92. Division of Verbs in -w according 

to the Characteristic, together 
with Remarks on the Forma- 
tion of the Tenses . 96 

93. Formation of the Tenses of Pure 

Verbs .... 97 

94. Verbs which retain the short 

Characteristic Vowel in Form- 
ing the Tenses . . 98 

95. Formation of the Aor. and Fut. 

Pass, and Perf. and Plup. Mid, 
or Pass, with a , . 99 

96. Contract Pure Verbs . 100 

97. Remarks on the Conjugation of 

Contract Verbs . .104 

98. Contract Verbs which retain the 

short Characteristic-vowel in 

Forming the Tenses . 110 


Paradigms of the above . 110 


Impure Verbs . .114 


Strengthening of the Stem 114 


Change or Variation of the 

Stem-vowel . .115 


Remarks on the Secondary- 

Tenses . . .116 

A. Mute Verbs 
104. Introduction to Mute Verbs 117 

S 105. Remarks on the Characteristic 


106. Formation of the Tenses of 

Mute Verbs . .118 


107. Verbs whose Characteristic is a 

Pi-mute . . .119 

107. Pure Characteristic /3, tt, ^ 119 

108. Impure Characteristic, tt- in 

Pres. and Impf. . .120 

109. Verbs whose Characteristic is a 

Kappa- mute . . 121 

110. Verbs whose Characteristic is a 

Tau-mute . . . 121 

B. Liquid Verbs. 

111. Fonnatiou of the Tenses 124 

112. Paradigms of Liquid Verbs 126 

113. Shorter Paradigms an-anged ac- 

cording to the Stem-vowel of 
the Future . . .128 

113. With a in the Futm-e . 128 

114. With e in the Future . 129 

115. With L and-y in the Future 129 

116. Special Peculiarities in the For- 

mation of Single Verbs, both 
Pure and Impure . 132 

117. Syncope and Metathesis 134 

118. Verbs in -6; with the Stem of 

the Pres. strengthened 134 

119. Verbs whose Pure Stem is 

strengthened in the Pres. and 
Impf. by inserting v before the 
ending . . .134 

120. Verbs whose Pure Stem is 

strengthened in the Pres. and 
Impf. by inserting ve before 
the ending . . 135 

121. Verbs whose Pure Stem is 

strengthened in the Pres. and 
Impf. by inserting av, more 
rarely aiv^ before the end- 
ing . . . . 137 

121. (a) av or aiv is inserted without 
any change . . 137 

121. (b) av is inserted before the 
Tense-ending dnd v is inser- 


ted before the Characteristic- 
consonant of the Pui-e Stem 
^ 122. Verbs whose Pure Stem is 
strengthened in the Pres. and 
Impf. by annexing the two 
Consonants (jk or the syllable 
icK . . . . 139 

123. Verbs whose Pure Stem is 

strengthened in the Pres. and 
Impf. by prefixing tlie Redu- 
plication . . .141 

124. Verbs to whose Pure Stem e is 

added in the Pres. and Impf. 

125. Verbs whose Stem is Pure in 

the Pres. and Impf., but which 
in other Tenses assume a Stem 
with the Characteristic e 143 

126. Verbs whose Tenses are formed 

from different Eoots, and 
which are classed together only 
iu respect to signification 146 

Verbs in -fiL. 

127. Conjugation of Verbs in -f/.L 148 

128. Di^asion of Verbs in -i^i 148 

129. Mode-rowels . . .149 

130. Personal-endings . . 149 

Formation of the Tenses. 
§131. Pirst Class of Verbs in -fii 151 

132. Second Class of Verbs in -ui 153 

133. Paradigms of Verbs in -[J-l 153 

134. Remarks on the Paradigms 156 

Summary of Verbs in -fit. 

135. Verbs in -/lll which annex the 

Personal-endings to the Stem- 
vowel .... 163 

135. Verbs in -a . . . 163 

136. Verbs in -e . . . 166 

137. E(/z<, to be, and elfci, to go 166 

138. Verbs in -fit which annex the 

syllable vvi) or vv to the Stem- 
vowel and append to this the 
Personal-endings . .169 

139. Verbs whose Stem ends in a 

Vowel and assumes vvv 170 

140. Verbs whose Stem ends iu a 

Consonant and assumes vv 1 71 

141. JnQection of K-eifiat and 172 

142. Verbs in -u which follow the 

analogy of Verbs in -fj.i, in 
forming the second Aor. Act. 
and Mid. . . .173 

143. Olda, I know . . .175 

144. Deponents, and Active Verbs 

whose Put. has a Mid. form 1 76 


CHAP. I. — Elements op a Simple Sentence. 

145. Nature of a Sentence. — Subject. 

— Predicate . .179 

146. Agreement . . .180 

147. Exceptions to the General Rules 

of Agreement . . 182 
I47b. Agreement when there are seve- 
ral Subjects . .184 

148. The Article . . .185 

149. Classes of Verbs . .193 

150. Remarks on the Classes of 

Verbs .... 193 

151. Tenses and Modes . .198 

152. More Particular View of the 

Tenses . . .198 

153. More Particular View of the 

Modes . . . 203 

153. Remarks on the Modal Adverb 

av . . . . 205 

CHiVP. II.— 154. Attributives, Page 207. 
CHAP. m. — 155. The Objective Construction, Page 209. 










Genitive . • .209 

Local Kclation. — Genitive of 

Separation . . . 209 

Causal Relation of the Genitive 

Active Genitive . . 210 
Genitive as the expression of 
Cause . . .215 

Genitive denoting certain Mu- 
tual Eelations . .217 
Accusative • . . 220 
Accusative of Effect . 220 

Accusative of the Object on 
which the action is perform- 
ed .... 221 
Double Accusative . 224 
Dative . . . .226 
Prenositions . . . 230 

A. Peepositions with one Case. 

163. Prepositions with the Gen. only, 

aVTi, TTpO, aTTO, kK, IvEKa 231 

164. Prepositions with the Dat. only, 

kv, avv . . . 233 

165. Prepositions with the Ace. only, 

ava, eig, uc . . 233 

§ 166. Prepositions with the Gen. and 
Ace, oVa, Kara, vntp . 235 

167. Prepositions with the G«n., Dat 

and Ace, u/xfi, 'jrepi, Im, //e- 
Tu, Tcapa, npog, vtco . 237 

168. Remarks on the Construction of 

Verbal Adjectives in -riog, 
-ria, -T£ov, and on the Con- 
struction of the Comparative 

169. Remarks on the Use of Pro- 

nouns . . . 244 

170. The Infinitive . . 248 

171. Infinitive without the Article 249 

172. Nom., Gen., Dat. and Ace. with 

the Infinitive . . 249 

173. Infinitive with the Article 251 

174. The Participle . . 252 

175. The Participle as the Comple- 

ment of the Verb . 253 

176. The Participle used to express 

Adverbial Relations and Sub- 
ordinate Explanatoiy Circum- 
stances . . . 257 

177. The Adverb . . .259 

Syntax of Compound Sentences. 
CHAP. I.— 178. Coordination, Page 263. 

CHAP. II. — Subordination. 

179. Principal and Subordinate 

Clause . . . 265 

180. Substantive-Sentences . 266 

181. Final Substantive-Sentences in- 

troduced by (hg, Ivay etc. 268 

182. Adjective-Sentences . 270 

183. Adverbial Sentences . 275 
183. Adverbial Sentences of Place 

and Time , . 275 

184. Causal Adverbial Sentences 278 

185. Conditional Adverbial Senten- 

ces ... . 278 

186. Adverbial Sentences denoting 

Consequence or Effect 281 

187. Interrogative Sentences . 283 

188. Oblique or Indirect Discourse 285 




Homeric Dialect. 

189. Eemarks on the Hexameter 287 

190. Quantity . . .289 

191. Hiatus . . . .290 

192. The Homeric Dialect . 290 

193. Digamma . . .291 

194. Contraction. — Diaeresis. — Cra- 

sis. — Synizesis. — Apocope 291 

195. Change of Consonants . 292 


196. Suffix 6i{v) . . .293 

197. First Declension . . 293 

198. Second Declension . 294 

199. Third Declension . . 294 

200. Anomalous Words . 296 

201. Adjectives . . . 297 

202. Comparison . . .297 

203. Pronouns . . 297 
2(X4. Numerals . . . 298 

The Veeb. 
§ 205. Augment. — Reduplication 298 

206. Personal-endings and Mode- 

vowels . . .290 

207. Contraction and Resolution in 

Verbs . . 300 

208. PoiTaation of the Tenses 301 

209. Conjugation in -ju.t . . 302 

210. 'Eifxc, to be . . . 302 

211. Elfii, to go . . . 303 

Verbs in -w which in the second 
AoR. Act. and Mid., in the Perf. 
AND Pltjp. Act., and Pres. and 
Impf., follow the analogy op 
Verbs iti -fcc. 

212. Second Aor. Act. and Mid. 303 

213. Perf. and Plup. Act, . 304 

214. Pres. and Impf. . . 304 




§1. Alphabet, 

The Greek language has twentj-four letters, viz. 


























e short 

"£ ipiXov 









e long 


























Mu • 











O llfAQOV 













a 9 












"T xpiXov 




















S^ fisya 



Eemaek. Sigma (c) takes the form c at the end of a word; e. g. ceiaiiog. 
This small f may be used also in the middle of compound words, when the 
first part of the compound ends with Sigma ; e. g. irpogcpipu, dvgysv^g, 

§2. Pronunciation^ of particular Letters. 

a has the sound of o in fan, when it is followed by a consonant in the same 
syllable, e. g. x^^^-i^^ ; ^^ sound of a in fate, when it stands before a single 
consonant which is followed by two vowels, the first of which is e or i, e. g. ava- 
cTaaeog, arpariUTrjg ; also when it forms a syllable by itself, or ends a syllable 
not final, e. g. ay-a--&a, Ka-rd ; it has the sound of a in father, when it is followed 
by a single p, if in the same syllable, and also when it ends a word, except when 
the word is a monosyllable, in which case it has the sound of a in fate, e. g. 
Bap-f3a-pog, yapf aya'&a, ra. 

7 before y, k, x and ^ has the sound of ng in angle, e. g. ayyelog, ang-gelos, 
'AyxtcTjg, AncMses, cvyKOTcrj, syncope, Xapvy^, larynx ; y before rowels always has 
the hard sound, like g in get. 

e has the sound of short e in met, when it is followed by a consonant in the 
same syllable, e. g. fisy-ag, fier-d ; the sound of long e in me, when it ends a 
word, or a syllable followed by another vowel, or when it forms a syllable by it- 
self, e. g. ye, ■&e-(j), nrpog-e--&r]Ke. 

7] has the sound of e in me, e. g. iigvtj. 

I has the sound of i in mine, when it ends a word or syllable, e. g. kATzl-ai, on ; 
the sound of i in pin, when it is followed by a consonant in the same syllable, 
e. g. 'Kpiv, Kcv-dvvog. 

^ in the middle of a word has the sound of x, e. g. -rrpd^ig ; at the beginning 
of a word, the sound of C> e. g. ^evog. 

o has the sound of short o in not, when it is followed by a consonant in the 
same syllable, e. g. My-og, Kv-pog ; the sound of long o in go, when it ends a 
word, or a syllable followed by another vowel, e. g. to, vtto, d-o-og. 

a has the sharp sound of s in son ; except it stands before fi, in the middle of 
a word, or at the end of a word after rj or w, where it has the sound of Cj e. g. 
GKTjVTJ, v6fM.(T/j.a, yrjg, KuXag. 

r followed by l never has the sound of sh, as in Latin, e. g. Va%aTia=^ Galatia, 
not Galashia. 

V has the sound of m in tulip, e. g. rvxv- 

X has the hard sound of ch in cJmsm, e. g. raxvg. 

w has the sound of long o in note, e. g. uyco. 

§3. Division of the Vowels. — Diphthongs, 

s and are always short vowels ; t] and co always long ; a, i and 
V either long or short. 

The short vowels are indicated by ("), the long by ("), e.g. 
a, a. The mark ( ^ ) shows that the vowel may be either long or 
short, e. g. a. 

* For rules on the division of syllables, see M7. 






diphthongs are : 

ai pronounced 


ai in aisle, c. g. 


« " 


ei " sleight, " 


Oi " 


Oi " oil, " 


VI « 


1(7^1 " whine, " 


av " 


aw " ZazicZ, " 


Ev and 7/v " 


eu " feudal, " 

tTzlevaa, tjv^ov 

ov and oav " 


OM " sound,* " 

ovQuvog, covzog; 

also «, rj and q?, i. e. d, rj and ca with an Iota subscript. These 
three diphthongs, which are called improper diphthongs, we pro- 
nounce hke a, jj and co without an Iota subscript. 

Hem. 1. The follomng examples will show how the Eomans sounded these 
diphthongs, and how they are represented in English ; ac is expressed by the 
diphthong ae^ el by I and e, v by ?/, ot by oe, ov by t<, e. g. 

^al6po^, Phaedrus, Ei'pof, Eiirtis, QpdKeg, Thi-aces, 

VXavKog, Glaucus, 'QoLuria, Boeotia, Qpycca, Thi'essa, 

Nei/lof, Nllus, '^JLovaa, Musa, Tpaycpdog, tragoedus. 

AvKELov, Lyceum, 'El?.siT^vca, Hith^da, 

IvE3i. 2. "With the capital letters, the Iota subscript of a, y and w is placed in 
a line with the vowel; e. g. At=a, Hi^^ri, 12i=cj. 

Kesi. 3. When two vowels, which regularly form a diphthong, are to be pro- 
nounced separately, it is indicated by two points called diaeresis, placed over the 
second vowel (^ t') ; e. g. ec, oi, av. 

§4. Division of the Consonants. 

1. The consonants are divided, first, according to the organs by 
which they are formed, into : 

Palatals, y "^ X 
Linguals, d r d" v X q <y 
Labials, ^ 7t cp ^i. 

Exercise for Reading, ys. yij. y,ai. yi. iu. — Sfi. dai. Stj. r«. zs. 

TO. TOO. TOJ). 70V. taV. TTJ. -&(. x^gf. XcO. yokci. TV. fSi. VEIV. VJ]. QCO. 

qa. QBi. Q81V. era. cov. aevco. — ^ov. ^ovv. ^i]ra. ^aXXco. ni. nov. 
7to3. nav. (pi. (peQco. (psv. cpvy?]. fiv. fiJj. fioi. 

2. Consona!nts are divided again, according to the greater or less 
influence of the organs of speech in their formation, into : 

(a) Semi-vowels, viz. X fi v q, which are called Liquids, and the 
sibilant a ; 

(b) Mutes, viz. ^ y d tt y. t q) yS-. These nine mutes are divided : 

* By some, however, pronounced like ou in group. 




(a) According to the organ of speech, into three Palatals, three 
Linguals and three Labials ; 

(b) According to their names, into three Kappa-mutes, three Tau- 
mutes, and three Pi-mutes ; 

(c) According to the stress of articulation, into three smooth Mutes, 
three medial Mutes, and three rough Mutes. 



















3. From the coalescence of the Mutes with the sibilant a, three 
double consonants originate, — 

ip from 7T(j j3(y qocr 
^ from y,6 ya fc 
t, from 5(7. 

Exercise for heading, Xafi^da. Xa^^avoj. (.iv. ^elog. fiaXa. vv. 
rvKteg. vvaaco. Qsvaig. qitzzco. Giyfia. osvco. y.aTTTza. yaiva. 'aoivov. 
yuQ. ygav. yrd^cov. — rov. t?jv. zoiv. rsfivco. 7Qav[.ia. daXza. deivozijg. 
S^sa. '&7]za. S^avfia. -d^aviiaaLa. — Tiavza. Tzgcoza. tzoko. mavofisv. 
^t]za. ^aiv(a, BaXXco. ^XaTTzof^av. (fevyco. (povevco. q)sido[iai. — \pi. 

xpavo). i^iaXXco. ipaXzrjQ. 'ipv/ij. 

^i. ^evog. ^ar&og. ^aiv(o. ^i]za. 

§ 5 . breathings . 

1. Every vowel is pronounced with a Breathing ; this is either a 
smooth or rough Breathing. The smooth is indicated by the mark 
('), the rough by ('). One of these marks is placed over every 
vowel which begins a word ; e. g. coov, lazoqia. The rough breath- 
ing corresponds to the English and Latin h. The smooth breathing 
is connected with every vowel, which has not the rough. 

2. In diphthongs, the mark of the breathing is placed over the 
second vowel; e. g. viog^ ev&vg, avzc/.a.. But when the improper 
diphthongs a, rj, oji, are capital letters, the breathing is placed over 
the first vowel ; e. g. 'Aidrjg, pronounced like aBijg, Hades. 

3. The liquid q is pronounced with the rough breathing, and 
hence has the mark of the breathing at the beginning of the word ; 
e. g. Qa^dog. When two q's occur in the middle of a word, the first 


is pronounced with the smooth breathing, the last with the rough. 
The first has the mark of the smooth, the last that of the rough 
e. g. UvQQog. 

Exercise for Reading, dlcpa. av^avco. al\)'7]n. alfiu. iiiov. iy.cot. 
Eita. elfia. evQSi. Evgiaxco. oXiyov. olvov. oiov. olov. riza. ijv^ov, 
ri'AOiV. lata, Iva. innoi. vno. v'loi. ico'aj]. adco. '^idrj. 

§ 6. 3farh of Grasis and Elision (Coronis — 

1. The mark of Crasis and Elision is the same as the smooth 

2. When two words come together, the one ending, and the other 
beginning, with a vowel, these two vowels frequently coalesce and 
form one long syllable. This coalescence is called Crasis, and the 
mark by which it is indicated, Coronis. The Coronis is placed 
over the syllable formed by Crasis, and when this syllable is a diph- 
thong, over the second vowel. But the Coronis is omitted, when a 
word begins with a vowel or diphthong formed by crasis ; e. g. to 
ovoiia = Tovvoiiay to sjzog = tovTiogj ta dyad'a = tdya'&a, 6 olvog 
= cpTog. 

Eem. In Crasis the Iota subscript (§ 3) is written only when the c belongs to 
the last of the coalescing vowels ; e. g. nal elra^Kdra ; but koI eTreira^Kairscra. 

3. Elision is to be distinguished from Crasis. It consists in the 
omission of a vowel before a word beginning with a vowel. The 
mark by which Elision is indicated, is called Apostrophe ; e. g. dno 
orAov = aTz oixov. The Apostrophe is omitted in compound words ; 

^e. g. aTzscfsoov from aTZo-sqjEQov. 

t § 7 . 31 vahle Co nsonants at the end of a word. 
1. Another means of avoiding the concurrence of two vowels in 
two successive words, is by appending a v (called v iqjsXycvctiycoy, 
suffixed) to certain final syllables, viz. 

(a) to the Dat. PI. in at, to the two adverbs, TZSQvai, the last year^ 
TzavtaTtaai, universally, and all adverbs of place in a ; e. g. 
Tzdaiv eXe^a ; ^ Ulataidaiv '^ysfxavia ; 
(§) to the third Pers. Sing, and PI. in oi ; e. g. ivntovaiv ifis\ 

tL&rj6iv iv tij tQaTTsXi}; so also to iari', 
(y) to the third Pers. Sing, in « ; e. g. irvTzisv ifis; 
(5) to the numeral srAoai, although even before vowels the v is 
often omitted ; e. g. erAoaiv drdgsg and srAoai dvdgeg ; 




Eem. In Attic prose, v '£(l>e?iKvaTiK6v regularly stands at the end of complete 
sections, and sometimes before the longer punctuation-marks, where no vowel 

2. The word 0^700? (thus) always retains its full form before a 
vowel, but di'ops its final a before another consonant ; e. ^. ovtag 
iTToi'r^aav, but ovt co ttoloj. So also (ixQi^S and fi^XQ^S- 

3. In like manner the Prep, i^ (ex) retains its full form before 
vowels and at the end of a sentence, but before consonants takes the 
form iy. ; e. g. ig eiQi^vTjg, dqijvr^g i^, but ix T^g eiQr^VTjg ; so also in 
composition ; e. g. E^EXavveiVy but iy.rslEiv. 

4. So the negative ova Qiot) becomes ov before a consonant ; e. g. 
ovy. alaxQog, but ov xalog ; and before a rough breathing it becomes 
ov/ ; e. g. ovx rfivg ; yet not before the aspirate q\ e. g. ov qItizco. 

t§8. Change of Consonants in Inflection and 

Deriv ation. 

1. A Tau-mute (r 8 x^) before another Tau-mute is changed 
into (J ; e. g. 

Eizeld^-d-rjv from 7ret-&co becomes £Trstcr-&7]v 

TCei-&-TEOg " TTEi'&CJ " TiELaTEOg 

T/peiS-d-rjv " kpecSo) " ^pelir&rjv. 

2. A Pi-mute (tz ^ go) before ^ is changed into ^i, 

a Kappa-mute (y, y %) 
a Tau-mute (t d '&) 

(a) Pi-mute : AeAe^Tr-^at 

(/3) Kappa-mute : 7re7r2e/c-/za4 



" ^ " " (7 ; 6. g. 

from AfiTTCj becomes ?iE2,£i/ 

" Tpi(3o) " TETpifl/LiaC 

" ■ypa.(j)(j " yiypafifzai. 

" TtTiEKO) " TTETiXEy/LCai 

" /le/cj remains M7^Eyiiat 
f3Ej3pEx-f^ai' " (^P^X^ becomes ^sBpEyfiat 
r/vvT-/, " uvvTO) " 7jvvG[iaL 

7JpEL6-(iaL " epElSo) " 7]pEL(7[iaL 

TTETZ Eld-- fiat " 7rEt-&C0 " TTETTCLafiaC 

KEKOfud-jiai " KOfli^CJ " KEKOfiLCfXai. 

{n |3 gp) with cy is changed into 1/;, 
a Kappa-mute (x y /) with (7 is changed into |, 
a Tau-mute (z 5 •&) disappears before a ; e. g. 
(a) Pi-mute: /leiTrcw from /leiVo) becomes XEtipo) 

(7) Tau-mute : 

3. A Pi-mute 

Tpij3(7(J " TptjSo) 

ypd(l)(70) " 7'pa0w 

(/3) ELappa-mute : tvTiekcu " TrPue/cu 

lEyau " Aq'u 

iSpExcro) <' |Spe;t:" 

(y) Tau-mute : uvvTaco " avvrw 

kpEidau " kpeido) 




Kemark 1. The Prep, e/c before a is an exception ; e. g. Ikcoj^o, not ^^wC"- 

4. A'^ before a Pi-mute (tt /5 rp 'ip) is changed into ju, 

N before a Kappa-mute (>i y X ^^ changed into y, 

A^ before a Tau-mute (t 5 >&) is not changed ; e. g. 

h-Treipla becomes Ifj-Treipia crvv-Ka2,£0 becomes avyKa2,ecj 

kv-jSdXXu " £/Li(jaX?M GW-yLyvuGKCJ " cvyycyvoxjKu 

sv-(ppcjv " ljx(l>puv Gvv-xpovor " cvyxpovog 

€v-'fpvx^S " e^'i/^'0;\;of avv-^scj " cvy^eu ; 

but cvvreivo), avvSeu, avvd-su. 

Eem. 2. The enclitics form an exception ; e. g. ovnep, rovye, not ofiTrep, royye 

5. iV before a Liquid is changed into the same Liquid ; e. g. 

cvv-2,oyi^o) becomes uvXTioyi^cj cvv-jierpia becomes avmxerpia 
kv-fcevo) " kjijieviJ cvv-piTrro) " cv^f)lTTr(o. 

Rem. 3. The preposition h before p is an exception ; e. g. hpiTTTo, not ep- 

6. A^ is dropped before c and ^ ; the preceding vowel, short bj 
nature, remains short after the omission of v before 6 ; e.g. 

Gvv-^vyca becomes Gv^vyca, dai/xov-crc becomes dalfiOGi. 

Rem. 4. Exceptions : 'E v, e. g. evaizeipo), ev^avyvvfzc ; TTa?uv, e. g. iraMv- 
aiiiog ; some forms of inflection and derivation in -aai and -Gig ; e. g. m(pavaai, 
from (l>acv(o, and some few substantives in -iir and -'y^'f . The v of triiv in com- 
position, is changed into g before another g followed by a vowel ; e. g. gvggu^o), 
instead of gvvgu^g ; but when g is followed by a consonant, v is dropped ; e. g. 
Gvv-GTTjfia becomes cvGTrjfxa. 

7. But when v is joined with a Tau-mute, both letters disappear 
before a, and, as a compensation, the short vowel is lengthened be- 
fore (T, namely, a into ei, o into ov, a, z, v into d, i, v ; e. g. 

rvcp-d-evr-GL becomes TV(p'&etGL Movt-gc becomes 7.£ovgl 



















8. A Pi-mute (n § q)) or a Kappa-mute (x y x) before a Tau- 
mute, must be of the same order as the Tau-mute, i. e. smooth, mid- 
dle or rough. Hence only a smooth Mute (tz a) can stand before 
the smooth Mute r ; only a medial (/3 y) before the medial d ; only 
an aspirate (gp x) before the aspirate '& ; consequently, tit and xt ; 
§8 and yd ; qjd- and /^ ; e. g. 

= TeTpiTrrac 
= yeypaTzrat 
= /le/ie/crat 
= ^e(3peKTai 
= KvjSda 
= ypdj3ST]V 

/? before 

r becomes tt as : 

from rp^/?w 


TT « 


i 7J. u 
' K " 

" ypd(^a) 




CC y (( 

" ypd<j)a 
" Tr/le/cw 



X before & becomes 7 as : from /^p^a:" (3pex-S7jv = ppeydrjv 

^ " -d- " ^ " " Trifnto) e'ire/Li7r--d7]v = £7re/i^i??7V 

y3 << 1^ " ^ '< " rpilSo) £Tpi(3-'d-j]v = erpI^i^T/v 

/£ « i9- " ;{^ " " TtleKO) eTcTiEK-'&rjv = etvIex'^V'v 

y u ^ a ^ u K /Leyo) kMy--&r)v = eXex'^V'^- 

Rem. 5. The preposition e/c does not undergo this change ; e. g. eKdovvai, Ik' 
iielvacy etc., not eySovvat, ex'&elvat. 

9. The smooth mutes (tt y, z) before a rough breathing, are chan- 
ged into the cognate aspirates ((p X '^)f ^^^ ^^^J ^^ inflection and 
derivation, but also in two separate words. The medials (§ y d), 
however, are thus changed only in the inflection of the verb ; in 
other cases they remain unchanged ; hence : 

utt' ov = cKp' ov, eTrfifiepog (from eiri, v/nepa) = k(pfjiJ,epoQ 

kirv^aivo (from em, vipalvo)) = e(pv(paivo, rirvTr-d = rervcpa 

oi}K baicjg = ovx oaicjg, SeKr/fzepog (from SeKa, VfJepa) = dexvf^epoc 

avr' uv = avd' uv (from avri), IlvtD\,ku (from hvTL, iXKu) = av&DiKU 

Eikoy-h =elloxa, but My erepav, not /lex' srspav 

TirpijS-d = TETpL<pa, but rpZ/3' ovrug, not rplf ovrug. 

Eem. 6. This change also takes place in Crasis ; e. g. -d-arepa from ra irepa 
(§ 6. 2). When t-wo smooth mutes precede an aspirate, they must both be chan- 
ged into aspirates (No. 8) ; e.g. e(pi&^fj.epog, instead of enrfjuepog (from kirra, 
Tjfiepa), vvx'^ o?i7iv, instead of vvkt' oItjv. 

10. If, in the reduplication of verbs, whose stem begins with an 

aspirate, this aspirate is to be repeated, then the first aspirate is 

changed into the corresponding smooth IMute ; thus, 

(pe-^tXriKa from ^i/leo is changed into TVE^iXTjKa 
XE-xvaa " x^" " KsxvKa 

■&t--d-7]/xc stem GE " Tid-rifiL. 

The two verbs, '&veiv, to sacrijice, and ii&ivai (stem 0£), to place, 
also follow this rule, in the passive endings which begin -with -0- ; e. g. 

eTv-'&Tiv, Tv-'d-^, £TE--&r/v, TE--&7i(T0fxat, instead of t&v-d-rjv, l-&£--&?jv. 

11. In words whose stem begins with r and ends with an aspirate,* 
the aspiration is transferred to the smooth r, when the aspirate be- 
fore the final syllables beginning with 6, r and fi, must be changed 
into an unaspirated consonant (according to No. 3. 8. 2.) ; by this 
transfer, t is changed into the aspirate '&. Thus : 

Tp£<p-c) is changed into (iJpeTr-o-cj) -d-phpu), ■&pe7r-T7}p, [-d-psTifia) "d^pi/ifia 
Ta(pij, TA<l>-w into '&d-tpc), d-aTr-rcj, (r£iJa7r-/iai) TE-&aju/ 
Tpv(l)og, TPT4>-a> into -dpyipcj, ■&pv'n-ro {r£r& TET&pvfifiai 

* Seme other Grammarians regard the words to which tliis principle apphes, 
as having two aspirates in the root ; but as it is not euphonic for two successive 
syllables to begin ^vith an aspirated lettei% the first must be smooth, as long as 
the second remains, and when the second disappears, the first becomes rough 
again ; hence £X<^ (properly ^x^)) but Fut. ^fw. — Tr. 


rptx-cj into (-^pex-crofiai) d-pe^o/iat ; — rpcx-og into -&pl^, ■&pi^iv. 
raxvg has -^acaov in the Comparative. (But rev^u from revxu, rpv^a 
from Tpvx(^, remain unchanged). 
Rem. 7. "Wliere the passive endings of tlie above verbs, rpe^u, ■&an'i'u (stem 
TA^*), -Bpin-TCd (stem TPT$), begin with ■&, the aspiration of the two final con- 
sonants ^t9-, changes r, the initial consonant of the stem, into ■& ; e. g. 

e-&p£(p-'&7}v, ■&p£<p--&rjvai, ■&pE(^-'&T]GeG-&ai 
k-d-ucp-d-T^v, ■&a(^--&cig, ■&a(j)-'&?j(, r£-&u(j)-'&ac. 

Eem. 8. In the imperative-ending of the first Aor. Pass., where both syllables 
would begin with ■&, \'iz. -Td-7]-&i, not the first, but the last aspirate is changed into 
the con'esponding smooth mute, thus : -i^z/ri ; e. g. Tv<b-&r}Ti, not Tvcpd-rid-c. 

12. P is doubled, — (a) when the augment is prefixed ; e. g. t^- 
Q80V ; (b) in composition, wben q is preceded by a short vowel ; e. g. 
aQO}]xrogf ^a&voQOog; but ev-gcoazog (from av and qcovw^u). 



§9. Quantity of Syllables . 

1. A syllable is short by nature, when its vowel is short, viz. €, 
0, a, % V, and when a vowel or single consonant follows a short vow- 
el; e. g. £vo[xi6a, envu&ro. 

2. A syllable is long by nature, when the vowel is a simple, long 
vowel, viz. Tjy 03, d, i, v, or a diphthong ; e. g. "riQag, y.Qirco, yscpvga, 
laxvQovg, naldevfjg; hence contracted syllables are always long; 
e. g. ''dxav (from dr/.mv), ^otQvg (from ^otqvag). 

3. A syllable with a short vowel is made long by position, when 
two or more consonants or a double consonant (^ § ip) follow the 
short vowel ; e. g. 'excTTeXXco, rv\pU'Pt£g, xogd^ (y.oQcixog), TQaTZe^a. 

Remark. But when a short rowel stands before a mute and liquid, it regu- 
larly remains short : e. g. ut£kvo^, u7reTr?Mg, "'ukutj, jBorpvc, dlSpuxfiog. In tAVO 
cases, however, a short vowel before a mute and liquid is made long. — (a) in 
composition ; e. g. 'eKvefxco ; (b) when one of the medials (/5 y 6) stands before 
one of the three liquids, 2, ii v ; e. g. (3ti3?uog, evoSfco^, TreTvTiSyaai. 

§ 10. Accentuation, 
1. The accentuation of a word of two or more syllables, consists 
in pronouncing one syllable with a stronger* or clearer tone than 

^ In our pronunciation of the Greek, however, we do not observe the written 
accent ; but the Greeks undoubtedly distinguished the syllable on which th(i 
written accent stands, by a greater stress of voice. — Tr. 


the other ; e. g. destructible, immortal. A monosyllabic word also, 
must be accented, so as to form, in connected discourse, an indepen • 
dent sound. The Greek language has the following marks of ac- 
centuation : 

(a) The acute ('), to denote the sharp tone ; e. g. loyog ; 

(b) The circumflex (~), to denote the protracted tone; e.g. 

(c) The grave (' ), to denote a softened acute on the final sylla- 
bles of words in connected discourse (§ 12, 1.). The grave 
is also used instead of the acute to distinguish certain words ; 
e. g. Tig, any one, and zig, who ? 

Kem. 1. The accent stands upon the second vowel of diphthongs ; and, at the 
beginning of words commencing with a vowel, the acute and grave stand after 
the breathing, but the circumflex over it ; e. g. aira^, av7.eLog, uv elTzrig, evpo^, aifia. 
But with capital letters, the accent is placed after the breathing, over the first vowel 
of the diphthongs a, y, u; e. g. "AtdTjg. With the diaeresis (^ 3. Eem. 3.), the 
acute stands between, and the circumflex over, the points ; e. g. uUijg, kTitjISl. 

2. The acute stands on one of the last three syllables, whether 
this is long or short ; e. g. 'Aokog, dvd-QcoTZov, noleixog ; yet upon the 
antepenult, only when the last is short, and is not long by position ; 

e. g. UV&QCOTTOg, but dv&QCOTTOV. 

S. The circumflex stands only on one of the last two syllables, 
but that syllable must always be long by nature ; e. g. zov, coJi^a ; 
it stands upon the penult, however, only when the ultimate is short, 
or long by position only ; e. g. tu^og, XQW^t nQdt,ig, avXa^ (Gen. 
-ay.og), y.aXav-Qoip, :<aztjXiip, Aijiimva^. 

Rem. 2. According to the accentuation of the last syllable, words have the 
following names: 

(a) Oxytones, when the ultimate has the acute; e. g. rervdug, KaKog, ^rjp ; 

(b) Paroxytones, when the penult has the acute ; e. g. tvtctcj ; 

(c) Proparoxy tones, when the antepenult has the acute; e. g. av&puTrog, rv- 

TrTO/J-EVOQ, dv&pOTTOi, TVnTOfieVOt ; 

(d) Perispomena, when the ultimate has tlie circumflex; e. g. Kaictjg; 

(e) Properispomena, when the penult has the cu-cumflex; e. g. Trpdyfia, <pi- 
Xovaa ; 

(f ) Barytones, when the ultimate is unaccented; e. g. TrpdyjiaTa, Trpdy/xa. 

t§ll. Change and Removal of the Accent hy Iw 
flection and Go ntr action. 

1. When a word is changed by inflection, either in the quantity 
of its final syllable or in the number of its syllables, then, according 


to the preceding rules, there is generally also a change or removal 
of the accent. 

(a) By lengthening the finai syllable, 

(a) A Proparoxytone, as Ttoleiiog, becomes a Paroxytone ; 

e. g. TzoXsfiov ; 
(^) A Properispomenon, as reixog, a Paroxytone ; e. g. tsi- 

(j) An Oxytone, as deog, a Perispomenon ; e. g. '&sov. Yet 

this change is limited to particular instances. See § 26, 

5, (a). 

(b) By shortening the final syllable, 

(a) A dissyllabic Paroxytone with long penult, as qisvyco, 

becomes a Properispomenon ; e. g. qisv'ye, but tattoo, 

Tarte ; 
(^) A polysyllabic Paroxytone, whether the penult is long 

or short, becomes a Proparoxytone ; e. g. ^ovXsvco, ^ov- 


(c) By the accession of a syllable or syllables at the beginning of 

a word, the accent is commonly removed towards the beginning of 

the word ; e. g. cpsv-^'co, sqjsvyov. By the accession of syllables at 

the end of a word, on the contrary, the accent is removed towards 

the end of the word ; e. g. ivTzrco, rvTzrofie-d'a, tvq)d'7j(j6iisd'a. 

Eem. 1. The particular cases of the change of accent by inflection, and the 
exceptions to the general rules here stated, -will be seen below under the accen- 
tuation of the several parts of speech. 

2. In respect to contraction, the following principles apply : 

(1) "When neither of two syllables to be contracted is accented, 
the contracted syllable also is unaccented, and the syllable which, 
previous to contraction, had the accent, retains it also after the con- 
traction; e. g. (fiXae = q)il£ij but q^iXssi = q)ileT, '^'avsi' == yevsi, ys- 
vi(ov == y8V(5v. 

(2) But when one of the two syllables to be contracted is accent- 
ed, the contracted syllable also is accented : 

(») The contracted syllable when composed of the antepenult and 
penult, takes the accent which the general rules require ; e. g. 

ayaTraofjiai = uyaTrclifiat <l)i\e6jj,Evog = (ptXovfj.evog 

earaoTog = karcbrog bp'&oovoi = bp'&ovGL 

'b2,7]eaua = ■bXrjana rtfiaovruv = rcfiuvTUV ; 

(b) The contracted syllable, when it is the ultimate, takes : 

(a) The acute, when the last of the syllables to be contracted 
has the acute ; e. g. icracog = iazoog ; 

12 CHANGE OF ACCENT. — ATONICS. [§§ 12, 13. 

(^) The circumflex, when the first of the syllables to be con - 

tracted, is accented; e. g. 'rff^ot==rixoi. 

Rem. 2. The exceptions to the principles stated, will be seen below under the 
contracted declensions and conjugations. 

t § 12. Change and Removal of the Accent in 
connected Discourse, 

1. In connected discourse, the Oxytones receive the mark of the grave, i. e. 
by the close connection of the words with each other, the shai-p tone is weaken- 
ed or depressed ; e. g. EZ [iri fiTjrpvi^ TrepLKakTJrjg 'B.epi(3ota rjv. But the acute 
must stand before every punctuation-mark, by which an actual division is made 
in the thought ; e. g. 'O n^v Kvpog kirepaae rbv TroTafiov, ol Si iroM/iioi uire- 

Exceptions. The inten-ogatives rig, ri, quis ? quid ? always remain oxytoned. 

2. In Crasis (§ 6. 2), the accent of the first ivord is omitted, and the word formed 
from the two, has the accent of the second word ; e. g. rd. aya-^a = raya'&d, rov 
ovpavov = Tovpavov, rr) rjjiepg, = -^T^fiepa, rb bvofia = rovvofia ; yet, according 
to the general i-ule (§ 10. 3), the long vowel formed by Crasis takes the circum- 
flex instead of the acute, when the second word was a dissyllabic paroxytone, 
with a short final syllable ; e. g. rb errog = rovTvog, ra &2,Xa = raA/la, Tb epyov 
= Tovpyov, TO, 67r?i,a = ■&u7irXa. 

3. In Elision (§ 6, 3), the accent of the elided vowel goes back as an acute upon 
the preceding syllable ; yet, when the word, from which a vowel has been elided, 
is a preposition or one of the particles, d/i/la, ov6e, p-rjde, or one of the enclitics, 
TLva and Trore, the accent of the elided vowel wholly disappears, and also when 
the a^jcented vowel of monosyllabic \vords is elided ; e. g. 

'lioTika ETza'&ov = rro/l/l' £Tca-&ov rrapa kjiov = Trap' kfiov 

6eLva EO0)Tg.g = detv' epurag cnzb kavrov = a<^' kavrov 

(pTjfil eyu = 0;7/z' kyo) uX}m kyd = aXTJ h/u 

aiaxpfi' t'ke^ag = alaxp' sTiE^ag ovSi eyu = ov6' kyu 

iTTTa TjGav = ^tzt' y^cav rivu eXeye = tcv' eXeye. 

t § 13. Atonies J' Proclitics. 

Some small words are termed Atonies or Proclitics, which, in 
connected discourse, are so closely united to the following word, 
that they, as it were, coalesce with it, and lose their accent. They 
• (a) the forms of the article, o, ?}, ot, al ; 

(b) the prepositions, Iv, in, elg (ig)y into, ix (i^), ex, co?, ad; 

(c) the conjunctions, cog, as, that, so thai, when, ei, if; 

(d) ov (ovx, ovj), not; but at the end of a sentence and with the 
meaning No, it has the accent; e. g. ov {ova). 


J t § 14. Enclitics. 

Enclitics are certain words of one or two syllables, which, in 

connected discourse, are so closely joined, in certain cases, to the 

preceding word, that they either lose their tone, or throw it back 

upon the preceding word ; e. g. opiXog rig, noXeiiog tig. They are : 

(a) The verbs eliii, to he, and ^VfJ-'h io say, in the Pres. Indie, except the 
second Pers. Sing, el, thou art, and (pyg, thou sayest ; 

(b) The following forms of the three personal pronouns : 

n. P. S. aov 


in. P. S. ov DuaL ccpcjiv PL a<pioL{v) 

Oi ""-^ 

I. P. S. fioy 

(c) The indefinite pronoun, r^c, rl, through all the cases and numbei-s, to- 
gether with the abridged forms rev and rw, and the indefinite adverbs ttcjc, 
TTCj, TT^, TTov, TzoM, Tzo-&£v, Ttoi, TTOTe ; thc corrcspouding interrogative words, 
on the contrary, are always accented ; e. g. rig, ri, ttw^ , etc. ; 

(d) The particles, re, roc, -ye, vvv, Trip, -^riv, and the inseparable particle, 6e, 
both when it expresses the direction whither ; e. g. 'EpelSogds, to Erebus, and also 
when it serves to strengthen a word ; e. g. roaogSe. 

t § 15' Inclination of the Accent, 

1. An Oxytone so unites with the following enclitic, that the ac- 
cent, which is commonly grave in the middle of a sentence (§ 12. 1), 
again becomes acute j e. g. 

i9^p Tig for i?^p rig Ka7^,6g eariv for naTibg eariv 

Kai TLveg " Kal riveg TroTaftog ye " Tzorafibg ye 

Kokog re " Ka2,dg re rrorafiot, rtveg " TzoTajiol riveg. 

2. A Perispomenon unites with the following enclitic without 

further change of the accent ; e. g. 

<l>cjg TL for (pug rl (ptTisl rig for c^iTiei rig 

<j>ug ear IV " (pCjg kariv kcXov rivog *' koXov rivog. 

Remark. Long syllables in enclitics are considered in respect to the accen- 
tuation as shon ; hence olvrivoiv, uvrivuv are viewed as separate or compound 
words, like KaTiUv rivuv. 

3. A Paroxytone unites with the following monosyllabic enclitic 

without further change of the accent ; but there is no inclination 

when the enclitic is a dissyllable ; e. g. 

^tlog fiov for (piXog fj.ov, but <i)i2.og eariv, ^'ikoi (paaiv, 
aX2,og TTug " aA/lof Tvug, " u2,Xog TTore, a2,2,o)v rivuv. 

4. A Proparoxytone and a Properispomenon unite with the fol» 

lowing enclitic, and take an acute accent on the last syllable. 

uv&pciTTog Tig for av&pwjrog rig aujia rt for au/xa rl 

av&puTToi riveg " Scvd^punoL 'iveg aibfia kariv " awjua harlv, 



Kemark. When several enclitics occur together, each throws back its accent 
on the preceding ; e. g. si rrep rig ai iioi (brjcl irors. 

t § 1^' Enclitics Accented, 

1. The enchtics at the beginning of a "sentence, retain then* accent; e. g. ^v 
u> ^y^ TovTO. — Ttvsg Myovatv. — 'E.ial -d-eoi. — But instead of k(7Tc{v) at the be 
ginning of a sentence, the foim £aTc{v) is used; also, if it stands in connection 
with an Inf. for E^eaTt{v), and after the particles all, el, ovk, firj, wf, Kal, fiev, 
5tc, ttov, also after the pronoun rovr' ; e. g. 'Eart '&s6g.—''EaTi cofbg avr/p.— 
'EaTLv ovTug. — 'Earcv Idelv, ISeZv eariv, licet videre. — El ectlv^ ovk ectlv, tovt' 


2. $77/^i and the other persons of the Ind., retain the accent, if they are sepa- 
rated from the preceding word by' a punctuation-mark ; e. g. 'Egtiv avrjp aya- 
■&6g, <^r)ni. 

3. The enclitic personal pronouns, aov, aoc, oe, ol, a(l>l(n(v), retain their ac- 
cent : 

' (a) When an accented Prep, precedes ; e. g. Trapa cov, fzETct ere, irpbc aoL In 
this case, instead of the enclitic forms of the Pron. of the first Pers., the 
longer, regularly accented forms are chosen ; e. g. 

Trap' Efzov not Trapa fzov, Trpbg ejiol not Tcpog fiot, 

Ka-f kfie " Kara fis, -rzEpl Efiov " Trepi fiov. 

Remark. The unaccented prepositions are united to the enclitic forms ; e. g. 

EK fiOV, EV [lOi, EQ C£, EQ [IE, EK GOV, EV GOL. 

(b) After copulative or disjunctive conjunctions ; e. g. e^€ Kal ae, kfis ^ ce, 
as generally, when the pronouns are emphatic, e. g. in antitheses. 

(c) The forms ov, ol, 'i, are accented only when they are used as reflexive 

4. There is no inclination, when the accent of the word on which the en- 
clitic rests, disappears by Elision ; e. g. Kokbg 6' kGriv, but Kalbg 6e egtlv — 
iro/lylot 6' eIgcv, but TroAAoi Se eIglv. 

t § 17. Division of Syllables. 

Preliminary Remark:. The division of syllables, according to our mode of 
pronouncing Greek, depends in part upon the place of the accent.* 

The accent (stress) is on the penult in dissyllables, and on the antepenult in 
polysyllables, when the penult is short. The accent on the penult or antepenult 
is called the primary accent. If two syllables precede the primary accent, there 
is a secondary accent on tJie first syllable of the word. 

1. In dissyllables, a single consonant following a or i in the penult, is joined 
to the final syllable ; e. g. a-yco, rra-pa, fxa-Tia, l-va, l-rog, l-x^^P- 

2. In dissyllables, a single consonant following e or o, is joined to the first 
syllable ; e. g. "Xny-og, riX-og. 

* Th» term accent and accented, throughout these rules^ is nsed with reference 
to our pronunciation cf the Greek, and not to the written accent on the Greek 


3. The double consonants f and ip are joined to the vowel preceding them ; 
e. g. ra^-G), dlip-or, irpu^-tg, uvrLTa^-djievoQ. But C is joined to the vowel fol- 
lowing it, except when it stands after e or o, or aft^er an accented vowel in the an- 
tepenult, — in which case it is joined "with these vowels ; e. g. vo/u-^cj, vo/iL-^e, 
dpTca-^o ; but rpaTre^-a, 6^-og, vofii^-ofiev, &p7ra^-ofiev. 

4. A single consonant (except in the penult) before or after the vowels a and 
I having the accent, and also a single consonant before or after s and o having 
the accent, is joined to these vowels ; e. g. dy-ai?6f , Tror-a/jt-og, (Sa-aiT^ia, v-tto?^- 
aj36)v, b-TTOT-epog, Ti-&-o[iev. 

Exception. A single consonant after an accented syllable, and followed by two 
vowels, the first of which is £ or l, is joined to the vowel after it ; e. g. arpa-ria, 
avaoTu-aeug, GTpa-riuiTTjg. 

5. A single consonant after a long vowel or f is joined to the vowel follow- 
ing 5 e. g. (po-vy, xPV'H-^i TJ-KO), oft,l-2,og, OTZd-dog ; upyv-por, fiv-piag, u-d-v-iiia, 
ipv-yovreg, ^v-yofiev. 

Exception. A single consonant following long c or i in the antepenult, and 
having the accent, is joined with the vowel preceding ; e. g. uTroKptv-aro^ hari ■ 

6. Two single consonants coming together in the middle of a word, are sepa 
rated ; e. g. Tro/l-Aa, lo-rdvac, r£'d--vr,K.a, -d^ap-paMug, K7iVTor^x-'^V^- 

Exception. A mute and liquid are sometimes joined to the following vowel, 
C. g. erc-TpcoGKov. ^ 

7. "When thi-ee consonants come together in the middle of a word, the last 
two, if a mute and liquid, are joined to the following vowel, if not, the last only ; 
e. g. dv--&po)7Tog, dv-Spla, but ET£p(p--&7]v. 

8. Compounds are di"sdded into their constituent parts, when the first part 
ends with a consonant ; but if the first part ends with a vowel followed by a 
thort syllable, the compound is divided, like a simple word ; e. g. eK-fSaivu, avv 
■K-(pa)VT](yLg, 7rp6-&-£cng, dvdjS-aacg, but VTCo-drjrTjg, not VTro(p-7iT7jg ; so Tiapa-^aivQ 

t § 18. Punctuation- marks. 

The colon and semicolon are indicated by a period at the top of the line ) 
e. g. £v O^e^ag ■ rcavreg yap diio'kbyriaav . The interrogation-point is like cur 
ufcmicolon ; e. g. rig ravra eiroirjGEv ; The period, comma and exclamation- 
point are like om-s. 


§ 19. Same general views of the Verb. 
1. The verb expresses action ; e. g. to Uoom, to strilce. In 
Greek there are three classes of verbs, viz. active, passive and mid- 
dle. The middle has a rejieodve signification, i. e. it expresses an 
action which proceeds from the subject and again returns to it, i. e. 
an action which the subject performs on itself; e. g. xinro^au I 




strlhe myself, ^ovXsvofxai, I advise myself, d^vvoiiai, I defend myself 
In most of the tenses, the middle and passive forms are the same ; 
e. g. zvTitofiai, I strike myself 2i&^ lam struck. 

2. At present only those forms of the verb are given which are 
necessary for translatmg the exercises that occur before the entire 
verb is presented. 


ber and 

Present Active, 

ber and 

Present Middle or Passive. 




S. 1. 


P. 1. 


S. 2. 
P. 2. 

jSovXev-o), I advise. 

(iov7i.Ev-ELg, thou ad- 

(Sov?i£v-£t, he, she, or 
it advises. 

(3ovXEv-ofi£v, we ad- 

(SovIev-ete, ye advise. 

PovXEv-ovaL{v), they 

(3ov?i.Ev-E, advise thou. 

[3ov7i£v-ET£, advise ye. 

f3ov?uEv-ELv, to advise. 

S. 1. 


P. 1. 


S. 2. 
P. 2. 

j3ov?[,£v-o/, I advise my- 
self, or am advised. 

(SovIev-ij, thou advisest thy- 
self, or ai-t advised. 

(^ovAEv-ETatjhe advises him- 
self, or is advised. 

l3ov/iEv-6fi£-&a, we advise 
ourselves, or are advised. 

(3ov?iEv-Ea-&£,je advise yom*- 
selves, ©r are advised. 

Pov?i.£v-ovTaL, they advise 
themselves, or are advised. 

^ovIev-ov, advise thyself, 
or be ad-\dsed. 

(3ovX£v-£(yd-£, advise your- 
selves, or be advised. 

j3ov?i,£v-Ecr&ai, to advise one- 
self, or be advised. 

Kemark. On the v EcpEXKvarucov in jSovlEvovatv, see § 7, 1. (b). 
3. Also the following forms of the irregular verb sif^i, to he, may 
be learned : 

k(jTi{v), he, she, or it is 

eIgi(v), they are 

i(rd-i, be, Earo), let him, her, or it be 

vv, he, she, or it was 
rjcFav, they were 
Ears, be ye. 

I. Vocabulary* and JExercises for Translation. 

'AeI, always. el, if. 

aXjj'&Evo), to speak the Eizofiai, w. dat. to follow, 

truth. [ly. accompany. 

uvSpEcoC, manfully, brave- ect-^lo), w. gen. and ace. to 
aptarevu, to be the best, eat, corrode. 


(Slotevo), to live. 

BXaKEvc), to be lazy. 

ypa^o), to write, enact. 

SiuKO), to pursue, strive af- 

EX^i, it has itself, it is. 

jjdEug, pleasantly, cheer- 
fully, with pleasure. 

'&av/j.d^cj, to wonder, ad- 

fiETptuc, moderately. 

Kal, and, even. 

KaKug, badly, cowardly. 

KaTtcjg, well. 

KolaKEvo), to flatter. 

(laxofiat, iL\ dat. to fight^ 

fifj, not, always placed be- 
fore the Imperative and 

bdvpofiai, to mourn, la- 

* All the vocabularies are designed to be committed to memory before tra^s• 
litins: the exercises. 


ov (oi'K, oi'x), not. [cate. TziGTevo/xai, to be believed. a:<^^'P"> wj. dat, to rejoice, to 

'naidevu, to bring up, edu- CTzevdcj, to hasten, exert rejoice at, or over, de- 

7ratCw,toplay,joke,playat. oneself. liglit in. 

7rLvu{i),w. gen. and ace, to (^evyu, to flee, flee from, i/'eyw, to blame, 
diiai" shun. 

KuLE OF Syntax. The verb agrees with its subject-nominative, 
in number and person. In Greek, as in Latin, the subject of the 
first and second person of the verb, need not be expressed except 
for emphasis, it being sufficiently indicated by the ending of the verb. 

^&^ u%T]-&ev£. Xalpe. "Etov. M^ bdvpcC^e. 'HJewf (3cot£vcj. Ka/.tJ^ 
natdevofzai. KcAaJf ypatpecg. Ei KaKug ypcKpetg, ipiyy. EZ Ko?MK£vet, ova aAr,- 
■&£VEi. Ei KO?MKevet, ov TitaTEverat. ^evyofiev. Ei (^£vyofj,ev, 6iuKu/j.E-9^a. 
Ka/cwf (pevysTE. EZ (SXaKeverey tpEyec&e. 'El uvdpEiug (xux£cr&£, ^avftd^Ecr&E. 
Ei Kb?MK£vovaiv, oi'K a?.r]-&evovaiv. Ov Ka7.u)g kxet, (pEvyeiv. Ka?Mg tx^t u-v- 
dpEcug /xux£(T'&ai. Ei diUKy, [itj ^Evys. 'Avdpsiug fiax^y- Ei i3?,aKEVovai, ipi- 
yovrai. Ei aA7]-&EV£ig, TztarEvy. 'AeI uptarEVETE. MEVpcug itr&ie kol irlve 

KOi TZal^E. 

I speak the truth. If I speak the truth, I am beHeved. Eejoice [pL). Mourn 
thou not. Thou livest pleasantly. He writes well. It is (has itself) well, to 
speak the tmth. Always speak {pi.) the truth. Follow {pL). He is well brought 
up. Flatter thou not. " If thou flatterest, thou art not believed. To be believed, 
is (has itself) well. If we are lazy, we are blamed. If ye speak the truth, ye 
are beHeved. If they fight bravely, they are admired. If they flee, they are 
pursued. Be thou always the best. 



'§'20. Nature and division of the Substantive. 

A substantive is used to express a thing or object. There are 
two classes of substantives: (a) the names of persons, as man, 
woman ; '(b) the names of things, as earth, garden. 

§21. Gender of Substantives. 

The gender of substantives, which is three-fold, as in Latin, is 
determined partly by their signification, and partly by their ending. 
The last mode of determining the gender will be treated under the 
several declensions. With respect to the signification, the follow- 
ing general rules apply : 



1. Names of males, of nations, winds, months, mountains, and 
most rivers, are masculine. 

2. Names of females, of countries, islands, most cities, most trees, 
and plants, are feminine. 

3. The names of the letters and fruits, infinitives, diminutives in 
'Ov, except the proper names of females, e. g. rj Movnov, all indecli- 
nable words, and finally, every word used as the mere symbol of a 
sound, e. g. to /w?/r7/(), the word mother, are neuter. 

4. The names of persons, which have only oEie form for the 
Masc. and Fem., are of common gender ; e. g. o ?J d-eog, yod and 

§ 22. Nu mher, Ga se and Declension, 

1. The Greek has three numbers, the Singular, the Plural, 
and the Dual, which denotes two. 

2. It has five Cases, namely : 

(1) Nominative, the case of the subject ; 

(2) Genitive, the whence-case ;* ^^ v%^ . . 

(3) Dative, the where-case ; -^c i^-^-^ 
(-i) Accusative, the whither-case ; 

(5) Vocative, the case of direct address. 

Eem. 1. The Nom. and Yoc. are called direct cases, the others, oblique cases. 
Substantives and adjectives of the Neuter gender have the same form in the 
Nom., Ace. and Voc. of the three numbers. The Dual has only two forms for 
cases, one for the Nom., Ace. and Voc, the other for the Gen. and Dat 

3. There are in Greek three difierent ways of inflecting sub- 
stantives and adjectives, distinguished as the First, Second and 
Third Declensions. 

Rem. 2. In parsing a substantive, the beginner may accustom himself to an- 
swer the following questions: ichat case? ichat number? what declension? wluxt 
gender ? from ichat nominative-, e. g. is uv&puTzoiQ % 


Wh^ case ? Dative case ; 

Wmt number 9 Plural number ; 

WJiat declension ? Second declension ; 

What gender ? Masadine gender ; 

From what nominative ? From the Nom. avd-puiroQ ; 
e. g. uufiaToc is the Gen. Sing, of the third declension, neuter gender, from the 
nominative au/ia, body. 

* See a fuller statement under the Cases in the Syntax, §156 seq. — Tr. 


§ 23. Nature and Gender of the Adjective. 

1. TJie adjective expresses a quality, which is considered either 
as already belonging to an object, e. g. the red rose, or one which 
is merely attribut^fco an object, e. g. the rose is red. In both in- 
stances, in Greekj^^Fin Latin, the adjective agrees with its sub- 
stantive in Gender, Number and Case ; e.^.6 dy ad-og av{}Q(07tog, 
bonus homo, d avd-Qconog dy ad" 6 g iaiiVy homo bonus est ; ^ y.aXt] 
Movaa, pulchra Musa, ?/ Movaa 'AaXrj ioriv, Musa pulchra est ; 
TO 'A aXo V eaQ, pulchrum ver, to tuQ a aXo v icriv, ver pulchrum 

2. Hence the adjective, like the substantive, has three genders. 
Yet all adjectives do not have separate forms for the three genders ; 
many have but two separate endings, viz. one for the masculine and 
feminine gender, the other for the neuter ; e. g. 6 rj 6V)rog dvr^Q, a 
quiet man, ri ^6v y^og yvvrj, a quiet woman, ro 7J ov/ov zsy.vov, a 
quiet child; several, indeed, have only one ending, which commonly 
indicates only the masculine and feminine genders, seldom the neuter 
gender ; e. g. d q)vy dg dvqq, an exiled man, ri cpvy dg yvvri, an 
exiled woman. 

3. The declension of adjectives, with few exceptions, is like that 
of substantives. 

§ 24. General view of the Prepositions, 

Pebliminart Eemaek. Before proceeding to the declensions, a general 
view of the prepositions will be given, as a knowledge of these is indispensable 
in translating. 

I. Prepositions with one case. avv, cum, with, and the adverb 

(a) "With the Genitive : afza, together ivith. 

avzL, ante, before, for, instead of, (c) With the Accusative: 

Trpo, pro, before, for ^ ava, on, upon, up, through, 

UTTOy ab,from, by,-: eig, Lat. in with Ace, into, to, 

iic {e^ before a vowel), ex, out of, from, 0)C, to, ad. * ;' 
§veKa, for the salce of, on account of. 

Here belong several adverbs which, IT. Prepositions with Ge^xiiive ana 

like prepositions, govern the Gen., viz. Accusative. 

TTpocd-ev and eixTrpoa^ev, before, ^ Sta, thrmgJi, by ; with Ace. often, on ac 

oTTiad-ev, behind, count of, 

&vev and x^^pk, unthout, ' f,. Kara, de, dovm, with Ace. often, through, 

ttXt/v, except. iirep, super, over, above ; with Gen. often, 

(b) With the Dative : for. 
h>, Lat. in with Abl.. in, upon. 



TTT . Prepositions with Gen.^ Dot. and 


u/Liipi and rrepc, around, about ; Math Gen. 

often, ^r, 
km, upon, at ; with Ace. often, towards, 

uerd, with ;. with Ace. often, after^ 

irapd, by, near ; with Gen. from (pro- 
peii}^ from being near some one) * 
with Ace. to (properly into the pres- 
ence of some one), 

Trpof , before ; with Ace. often, to, 

iiTTO, sub, und^^^ 

§ 25. First Declension* 

The first declension has four endings, a, rj (or a), dg and i^g ; a 
and ri are feminine, dg and ijg masculine gender. 







a ov V 


or r/g 































7], a. 



§26. I. Feminine Nouns* 

1. (a) The Nom. ends in -« or -«, and the a remains in all the 
cases, if it is preceded by ^, £ or t (« pure) ; e. g. ;fco^a, land, idsaj 
form, 60(pia, wisdom, XQEia, utility, Evroia, good-will. These make 
the Gen. in -dg, Dat. in -d. Here belong also some substantives 
in -d ; e. g. dXald, and some proper names ; e. g. ^kv^Qoiiidd, 
udijdd, fPilo^^ld, Gen. -dg, Dat. -d. 

(b) The Nom. ends in -d, which remains only in the Ace. and 
Voc. ; in the Gen. and Dat., the -a is changed into -?/, if it is pre- 
ceded by X, 11, 6, 06 (rr), ^, S, ip, v. 

(c) In other instances, the Nom. ends in -ij, which remains through 
all the cases of the Sing. 

2. When -a is preceded by e or a, in some words -ia is con- 
tracted into -ij, and -da into -a". Then the final syllable remains 
circumflexed in all the cases. 





a. Tj ihroufjh oil the cases. 





Sing. Nom. 






























Flur. Nom. 






























Dual.N. A. V. 






G. and D. 






b. a 


all the cases. 


a G. 7?r- 

(a) long a. 

(b) short a. | 





. Muse. 














[IV -ag 



















































































Ke3Iaek. The feminine of all adjectives of thi'ee endings, is like the declen- 
sion of the above paradigms ; e. g. 57 Ka?.^ tliit], the glorious honor; rj xpvan 
(contracted from xp^cr^") as gvk^ from GVKca) gto7jtj, the golden rdbe^ rTjg ;^pv- 
GTjg CTOArjg; 77 diKaca yvufirj, the just opinion, ri;g OiKatag yvufiTjg; ij 
EX'^ P^ X'^P'^1 f^^ hostile land, rrig ex'& pdg X'^P^^- 

3. The quantity of the endings is gi^^en in § 25. The feminine ending -a, is 
always long in adjectives ; e. g. k7xv-&Epog k'kev&Epa £?.Evi9-Epov, free. 

4. With regard to the accentuation, it is to be observed that : 

(a) The plural ending -a i, is considered short in respect to the accent ; hence 
/JaivaL (not 7.£aivai), Movgul (not MovGai) ■ 

(b) The accent remains on tlie accented syllable of the Nom., as long aa the 
laws of accentuation permit. 

Exceptions, (a) The vocative di-GTrora from deGizorrig, lord; 

{/3) In adjectives in -og, -t] (-d), -ov, the feminine is accented on the same syl- 
lable as the masculine, through all the cases, where the nature of the final sylla- 
ble permits. Hence the nominative plural feminine of (3Et3aiog, iXry'^epog, uv- 




■&pC)^Lvog, IS accented on the antepenult, \iz. l3ej3aLoi, Seiiaiai, klevd-eooc, 
kXev-&epai, uv^pu~ivot, uv&puTTLvai, although the feminine Sing., on ac- 
count of the long ending -?; and -a, is a paroxytone, viz. jSeiSaid, kXev&ipa, av- 
"d^puTiivr] ; 

(7) In the Gen. PI. of the first Dec, the final syllahle -uv is circumflexed ; e. g. 
TisaLvCdv from liaiva, veavLuv from veaviag. But to this there are the following 
exceptions: (1) Feminine adjectives and pai-ticiples in -og, -rj (-a), -ov, are ac- 
cented like the Gen. of masculines ; e. g. rc5v Ka7J.iGrciv Isiovaibv, from KoXkia- 
rog, KaTJuGTrj, KiDCkioTOv ; but other feminine adjectives and participles, are cir- 
cumflexed in the Gen. PL ; e. g. ^apvg, papela, fSapv, Gen. PI. I^apecov, (3apeiuv; 
— (2) The substantives XP^'^'''VC, usurer, a<pvi], anchovy, erTjaiac, monsoons, and;t'^oy- 
VTjQ, wild-hoar, which in the Gen. PI. remain Paroxytones, thus xpV<yT^'>^'^ ^.(pvuv. 

5. The accent of the Nom. is changed according to tlie quantity of the final 
gyllable, as follows : 

(a) Oxytones become P&ispomma, in the Gen. and Dat. of all three numbers 
e. g. TLiirjc, -y, -uv, -alg, -alv ; this is ti'ue also of the second declension. 

(b) Paroxytones with a short penult, remain paroxytones through all the 
cases, except the Gen. PL, which is always ckcumfiexed on the final syEable ; 
on the contrary, paroxytones with a long penult, become properisporimia, when 
the ultimate is short, which is the case in the Norn. PL ; e. g. yvo)fiij,, but 
yvufiuv ; ^X.rpei6rig, 'A rpeldai, but 'ArpstSuv ; on the conti-ary, Slkt], dtaai, but 
6lkC)v ; 

(c) Properispomena become paroxytones, if the ultimate becomes long ; e. g. 
Movad, Movar/g ; 

(d) Proparoxytones become paroxytones, if the ultimate becomes long; e g. 
XiaLva, Tieaivr/g. 

'AdiKia, Gen. -ag, tj, injus- 

adoXenxta, -ag, tj, loqua- 
ciousness, prating. 

aX7j-&lvri, -7]g, vera, true. 

aizixofiat, iv. gen., to ab- 
stain from, keep oneself 

uperr], -yg, i], virtue. 

Bia, -ag, ^, violence. 

6off&eia, -ag, ?j, help. 

yiyvofiaL, to become, arise, 

CLaj^oTJ], -rig, rj, calumny. 

diKT), -Tig, 7], justice, 
right, a judicial sen- 

ecKu, w. dat, to give way 
to, to yield to. 

II. Vocabulary. 

£77 ay ye7Ji0[j.aL, to promise. 

'eiidyco, to biing on. 

ridovT], -rig, tj, pleasm"e. 

■&epaTrevo), to esteem, hon- 
or, worship. 

KaKca, -ag, tj, vice. 

KapSta, -ag, rj, the heart. 

KaTa(pvy7j, -rjg, rj, a refuge. 

7,,viir}, -Tjg, 7], disgrace. 

ytvTTTy, -Tjg, rj, son'ow. 

Tivpa, -ag, ij, a lyre. 

Ivo), to loose, free, dispel, 
violate (a treaty), abol- 

uepcpva, -7]g, ?j, care. 

fiovaa, -rjg, ?], a muse. 

6, 7j, TO, the. 

irei^ofiai, w. dot., to be- 
lieve, trust, obey. 

Tcevia, -ag, i], poverty. 

'izlEove^ia, -ag, tj, avarice. 

TzoTJiuKig, often. 

cvvrj'&eia, -ag, ij, inter- 
course, society. 

Tsipu, tero, to wear out, 
weaken, tire, plague. 

riKTu, to beget. 

rpvcprj, -fjg, 7/, excess, luxu- 
rious indulgence, efiem- 

^l?.ia, -ag, ^, fiiendship. 

XaXeTTTj, -Tjg, molesta, bur- 
densome, troublesome, 

Xpeta, -ag, rj, ne^d, inter- 

o)C, as. 


/ Rules op Syntax. 1. Transitive verbs govern the AccHfeative. 
2. Verbs and adjectives expressing the relation of to or for in 
English, govern the Dative. 

EZ/ce Ty j3ia. 'H Xvpa rug /xepi/xvag Tiiei. 'Kirexov rr/g KaKiaq} 'H ^tkia 
hTrayyiXktTat KaTa(j)vy7jv Koi (^orj-d-eiav. 'Attexov tuv tjSovuv. 'H nepifiva t^v 
Kapdiav kcr&iei. QepairEvere rag 'Movaag. M7 neid-ov dia(^ H diKij 
TToTCkaKig ry adiKtg. eIkei. HoXkaKcg xa^^^rv ttevlo? rsipofiE'&a. T^v adoXEC' 
Xcav (pevyETE. 'H KaKia Xvtttiv ETrayEt. Tpvcpy adiKiav koI TrAsovE^iav tiktei. 
^EvjE rrjv rpv(pr/v c)g Xvfzijv. Al' aperTJg Kol Gvv7]-&ELar koI xP^'-'^Q uT^rj'&iVTj ^tXia 

Abstain ye from violence. Hee thou from vice. Cares corrode the heal*! 
Flee thou from pleasures. Trust ye not to calumny^ The Muses are honored. 
Do not give way {pi.) to pleasure. Virtue begets true friendship. The heart 
is corroded by cares (dot.). Sorrow is brought on by \ice. 

m. Vocabulary^ 

Ayo, to lead, bring, con- do^a, -7jg, 57, report, fame, Truaa, -rjg, every, all. 

duct. reputation. -klttto), to fall. 

a-K7Jfi, -rig, simple. Ea-d-lrj, -rjg, good, noble, ttoWtj, -rjg, much, many. 

apyvpsa, apyvpa, -ag, argen- splendid. TvopcpvpEu, Trop^vpc, -dg, 

tea, silver {adj.). ev^vvco, to make sti-aight, purple {adj.). 

aarpaTrf], -rjg, ^, lightning. rectify. ^adcug, easily. 

aTljiia, -ag, rj, dishonor. EVKolug, quickly. CKo7ua, -ag, crooked, per- 

(3dac2,Eia, -ag, rj, a queen, evvopiia, -ag, rj, good ad- verted. 

SuaLlEca, -ag, tj, king- ministration. crdXr], -rjg, rj, a robe. 

dom. £;i'w,to have, hold, contain, rvx^i^ -VQi Vt foitune, pi 

^TidjSrj, -rjg, rj, injury. /car£;tfcj, to hold back, re- {generally) misfortunes. 

(Spovrfj, -rjg, 37, thunder. strain. [liant. (piped, fero, to bear, bring. 

yXcjTTa, -rjg, rj, the tongue, 7M/j,7rpd,-dg, splendid, bril- ;^py(7£a, XP'^'^V) -VC, aiirea, 

a language. [hfe. fiEyd7urj, -rjg, magna, great. golden. 

dlatra, -rjg, ^, a mode of iiETa8o7^rj, -ig, ij, change. 

T?7 KaKia^ Tcdaa uTLfiia ETVErat. 'Fadtug (pips Trjv itEviav. Bpovr?) ek Xa/z- 
irpdg udTpaTiTjg yiyvErai. 'H dpErjj Ead-lrjv do^av sx^t. 'Evvofica EvdvvEi diKag 
(jKoXiug. AiKr] diKTjv tIktel Kal 137.0.137] j37i.df3rjv. 'ATrXrjv diatrav ays. KdzExt 
irjv y7MTTav. 'H rvxV 'iTo7\,Aug jiETaj3o?.ug exBi- Hevcgv (pipETE. Al Xafirrpal 
rvxai EVK67Mg TrtTCTOvmv. ^ipE rug Tvxag. •, 'H dpEri) ovk eckec ralg Tvxaig. 
'A7rEXE(j-&t xa7\,ETcuv f-iepLfivuv. '11 f3a(7iXeLa /LiEyd7^rjv paau.siav exsl. Ti aTo7J) 
EOTL rcoppvpd. Xpvadg nal upyvpug CTo7Mg exo/hev. 

Flee from cares. Vice begets dishonor. Good reputation follows virtue. 
The pen-erted sentence is rectified by good administration. The hghtning is 
brilliant. Good reputation aiises from virtue. Yield not to misfortunes. From 
splendid fortunes often arise splendid cares. 

* § 157. 2 5 iQi^ 2. (a). ((5) 

n > 




§ 27. n. Ma sculine No uns. 
"The Gen. of masculine nouns ends in -ov ; those in -ag retain the 
a in the Dat., Ace. and Voc, and those in -rjg retain the ri in 
the Ace. and Dat. Sing. The Voc. of nouns in -rig ends in a, 

(1) all in -trig ; e. g. ro^6zj]g, Voc. to^ora, TTQocpiirtjg, Voc. 7TQoq)7Jtd ; 

(2) all substantives in -yg composed of a substantive and a verb ; 
e. g. yeooiASTQTig, Voc. yscofAStQcc, iivQonalr^g, a salve-seller, Voc. fiv- 
QOTtmld ; (3) national names in -tig ; e. g. IIsQGtig, a Persian, Voc. 
TleQcd. — All other nouns in -rig have the Voc. in -?/ ; e. g. lHqarigf 
Perses, Voc. IIsQaJi.— The plural of masculine nouns does not differ 
from that of feminine. 

Rem. 1. Several masculine nouns in -dg have the Doric Gen. in a, namely, 
TTarpaXoiag, /nr/TpaXoiag, patricide, matricide, bpvf&od^fjpag, fowler; also several 
proper names ; e. g. 'AvvifSag, -a, l,v?i?iag, -d ; finally, contracts in -dg ; e. g 
ftop^dg, from fSopiag. 


Sing. N. 





















Plur. N. 



























Eem. 2. Adjectives of one ending in -7]g and -ag, are declined in the same 
manner ; e. g. k-d-ey^ovri^g TtoXlrTig, a willing citizen., e'& eXovrov tcoXltov, 
e'&e?.ovrai rcoTurai ; jxovlag veavlag, a lonely youth, uovlov veavlov, fio- 
V ta veavla. 

'AdoMaxv^i -ov, 6, a pra- 

uKovcj, to hear. 

aKpodTrjg, -ov, 6, an audi- 

SXaTTTu, w. ace, to injure. 

SeGTvoTTig, -ov, 6, a master. 

ei'jKoajula, -ag, 57, good or- 
der, decorum. 

Tjffvxla, -ag, rj, quiet, still- 

IV. Vocabulary. 

ness ; with uyeiv, to be 

■&d7iaTTa, -rjg, rj, the sea. 
'&edTrig, -ov, 6, a spectator. 
fxav&uvo), to learn, study. 
/j,e?.eL, w. dat. of the person 

and gen. of the thing, it 

vavTfjg, 'OV, 6, nauta, a 


bpeyofiai, w. gen., to strive 

TtpeTrei, w. dat., it is be- 
coming, it becomes. 

'TTpocTT/Ket, IV. dat, it is be- 
coming, it becomes. 

(TO<pla, -ag, rj, wisdom. 

Texvri, -VC, V, art. 

Tpv(p7]T7]g,-ov, 6, luxurious, 
riotous, voluptuous. 


^ EuLE OP Syntax, One substantive governs another in the Geni- 
tive, when the latter signifies a different thing from the former. 
The substantive in the Gen, defines or explains more particularly 
the one by which it is governed, 

Ma^ave, (5 veavia, Tr,v aofcav. UoMrr, rrpeTrec ei-Koa/MU. I^eaviov ao6iav 
^avfiaCoj. ^evye, ^ no?uru, r^v ddcKcav. Tijv opvi^o^ijpa rexvvv ■&avua^oaev 
'AKpoarac^^ Kal ^earalg TrpogyKsc i^avxiav ayecv. ^evyere, a, vavrac, Boppav 
Bo^^ag vavrag TroUoKcg ^Aanrei. 'Opiyea^e, 6> -rzolXrai, rrig dperrig ^ Zb^ 
pcrac rpvcpTjral ^(7av. Navraig iie2,et TTJg ^aXdrrvc^ ^evye,Cimpev. ^-rap. 
Tidrat fi€ydJirjv 66^av ^xovacv. ^svyc^ veaviav rpv^prjrijv. 'AdoAeayuv d-Ktyov 
'Akove, d) deaiiora. 

Learn, youths, wisdom! Good order becomes citizens. We admire tha 
wisdom of jontlis. Shun, O citizens, injustice! To the Spartans there wat 
great fame (t. e. thev had gi-eat fame). Keep yourself from voluptuous vonthg 
Flee from pratei-s. Keep yourself from a prater. It becomes an audito^ and a 
spectator to observe (dyoy) stillness. Tlee from a voluptuous youth. 

Y. Vocahdarf/, 

AcKacocn'vv,-rjg,n,jn8tJc^. kM^tvc, -ov, 6, a tliief. CTpand>Tnr, -ot; 6 a sol 

iTTCfzelof^ac, w.gen., to care Kplr^g, -ov, 6, a judge. dier, a warrior. ' 

for, taj^e care of, taJ^e vavayca, -ag, ^, ship^vi-eck. rexvlrvg, -ov, 6, an ar- 

*^®' olKerrjg, -ov, 6, a sei-vant. tist. 

ipaarvg -ov, 6, a lover, a 'rzccyrevc., ^.^ dot, to trust, rpe>a;, to nourish, support, 

J^"^'^^-. rely upon. keep, bring up. 

^aviiaarr], .r,r, a<hmramki, -ncaTtvopiat, to be trusted, ^evcTTjg, -ov, 6 a Har 

wonderful. be- beheved. ' 

'H Tibv ^Trapnariov dperij ^avfiacrrj} icrriv. ^evye, d> Uepfra. Kpiracg npi 
^ei SiKaioavvv. 'Ear. ribv arpurturuv^ ^epl tu>v ^XltC^v fzdxecr^ai ^eCys 
^evarag. ' deuizorcv emizelea^ut* rC^v oheTibv. M^ TzioTeve rbevarv 
TexvcTvv rpi^^t ij rexvv. 'Ek ^evaruv ytyvovrai KAeirrai. ^Traprcdrai SS^vc 
KalTifi-nghpaaralvaav. '^k (3o^^ noUuKcg ylyverac vavayia. eavuuCouev 


^ Th^ ^ers^ans flee. Justice becomes the judge. It is the duty of a soldier to 
nght for the citizens. Plee from a liar. Ti-ust not liars. Art supports artists. 
We admire Hei-mes. Soldiers %lit. Liars are not beheved. 

^ 28. Second Declension, 
The second declension has two endings, -og and -ov; nouns in -og 
M-e mostly masculine, but often feminine; nouns in -ov are neuter. 
Femmme diminutive proper names in -ov are an exception; e. g. 

7 D.VXtQWV. • 

,n.!::Yu'sX '' i?i&fe'\*(b,;'^" ""'■' *' ^"^" i*^ ^="^ °^-^ 










Of ov 


















Of and £ ov. 









Kg. 1 


6 X6y-oc 

7] V7]G0C 

6 -d-eog 

•6 uyyeT^og 




Tov "kby-ov 


TOV "d-eov 

. liyyzkov 




Tu 2,6y-o) 

ry vrjGCf) 

ro -d-eo) 





rdv "koy-ov 

T7IV vrjaov 

TOV -d-eov 





u 2,6y-e 

u vrjae 

0) d-eog 





ot %by-oi 

at vrjuoL 

at -d-eoi 





rdv 2,6y-0)v 


Tcbv d-suv 





role ^by-ocg 

raig vrjGOtg 

Tolg -^solg 





rot)g 2.6y-ovg 

Tag vrjGovg 

Toijg -Oeovg 





u ?^6y-0L 

d V1/G0L 

(J -deoi 





rd ?i6y-o) 

TU V7}G(j) 

TO) ■&£6) 




Tolv 2,oy-oLv 


Tolv ■&£olv 




Kem. 1. The Voc. of words in -og conunonly ends in e, though often in -og\ 
e. g. w ^i-^f and w <^i'kog ; always w -Q-eog. 

Eem. 2. On the accentuation, the following observations are to be noted : Tho 
accent remains on the tone-syllable of the Nom. as long as the quantity of the 
final syllable permits ; the Voc. a§ e%6e from ads^.^og, brother, is an exception. 
— The plural ending -ol, like -at in the first declension [§ 26, 4. (a)], with re- 
spect to the accent, is considered short. The change of the accent is the same 
as in the first declension (§ 26, 5.), except in the Gen. PL, where the accent re- 
tains the place, which it has in the Nominatire. See the paradigms. 

Ee3I. 3. Adjectives in -og, -rj [a], -ov, in the m.asculine and neuter, and those 
of two endings in -og (]Masc. and Pem.), -ov (Neut.), are declined like the pre- 
ceding paradigms ; q. g. ay a-&6g, aya-^rj, ay a-& ov, good, b dya-&bg Xbyog, 
a good speech, to ayad-bv tekvov, a good child, -nay KaXog, rcay Ka7.ov, 
very beautiful, b irayKalog Tibyog, a very beautifid speech, ?/ TidyKaXog juop- 
<bf], a very beautifid form, to izdyKa'kov tekvov, a very beautifid child. Adjec- 
tives of two endings in -og, -ov are almost all compounds. Adjectives of three 
endings in -og preceded by e, i or p, and those in -oog preceded by p, like nouns 
of the firslfcdeclension, in -a pure and -pa, have the Nom. Pem. in -a ; e. g. XP^'^^ 
£og, ;^;pt)CT-£a, xP'^<^-^ov, kx^pbg, -a, -bv, biKpbog, -bQ, -bov. 

Rem. 4. It will be seen by the following paradigms, that, in adjectives in ~og, 
'7] (-a), -ov, the masculine and neuter are declined like the second declension, 
and the feminine lik« the fii-st. 







Para^igjis 01^ Adjectives.' 


u-/ad--6g uya-^-i] uya-d--6v, good 



<j)l'/.l-ov, lovely 


aya'&-ov uya-&-7jg ayad-ov 





uyad--C) aya-&-y uya-&-Ci 





aya-&-6v aya-^-riv uyad--6v 





uyad--e uya'&-r/ aya'&-6v 





aya-&-oi aya-&-ai uyad--a 





uyad--cjv uya-&-(I)v aya-&-cJv 





uyad--olg aya-d--alg aya'&-olg 





uya-&-ovg aya&-ag ayad--d 





aya-d--oi aya'0--at uyad^-d 





dyad^-6) dyad--d dya-&-6 




dya-d-olv dyaQ'-alv dya-d--oZv. 




VI. Vocabulary. 

Aya-&6v, -ov, to, a good hx&pog, -ov, 6, an enemy, olvog, -ov, 6, wine. 

thing, an advantage. dsog, -ov, 6, God, a god. napexcj, to grant, afford, 
dyye?Mg, -ov, 6, a mes- KUKog, -tj, -ov, bad, Avicked. offer. 

senger. kckov, -ov, to, an evil. rrcaTog, -fj, -ov, faithinl, 

dvd-pcjTTog, -ov, 6, a man. KuXog, -tj, -ov, beautiful, trustworthy. 

6lSd(Tiiu?i.og, -ov, 6, a tea- good; to kuIov, good- iroTikol, -at, -d, many. 

ness,beauty,or the beau- ^tlog, -ov, 6, a friend, pi- 
tiful. Aog", -■>], -ov, dear. 

KLvdvvog/^-ov; 6, danger. dpovTt^io, w. gen., to care 
Tiofog, -ov, 6, a word, a 

report, reason. 
fj,eT£xo), vo. g&i\^ to take 
part in. 


^ovXog, -ov, b, a slave. 

epyov, -ov, to, an action, 
a work, a business. 

(■(rd-?^6g, -tj, -ov, good, no- 
ble, splendid. 

kToXpog, -ov, b, a compan- 

for, trouble oneself a- 
bout : w. ace, to reflect 
on, think about. 
Xo-^pu, to rejoice. 

ion, a friend. [tune, iiiayo), misceo, w. dot., to 
evTvxta, -ag, ^, good for- mix. 

Eule of Syntax. A subject in the neuter plural usually takes 
a singular verb. 

AtuKs K.a?M tpya. TLei-Q-ov Tolg rev didaoKoXov Tioyoig} Hap' £ad-?Mv ead^Tid 
jiav&dvELg. TitaTbg STalpog tcov dyad-cjv Kal tuv kukuv ji£Tex£i.^ Oi d^eol tuv 
dv&p67ruv (bpovTc^ovatv.^ 01 uv&pcoTcoc Tovg d^eovg ■d-epaTirevovcnv. IIoA/loif ep- 
yotg 'iizsTaL Kivdvvog. MitryeTat* kcr&'kd KaKolg. 'O KaKog Tocg ■&£Oig Kal ToIg 
uvd-puTTOtg ex'&pog eutcv. 01 dv&poizoi Tolg EG-d-Xolg x^^po'^criv-^ ^dpsx^, tJ 
■&E6r, Tolg (pi/.ocg EVTVxiav. ^ipE, w dovXe, tov olvov Tib vEavia. 'O olvog avel 
Tug fZEpifivag. XaAcTrw epycj 66^a eTr-ETai. 

Follow the words of your (the) teachers. God cares for men. Men worship 
i God. Dangers accompany many actions. Grant, God, happiness to my (the) 
i friend ! Keep yourself from the bad man. I rejoice over the noble youth. 
iTmst not the word of a liar, my (0) dear young man. 

» § 161, 2. (a), {6). 
* § 161, 2. (a), (a). 

2 § 158, 3. (b). 
" § 161, 2. (c). 

§ 158 6. I. (b). 



[§ 29. 

VII. Vocabulary* 

-tov, w. gen., -d-avdrog, -ov, d, death. 

veog, -a, -ov, young, 6 veog, 
-ov,th.e youth, the young 

voaoQ, -ov, 7j, a disease, an 

ovx (before an aspirate in- 
stead of ovK), not. 

TTovoQ, -OV, 6, trouble, toil, 

cly^, -Tjg, 7], silence. 

k^Log, -id, 

worthy, worth. -d-elov, -ov, to, the Deity. 

(i^ro-Avw, w. ace. oftlie per- d-viiog, -ov, 6 the mind, 

son and gen. oftlve thing, courage. 

to free from, release. -d-ipa, -ag, rj, a door. 

upyvpog, -ov, 6, silver. KXeio), to shut, fasten. 

8iog, -ov, 6, life, a lireli- fiad-?]TT/g, -ov, 6, a pupil, a 

hood. learner. 

^ovXt], -Tig, 7], counsel, ad- fisrpov, -ov, to, a measure, 

vice. [rel. moderation. 

SlXOCTdaia, -ag, t], a quar- fiox^^dg, -ov, 6, a bolt, a xP^'^^^i ~^'^i ^> time. 
cvcppalvo, to rejoice, glad- lever. [ble.- xp^^og, -ov, 6, gold. 

den, cheer. fivptog,-id, -iov, innumera- 

Td KaTiov hcTL ficTpov tov f3iov, ovx ^ XP^'^^^- '^ d-avaTog Tovg uvd-puizovg 
uTTcXvEL TTovuv^ Kal KaKuv. 'O olvog eiffpalveL Toijg tuv iiv&pUTCUV d^vjiovg. 
'Lvv fivptoig Ttovoig tu KaTid -ycyveTac. To -d-elov Tovg KUKOvg ayet Tzpdg t^v 6t- 
KTjv. HcaTog (^iXog xpvcrov koI dpyvpov d^ibg^ egtlv kv xcOi^'i^y ^ix^iy'^atria. Jlo?r- 
ijy Xal voGOL kv uv&purroLg elacv. BovXi] elg dyad-bv dyec. ^tyv vecj TifiTjv <})Epei. 
'H ^vpa fiox^ol^ KXeieTat. 'H tex'^V Tovg dv&puTrovg Tp£(j)6t. ^Q, (piTioL [la-d-ij- 
Tai, Trjg ao(j)cag Kal Trjg upsTrjg bph/Ead-E.^ . / 

By death [dat.) men are freed from troubles and e"sals. By {vtto, w. gen.) the 
Deity the bad man is brought to justice. The bolt fastens the door. Art stip- 
ports the man. My (0) dear ptipil, sti'ive after msdom and virtue. Diseases 
weaken men. My friends, follow the words of the judges. 

§29. Contraction of the Second Declension, 

1. A small number of substantives, where o ov s precedes the 
c^e-ending, are contracted in the Attic dialect. 




Bone. 1 


6 ir'Abog 

7:7.0 vg 

6 TTEpiTrAoog 

















































































- h 158, 7. (y). 

§ 161, 3. 

§ 158, 3, (b). 


<riAA^- ^ 



Eemark. Here belong, (a) Multiplicative adjectives in -boq {-ovq), -6t] (-^), 
'GOV {-ovv) ; e. g. u-kIov^, -rj, -ovv, simple; — (b) Adjectives of tvvo endings in 
-0 0^ {-ovg) Masc. and Fem., and -oov {_-ovv) Neut. ; e.g.dr/ evvovg, rd evvovv, 
well disposed, which differ from the declension of substantives, only in not con- 
tracting the neuter plural in -oa ; e.g.ra-Evvoa reiiva; — (c) Adjectives in 
-eog {-ovg), -e u (-f/), -eov {-ovv), which denote a material; q. g. xpvceog 
XpvGovg, xpvoea xP^f^Vi XP'^<^^o'^ ;i:pi'o-oi)v, golden. When a vowel or p precedes 
the feminine ending -ea, -ea is not contracted into -f/, but into -a, (^ 26, 1) ; 

epe-eog epeovg, k pe- ecL kp ea, epe-eov epeovvj woollen. 

apyvp-eog apyvpovg, apyvo-Eaapyvpu, upyvp-eov upyvpovv, silver. 

'vpovg, a,p y V o - E a a py v p a, a/ 

^r ; Taeadigms. 





S. N. 









































P. N. 



































Accentuation. The following are to be noticed as exceptions to the rules in 
§ 11,2: (a) Tvloci = tt/Iw, baTe(^ = baru, instead of izTiu, barCi ; (b) compotmdg 
and polysyllabic proper names, which retain the accent on the penult, even 
when as a circumflex, it should be removed upon the contracted syllable ; e. g. 
TZEpiir7\,6ov = TcepiivTiov, instead oi TtEpLTzlov ; evvSg) = evvu, instead ofevvC) ; (c) 
rb mvEov = Kavovv, instead of Kavovv, basket, and also adjectives in -eog, -ea, 
-eov ; e.g. XP'^(^^og = xP''J(^ovg, xpvam = XP'^'^V^ ;^:pt'0'eov = ;^;piic^ 
instead of xP^'<^o'^C, xp^^^vv ; finally, substantives in -eog = -ovg ; e. g. ac 
Sebg = u6e7u(pc6ovg, instead of udeX(pL6ovg, nephew. 

■)g, -ea, 


'Adrjlog, -ov, uncertain, 

aTiTjd^eia, -ag, ^, truth. 
uvoog = -ovg,-oov = -nvv, 

imprudent, irrational. 
&pyvpeog = -ovg, -ed =-d, 

-eov = ovv, silver, i. e. 

made of silver. 
&pTog, -ov, b, bread. 

VIII. Vocahdary. 

eK-Ka7.vTCTid, to disclose. 

e7n-Kov(t)c^o), to alleviate. 

ept^o), w. dat, to contend 

evvoog = -ovg, -oov =-ovv, 
well-wishing, well-dis- 
posed, kind. 

■&epd'naLva,-7]g, r/, a female 

Kai — Kat, both — and. 
Kaveov = -ovv, -eov = -ov. 

TO, a basket. [ror. 

KaroTcrpov, -ov, to, a mir- 
KV7re7J.ov,-ov, to, a goblet. 
7.eyu), to say, call or name. 
vbog = vovg, -oov = -ov, 

b, the understanding, 

the mind. 



[§ 30. 

bXlyoi, -at, -a, few. '^X^'-og, -ov, 6, plebs, the ;\:a/lii^6f, -ov, 6, a bridle. 

op7?;, -;;f, 57, anger. common people. [to. ;i;a/l/ceof = -o€'f, -£a= -^, 

'OpecrrTjc, -ov, 6, Orestes. 7rpof-i;!)£pa), to bear or bring - e ov = -oiiv, hrsizen. 

OGTEov = -oi'v, -eov = ov, i'Tzvog, -ov, 6, sleeiD, slum- ipvxVi -7fj ^, the soiil. 

TO, a bone. ber. 

Rule of Syntax. One substantive following another to explain 
it, and referring to the same person or thing, is put in the same 
case. This construction is called Apposition. 

*0 Xoyog karl to tov vov KuTonTpov. Tdv vovv ex^'^^'-'^ oi av&pcoTzoi SiSua- 
Kalov. Tdv evvovv <piXov ■d-epaizeve. 'OAiyot Tokrov vovv exovatv. '0 irXovc 
earcv a8r]7Mg. 1.vv vC) tov j3iov aye. 'O oxy^og ovk exec vovv. M^ ept^e Tolg 
avoLg} 01 uya-&ol Tolg uya-&ocg evvoi^ elacv. 'Opeyov (ptXuv evvqv. Ta tov 
'OpeGTov oaTo. ev Teyea rjv. M ■^epaTvaLvaL kv Kavolg tov upTOv TZpog^epovcLv. 
01 -d-eol Kit Kokov Kot KUKov ttXovv Tolg vavTCig^ Trapexovaiv. 'i'vxvC X^^^'-'^^C 
av&pcjTTOig^ 6 vovg kaTcv. T[o?y?i,aKt,g bpyfj uv&pcoTTuv vovv eKKaTivizrEi. 'A-rcT^ovg 
kcTLV 6 TTjQ aX-q-^Eiag "koyog. Lbyog evvovg ettikov^l^el TiVtttjv. To kvtteTJ^^ov 
EGTLv upyvpovv. 'O d-avaTog /JyETac xf^'^^X-ovg VTrvog. 

The understanding is a teacher to men. The well-disposed friend is honored. 
Keep yourself from the irrational. Stiive after a welji-disposed friend. Brine 
bread in a basket. Honor, young man, a simple mind ! Plee from impru- 
dent youths. Trust, friend, well-disposed men ! Young men are often im- 
pnident. The goblet is golden. 

§ 30. The Attic Second Declension^ 
Several words (substantives and adjectives) have the endings -cog, 
(llasc. and Fern.) and -cov (Neut.), instead of -eg and -ov, and re- 
tain the -03 through all the cases instead of the common vowels and 
diphthongs of the second Dec., and place under the -co an Iota sub- 
script, where the regular form has -co or -01; thus, -ov and -a be- 
come -co ; -eg, -ov and -ovg become -cog, -cov and -cog ; -0/, -oig and 
-oiv become -op, -cpg and -cpv ; — 00, -qj and -coj' remain unchanged. 
The Yoc. is the same as the Nominative. 



ing. N, 

6 ?i,E-cjg 





^ Cable. 
6 Ka7^-cdg 




6 ?iay-o)g 

TO avuyE-uv 







D. N. A. V. 
G. and D. 












' § 161, 2. (a), (7). 

§ 161, 5. (a). 











6 7] l/ieog, rb IXeuv 

ol at IXeiji, ra I'keu 



Tov TTjg rov i2.€(j 

^Tuv TAeuv 

Tolv Toiv TOlv i2.eo)v 


rip ry rw i'/iecj 

Tolc ratg role t?i,E(,)g 

Tolv Toiv Tolv I2,e(t)v 


TOV rrjv rd IXecJV 

Tov^ t(Xq 'iXec}g,Tu t/ieo) 

TU Ta TU iXeo) 


i'Aewf, 'i7{,E(j)v 

fAeoj, iXeo) 


Rem. 1. Some words of the Masc. and Fern, gender reject the v in the Ace. 
Sing., namely, d Xayug, the Jiare, tov Tiayuv and Xajo), and commonly ^ tug, the 
dawHj V h'kuq, a threshing-Jloo^ ij Kiug, i] Kug, 6 'k-d-ug, i] Tiug, and the adjec- 
tives uyrjpug, not old, hmTzleWg, full, VTzepxpeug, guilt]/. 

Eem. 2. Accentuation. Prop aroxy tones retain the acute on the antepenult in 
all the cases of all numbers, the two syllables -eug and -euv, etc. being considered, 
as it were, but one; j/it those with, a long penult, as ayTjpug, are paroxytones 
in the Dat. Sing, and PI., and also in the Gen. and Dat. Dual ; e. g. ay^pw, uyij- 
pug, uyjjpuv. Oxy tones in -ug, retain this accent even in the Gen.; e. g. ?,eu 
instead of 2,su. 

'Ayr/pug, -uv, not getting 
old, unfading. 

'uETog, -ov, 6, an eagle. 

alx/J-a?MTog, -ov, captured. 

dvSpEtog, -a, -ov, manly, 

uvuysuv, -u, TO, a hall, a 

aTrayu, to lead away. 

(3atvu, to walk, go, pro- 

IX. Vocabularv. 

Evedpsvu, w. dot., to lie in 

wait for. 
i^aivog, -OV, 6, praise. 

Evxo/, to pray, beg. 

■d-TjpevTTjg, -ov, 6, a hunts- 
man, a sportsman. 

■&7JPEVU, to hunt, catch. 

i?i£ug, -uv, merciful. 

KaXug, -u, 6, a rope. 

KTL^u, to found, build. 

layug, -u, 6, a hare. 

Xafipdvu, to take, receive 

vEug, -6, 6, a temple. 
'TrXscaTog, -77, -ov, most 
^adiog, -id, -cov, easy. 
G£(3o[iaL, to honor, rever 

Taug, -u, 6, a peacock. 
vlog, -ov, 6, a son. 
uGTZEp, as, just as. 

Tolg d-EOcg^ veu KTi^ovTat. Ov ^ddtov egtlv etti kciJmv jSalvsiv. AtuKOuev 
Toijg Tiayug. 'AvSpoysug tjv 6 tov IAlvu vlog. 01 /layci -d-^jpevovTat inb tuv 
■&7JPEVTUV. 'Evxov TU Recj i?£6j. | Ol ueTol Tolg "kayug evEdpevovmv. Se/SecnJe 
Tovg ilEug S^EOvg. 01 avSpEioc ayrjpuv sizaivov ?iafi^ci.vovcnv. Evxov tov Td-ebv 
TXeu ex^lv. Ol -O-Eol Tolg uyad-olg^ lXeu eIglv. Ai ■fjdovdi a-KoyovGL tov Tr/leiOTov 
TiEuv ugTCEp alxf^(ik(^Tov. 01 ^dfjuoi Ty llpg} icaXovg Taug TpE^ovaiv. 

"We build beautiful temples to the gods. To walk on a rope is not easy. 
The huntsmen hunt hares. God is merciful. Worship the merciful God. By 
the Samians beautiful peacocks are kept ia honor of Hera (say, to Hera).'> Keep 
yourselves, O citizens, from the irrational multitude ! Get out of the way of 
{eIku, w gen.) the irrational multitude. The huntsman strives after (pursues) 

X. Vocabulary. 

^A-Tzdyopevu, to calL dpsTr], -rig, tj, bravery, vir- (SaGi^Eia, -uv, to,, a royal 

i^pioKu, w. dot., to please. tue. palace. 

' § 161, 5. 

§ 161, 5. (a). 





£og, -6), jj, the dawn. 

■&7]piov, -ov, TO, a ^vild 
beast, an animad. 

'Ispog, -a, 'OVy w. gen., sa- 
cred to. 

TTOiijTf/g, ov, 0, a poet. 
^o6o8anrv7\,og, -ov, rosy- 
cttjIt], -Tjg, i], a pillar. 

yafieTT], -rig, tj, a wife. 

^£i/l6f,-^,-6i',timid, worth- 
less, bad. 

^/c-^t'po), to bring forth, 
produce. [ous. 

kTTiKcvduvog, -ov, danger- 

Oi racj TTJg Upag lepol rjaav. Qavfia^ofisv Mev£2.Euv sttI ry apery. Ol ttoltJ' 
rai TTjv "Ew ^o8odaKTv2.ov a'xayopevovciv. 'H okrj'&eLa rroXXaKig ovk apecKet 
rcj ?.e(~j. 'F,?ev'ij t]v t] Mwe/lecj ya/xeTT/. 'H BalSvXovia EKdyepet Tro^JuOvg raug. 
'Ev rolg ruv -Qeuv veCig TroAlal aT7j?.at yaav. 01 "kayui de^M ■&T]pia elaiv. 'O 
irepl Tov 'AiS-w itT^ovg r,v eTviKLvSvvog. Ta f3aat2.£ia K.a7^a, uvuyeu exsi. 

Menelaus is admii-ed for his bravery. In the royal palace are splendid rooms. 
Huntsmen catch peacocks. Peacocks are beantifuL Trust not the speech of 
the people, O citizens ! The huntsman lies in wait for peacocks. Good citi- 
zens flee from the in-ational multitude. Youths lie in wait for hares. The pil- 
lars of the temples are beautiful. 

§31. Third Declension. 

The third declension has the following Case-endings : 












V and a 

mostly as 

the Nom. ; 

Neut. — 

Neut. — 

eg ; Neut. a 



dg; —a 

eg; —a. 




These endings are appended to the unchanged stem of the word ; e.g. 6 -d-TJp 
an animal, Gen. -d^rip-og. 

§32. Remarhs on the Case-endings, 

1. The pure stem is frequently charged in the Nom. of masculines and'femi- 
nines. But this is found again by omitting the genitive ending -og ; e. g. 6 K&- 
pa^, a raven^ Gen. k6 puK -og. 

2. Neuters exhibit the pure stem in the Nominative. Yet the euphony of the 
Greek language does not permit a word to end with r. Hence, in tliis case, r 
is either wholly rejected or is changed into its cognate cr: e. g. 

TO Tceirepl 
Tb aelag 
TO (aufcaT) (Toj^ta 
^To (re par) Ttpag 

. 3. The AccusatiA'e singular has the form in v with masculines and femininc3 
in -ig, -vg, -avg and -ovg, whose stem ends in -i, -v, -av and -ov ; e. g. 

Stem 7To?u Nom. -TzoXig Ace. ttoTilv Stem (Sorpv Nom. (Sorfyvg Ace. porpvv. 
vav vavg vavv jSov (3ovg jSovv. 

But the Ace. has the form in -a, when the stem ends in a consonant ; e. g. ^7ut(if 
il>?.h}ig, (p?Jpa — KopaK, K'Spa^, nopaK-a — lafirraS, ?M/X7rdg, lufiTrdd-a. 







Tvsrrept-oc or e-og 
(ae?.aa-og) ae?i,a-og 
\. Tspar-og 


Y5t barytoned substantives in -lq and -vg, of tw^ 'dr more syllables, whose 
stems end with a Tau-mutc, in prose^ have only the form in -v ; e. g. 

Stem kpi 5 Nom. epif Ace. epw 

6pvc'& upvig bpviv 

Kopvd- Kopvg Kopvv 

XapcT x^pf-C X^P'-'^- 

4. The Voc. is either like the Nom. or the stem. See the Paradigms. 

5. Oh. V £<peXKvarui6vf see § 7, 1, (a). 

/ A 

§33. Gender J Quantity and Accentuation of the 
Th ird Declension, 

I. Gender. The gender of the third declension will be best learned by obser- 
vation. The following rules, however, may be observed : 

(a) Masculine; (a) Substantives in -av, -vv, -ag (Gen. -avoQ, -avrog), -evg, -tjv, 
eip (except r] x^'i-Pi hand), -vp (except to 7rvp,Jire), -bvg (except rb ovg, ear) ; — 

(/3) those in -covy -rjp, -up, -tjg (Gen. -rjrog), -cog (Gen. -corog), -f, with several 

(b) Feminine; (a) Substantives in -tig (Gen. -aSog), -avg, -ivg, -vvg, -w and 
■cjg (Gen. -ovg) ; --6T?]g, -vnjg ; -eig (except 6 KTEtg, comb) ; — (/3) those in -ig, -iv, 
'Vg, -o)v (Gen. -ovog), with several exceptions. Those in -^ vary between the 
Masc. and Tem. gender. 

(c) Neuter; All substantives in -a, -rj, -op, -up, -og, -i, -ap, (except b il^ap, a 
starling), -ag (Gen. -arog, -aog, except 6 ?idg, a stone), and contracts in -r/p. 

U. Quantity. Words whose Nom. ends in -a^, -i^, -v^, -aip, -Lip, -vip, -ig and 
-vg, have the penult of the Cases which increase, either short or long, according 
as the vowel of the above endings is short or long by nature ; e. g. 6 ^6pd^, 
coat of mail, -uKog, ?) ^t-ip, reed, ^l?r6g, ij aKrtg, ray, -Ivog, but i] [3cj?m^, clod, •dKog, 
rj kTiTug, hope, -tdog. 

III. Accentuation, (a) The accent remains, through the several Cases, on the 
accented syllable of the Nom., as long as the laws of accentuation permit ; e. g. 
rb TTpdyfia, deed, Trpdyfiarog, but Trpayfiaruv, to ovofxa, name, ovofiarog, but Cvo- 
^druv, 7] ;\;£liJ6;i', swallow, x^'^'-^ovog, '^evo^uv, -Cjvrog, -uvreg, -uvtuv. The 
particular exceptions will be noticed in the paradigms, (b) "Words of one syl- 
lable are accented, in the Gen. and Dat. of all Numbers, on the final syllable, 
the short syllables -og, -l and -ui, taldng the a«ute, and the long syllables -uv 
and OLv, the circumflex; e. g. 6 /w^v, fj.7jv6g, [nivi, (irjvolv, jirjvCdv p.r]ai{v). 

Exceptions. The following monosyllabic substantives ai'e paroxytoned in the 
Gen. PI. and in the Gen. and Dat. Dual : rj 6dg, torch, 6 dfiug, slave, 6 ij d-6g, 
jackal, TO ovg, Gen. urog, ear, 6 i] Tcalg, child, 6 arjg, moth, 6 rj Tpug, Trojan, tj 
<{)G)g, Gen. (jxpdog, a burning, rb ^ug, Gen. (pcjTog, light; e. g. dt^Suv, Sddotv, ■&g)uv, 
cjTuv, uTotv, Tcaiduv, TcaldoLv, aeuv, Tpuuv, (puSuv, (^utuv. Moreover, notice 
should also be taken of izug, all, every. Gen. Travrog, Dat. navTi, but Travruv, 
ird(ji{v), 6 JIdv, Gen. Ilavogf but roZg Ild(Ji{v). 




A. Words which in the Genitive have a consonant be- 

§ 34. I. The Nominative exhibits the pure stem. 
The case endings are appended to the unchanged Nominative. 
Stems which end in -vt (^8J>oq)(ovT) and -qz (ji dajxaQz), must drop 
the z according to § 32, 2 ; hence Aevocpav, Gen. -^vz-og, dafiaQ, 
Gen. -agt-og. 

6, Paean. 

6, Age. 

6, Xenoplion. 

6, Month. 

TO, Nectar. 








































































Rem. 1. The three words in -av. Gen. -uvog, viz. 'AttoA/Iwv, TioGEidibv, t] 
oKuv, threshing-Jloor, can be contracted in the Ace. Sing, after dropping v, thus, 
'A'n61?iu, ILoaeLdu), aXu. The three substantives, 'Atto^/Iov, UoaeiSuv and cw- 
T^p, preserver, contrary to the rule [§ 33, m. (a)], have in the Voc. w "ArroTilov, 
TlScreidov, ccbrEp. 

Rem. 2. The neuters belonging to this class all end in -p {-ap, -op, -up, -vo) ; 
TO TTvp (Gen. Trvp-6g),Jire, has v long, contrary to § 32, 2. 

XL Vocabulary. 

AJcj, to sing, celebrate in -Called, to bloom, be ver- Tryp, irvpog, to, fire. 

song. dant. anov6alog,-aLa,-aXov, zeal 

uva-^'r/z'wff/ccj, to read. iJ^/p, iS^z/pof , 6, a wild beast. ous, diligent, earnest, 

aliov, -LJvog, 6, aevum, an Kt-d-apcl, -ag, jj, a lyi-e. serious. 

age, a space of time, KpaTfjp, -ypog, 6, a mixing Tipircj, to delight. 

time, lifetime. bowl, goblet. TEpKOfiai, w.dat.,to delight 

(3if3?uov, -ov, TO, a book, leifiuv -u)vog,6, a meadow. in, or be delighted at. 

ytyvuGKu, to know, think, vl-rtTu, to wash. ;^£ip, x^i-pk, V, the hand. 

judge, try, perceive. Traidv, -dvog, 6, a war- x^po^^ -ov, 6, a dance, 

^aTiia, -ag, fj, a feast. song, a song of victory, ip^v, ipTjvog, 6, a wasp. 

^evys Toi)g ■&^pag. Xelp x^tpa vItttel. 'Attexov tov ipijvog. 01 leifiuver 
^aHovaiv.-^^^Ol crpaTLUTai dSovai rraidva. 'Ev irvpl xP'"(^ov Kai apyvpov yty- 

* Instead of rratdvai, altjvai, 'EEvo(pC)v~<yi, ^irjvm, § 8, 6 and 7. 



vudKOUEv. TloXkol Trapa uparrjpL ytyvovTac (pi7^0L iralpoi. 01 av&pcmoL rep- 
irovrac KV&apg} Kal -BaXiq, Kal ;topo?f Kal naLaciv. 01 "YXkrivEq rhv ' A.Tz6X7\.(jt 
Koi ruv HoGELdC) aefSovrai. 01 GTzovSaloc fxa'&rjral to. tov ^£vo<pcJvTog [3c(3?iia 
rjdecjr uvayiyvcJaiiovacv. 

Flee from the wild beast Wash your (the) hands. Keep yourself from '^^ 
wasps. The meadow is verdant. Soldiers delight in war-songs. War-songs 
are sung by (iTro, w. gen..) the soldiers. We delight in beautiful meadows. 
Flee from vile {KaKog) wasps. ^ Many are friends of the bowl. Poets pray to 

§ 35. II. Th e No minativ e lengthens the short fi nal 
vow el of the stem, e or o into ?] or co. 

According to § 32, 2. stems in vt must drop r in the Nom. ; e. g. 
Xmv, instead of Xtwvt. 

6, Shepherd. 

6, A Divinity. 

6, Lion. 

6, Air. 

6, Orator. 








































































Rem. 1. Oxytoned substantives of this class retain in the Yoc. the long vowel 
[t], w) ; thus, 0) TToc/urjv. The Voc. 6d£p from SaTjp, bivther-in-laiv, is an excep- 
tion; its accent also differs from the fundamental rule [§ 33, III. (a)]. Thia 
difference occurs also in the Voc. of 'A/x<piuv, -iovog, 'AyafiEfzvcjv, -ovog, viz. 
"Aficpiov, 'AyafiE/j-vov. Comp. § 34, Rem. 1. 

Rem. 2. 'H x^'f-Pr f^and, Gen. ;\;£ip-6f, etc. has in the Dat. PI. and Dual x^P- 
<j1{v) and x^P^^'v- 

Rem. 3. The following in -uv, Gen. -ovog, reject the v in particular Cases, 
and suffer contraction : tj eckuv, ima^'e._ Gen. EiKovog and EiKovg, Dat. eIkovl, Acc 
eiKova/ajid elku, Acc. PL EiKovag and ElKovg, — the irregular accentuation of eIkcj 
and ELKOvg should be noted ; ^ ari8C)v, nightingale^ Gen. u7]66vog and arjdovg, Dat 
arjdol ; i] ;^£?a(5c3^', swallow, Gen. x^^i-^ovog, Dat. ;\;e/li(5oi. 

Rem. 4. Here belong: (a) the two adjectives 6 rj aizarup, to airarop, fatlwr- 
less, and ccfiTirop, a/nr^Top, motherless, Gen. -opog ; — (b) the adjective 6 rj a/5/^v, 
TO uj^^Ev, male, Gen. a^^svog ; — (c) adjectives in -uv (Masc. and Pern.), -ov 
(Neut.) ; e. g. 6 ■}} EvSatfiuv, rb EvSacfiov, fortunate, and comparatives in -uv, -ov, 
or -ta)v, -lov. These comparatives, after dropping v admit contraction in the 

* § 161, 2. (c). * Instead of iroL^hai, Saiuovcri, "keovrci, see § 8, 6 and 7. 




Ace. Sing, and in the Norn., Ace. and Voc. PI. In the Voc. the accent differs 
from the rule [§ 33, m. (a)]. But compounds in -<pouv follow the rule; e. g. 

Kpar£p6<{>po)v, Voc. KparEpot^pov. 




evdaifj.u)v evdaifiov 


evdaifiova evSaifiov 


More hostile. 
kx'&tcjv EX&lov 
kx'd-iova and • 
£;^;i9-ia) ex'&iov 



fiEL^uv fielCov 


fiEi^ova and 
fiei'^cj fielCov 






EvdaifiovEQ evdai/iova 



evdaifiovag Evdaifiova 

like the Nominative. 

kx-^iovEg kx'&iova 
kx^tovg kx'&'i-f^ 


EX'&tovag kx'&iova 
kx^iovg kx'&LCJ 
like the Nominative. 


[lEiCovg fXEi^u 


[lEL^ovag fi£i(^ova 

[iEL^OVg ■ flEt^U 

like the Nominative. 





Xn. Vocabulary. 

'Ayav, too much, too. ijyEfiuv, -ovog, 6, a leader. irpdrTu, to do, act; w. adv.^ 

d7£/l77,-77f,:7,a herd, a flock. KoXaavTig, -ov, 6, a pun- to fare. 

aSlicoc, -ov, unjust. isher. 

al&rjp, -ipog, 6, 57, cether, Tufj.?^, -svog, 6, a harbour. 

the heavens. vatu, to dwell. 

ykpav, -ovTog, 6, an old 6d6g, -ov, tj, a way; with 

man. [nity. 

Saiij,o)v, -ovor, 6, 7), a divi- way. 

dfjfiog, -ov, 6, the people, 6?i[3iog, -id, -lov, and 6/1- 

the mob. fiiog, -ov, happy. 

£^, well, evTTparrcjjty. ace, Tzoiufjv, -ivog, 6, a herds- 

to do well to. man, a shepherd. 

aCxppcdv, -ov, sound-mind- 
ed, wise, sensible. 

v77£p(ppiov, -ov, high-mind- 
ed, haughty. 
ELKQ, to retire from the ^prjv, -evog, ?i, pi. (ppeveg, 

tlie understanding, the 
mind or spu-it. 

<pv7i,dTTG), to guai'd, look 
after, defend. 

Tbv yepovrc ev irpurre. Se/^ou Toi)g daifiovag. 01 rroifiivsg rug uyiXag fv- 
Xarrovaiv. Tbv KaKbv (pevye, ug Kanbv 7u[i£va. 'Avev Saifiovog b av&puTrog 
oiK b7.^L6g karLv. 'O ■&ebg kv al-^kpt vaiEC. 'AeI x(^7i,£7ral fikptfivai TEipovcn rag 
rcjv dv-d-pu-nuv (ppevag. "Ettou dya-&oXg yyEfioaLv. El/ce, u veavia, roig yspovat 
TTjg 660V. UoXXaKig drjfiog ^yEfiova exsi adiKov vovv. 'O -d^Ebg Ko'kaarrjg kart 
Tuv dyav v'K£p<pp6va)v. 'Ej^e vovv aCxppova. ''Q, Sacfzov, rrdpexe rolg yipovaL 
utya}\,riv Evrvxiav. 01 d-TjpEvral rolg /Jovciv kveSpevovcriv. 

Do well ipl) to old men. Eeverence (pi) the Deity. The flocks are guard- 
ed by the shepherd. Follow a good leader. Go, youth, out of the old man's 
way. The mob often follows bad leaders. The spirit (pi) of man is worn out 
by {dot.) oppressive cares. Keep yourself from the bad man, as from a bad 
harbour. The flocks follow the shepherds. Ye (0) gods, guard the good old 




§ 36. The following substantives in -r^Q belong to the preceding 
paradigms, viz. o Tiati^Q, father, tj fii]ti]Q, mother, ^ d^vydziio, daugh- 
ter, ri yaarriQy helly, jj JrnirirriQ, Demeter (Ceres) and 6 avr^Q, man, 
which differ from those of the above paradigms only in rejecting « 
in the Gen. and Dat. Sing., and in the Dat. PL, and in inserting an 
d in the Dat. PI. before the ending -ci, so as to soften the pronun- 
ciation. The word avriq (stem dveQ), rejects « in all Cases and 
Numbers, except the Voc. Sing., but inserts a 5, to soften the pro- 

6, Father. 

^, Mother. 

ri, Daughter. 

6, Man. 

Sing. N. 

























Plur. N. 






























G. and D. 





Eemaek. Also the word 6 darrip, -epog, a star, which has no syncopated 
form, belongs to this class on account of the form of the Dat. PL darpdat. The 
word 7] A7jfj.T}Tj]p has a varying accent, via. Arj urjT pog. Ay urjr pi, Yoc. Atj- 
jj-riTep, but Ace. AijuTjTepa. 

XHI. Vocahdary. 

^k.d-%ov, -ov, TO, a prize, a slave to, serve, work ffTepyo, to love, to be con 

reward. for. tented with. 

yaGTTjp, -rpog, ij, the belly. ex'&atpUf to hate. x^P'''^ofiai, w. dot., to com- 

SovT^vci, w. dot., to be a co^og, -tj, -bv, wise. ply with, oblige, gratify 

UripyeTe rhv Trarepa koI ttjv firjTEpa. Mi) dovXevs yaarpi.^ XalpE, o) <j)L?.t 
VEavca, tC) dyad-u TrarpV. Kot ry dya'&y fiTjrpt. M^ /ca/ccj criv &v6pt (^ovIevov 
Tri A^fiTjTpt^ 7to2,?Ml Kot Kalol V£6j }]Gav. 'H dya-&r} ■&vydrijp r]6Eug TVEi'&EraL 
r^ (piXiy fiTjrpi* 01 dya'&ol avSpsg ■&aviid^ovrai. TLoUdKig k^ dya-&ov Tzarpbi 
yiyvETat KaKog vlog. ''Ex'^aipco rbv kukov dvdpa. Tolg dya'&olg dvdpdcL jiEyd- 
2,1] 66^a ETverai. 'H r^f A^fiijrpog -d-vydTrip tjv XlEpaE^ovT]. ''Q, <l>c2,7] ^vyavEp, 
aripyt t^v fiTjTspa. 'H dpsr^ KaTibv d^&T^ov eotlv dvSpl^ (jo<pC). 01 dya-&ol viol 
Tag fjLTjTEpag cTEpyovcrcv. 01 l^mijvEg ArjfiijTEpa ae^ovTai. ILe/t^eoiS^e, u (j)i?.oi 
veaviai, Tolg TtaTpdcrc Koi TaZg fiijTpdaiv. Xapi^ov, t5 Trdrep, r^ ^vyaTpi. 

» § 161, 2. (a), (6). 
* § 161, 2. (a), (d). 

2 § 161, 2. 


3 §161, 2. (d). 




Lore, youths, your (the) fathers and mothers! Consult not with bad 
men. Good daughters cheerfully follow their (the) mothers. "We admire a 
good man. Obey, my dear youth, your (the) father and mother. Gratify, dear 
father, thy (the) good son. Pray to Demeter. Strive, O son, after the reputa- 
tion of thy (the) father. The prize of wise men is virtue. 

§ 37. The Nominative appends 6 to the stem. 
(a) The stem ends in a Pi or Kappa-mute — ^, tt, qp ; y, yy, x, y^. 
On the coalescence of these with a so as to form ip and ^, see § 8, 3. 

7]., Storm. 

6, Raven. 

6, Throat. 

Sing. N. 

''*'* ?ialM\p 

/P Kopd^ 



/ifj AaiAaTT-of 

^^5g^ KOpdK-Og 




l^ KOpdK-t 



/"; ■■ ■ 2,aL?iaTT-a 

/ KopdK-a 



' ■' ■ 2,alXdip 



Plur. N. 

f^-^ XaikdTc-tq 

^ KOpdK-EC 



f«^v- "kaiktiT^-iiv 

!lJ-'- KOpuK-UV 



."• .'" 7t,al7id'^i{v) 















G. and D. 




Eemaek. Here belong adjectives in -^ (Gen. -yog, -Kog, -xog) and -1^ (Gen. 
-nog) ; e. g. 6 rj ap-rrd^, G^n. -dyog, rapax, 6 tj TjXi^, Gen. -iKog, aequalis, 6 ^ 
fiibvv^, Gen. -vxog, one-homed; 6 rj alyilltp, Gen. -Inog, high. 

XIV. Vocabulary. 

'kydv, -uvog, 6, a contest. Kopa^, -dKog, 6, a crow, a oprv^, -vyog^ 6, a quail. 

aU, -yog, 6, ij, a goat. raven. bpxv^/^oc, -ov, 6, a dance. 

dXeKTpvcov, -ovog, 6, i], a Kpu^u, to croak. otp, drrog, ^,-%he voice. 

doidr), -7jg, ij, a song. 
6e, but. 

E7Mvvci, to drive. 
Inrcog, -ov, 6, a horse. 
Kai — Kai, both — and, as 

well as. 

fidartE, -lyog, ?/, a scourge, -KolvTrovog, -ov, laborious, 

a whip. (yvpiy^, -lyyog, 57, a flute. 

fiEv — 6e, truly — but; on rerrt^, -lyog, 6, a grass- 

the one hand, — on the hopper. [tor 

other : used in antithe- (peva^, -uKog, 6, an impos- 

ses ; fiev, seldom to be (pop/xty^, -i-)'yog, ?;, a harp, 

translated. uTp, uTrog, i}, the counte- 

K6?.a^, -dKog, 6, a flatterer. fivp/iT]^, -i]Kog, 6, an ant. 

0/ KopaKeg KpuCovccv. To-bg KoXaKag (psvye. 'Airexov rov tpevdKog.^ 01 &v 
'&puTT0L ripTVOVTaL (pop/LiLyyi^ Kot bpxv^H-V '^^^ ^^V- ^^ ittttoi fidcTi^iv eXavvoi- 
rat. Al (poputyyeg roi)g ruv dv&puTTuv ■&vfi,oi 7 repirovGiv. Tetti^ fchv TETTlyt 
(pcXog hari, fivpfiTjKt Se fivp/iT]^. 01 izoijisvEg vpog rug avpcyyag ^Sovaiv. Tlao(i 
Tolg 'k.-d-7jvaioLg koI oprvyuv Kot okeKTpvovov dyuvEg rjcav. 01 irotueveg rhc 

» § 157. 

§ 161, 2. (c). 




TO)v alycJv ayk\aq elg Toijg ?^ei/xci)vac kXavvovGtv. Mvp/xr/icuv Kal oprvyuv (jiog 
Tro/liTTOv-of lartv. Ilo/'i./loi aya'&rjv ^ilv tJTva, KanTjv dh oira txovacv. 

The raven croaks. Flee from the flatterer. Keep yourselves from impos 
tors. Men are delighted by the harp. The hoife is driven with the whip. The 
shepherd sings to the flute. The life of the ant and of the quail is laborious. 
The shepherd guards the goats. Mutes delight shepherds. 

§ 38. (b) The stem ends in a Tau-mute- 
the Ace. Sing, in -a and -v, see § 32, 3. 

■5, r, ^r, >&, vd-. On 

ij, Torch. rj 

, Helmet. 

b, if, Bird. 

6, lOng. 7], 





















' Xafj-TTaS-a 








• opvig 












































Rem. 1, The word 6 i] iralg, child, Gen. 7rac66g,*has izal in the- Vocative. 

Rem. 2. Here belong adjectives in -if and -i, Gen* -idog, -Lrog; e. glb^Tj^Ev- 
Xccpi^i TO eioxapL, Gen. -irog, pleasing ; those in -dg, Gen. -ddog ; e. g.vs*'?) ^^7^f> 
Gen. 'd6og, exiled; those in -rjg. Gen. -riTog; 6 t] apy^r, -CtN?- -VT^g, white; 
those in -wr, Gen. -ihTog ; e. g. b i] ayvdg, Gen. -drog, unknown ; those in -ig, 
Gen. -idog ; e. g. b '/] dvaknig, Gen. -idog, weak, t^ ^arptg, Gen. -idog, native land; 
those in -vg, Gen. -v6og ; e. g. b tj verjTivg, Gen. -vdog, lately come. 

ATraTiTidrrco, w. gen. of the 
thing, to set free from. 

uTidaa, -rjg, every, 

yeXcdg -corog, b, laughter. 

'iyeipco, to awaken, excite. 

Difiivg, -iv&og, 7], a worm. 

e7^-ig, -idog, i], hope. 

iptg, -Idog, 7], contention, 

ipug, -cjTog, b, love. 

KaKorrig, -rjTog, ij, "wicked- 
ness, vice. 

XV. Vocabulary. 

Kara-KpiJTTTO), to conceal. 

KO?M^a),ito punish. 

KoxKpog, -7], -ov, light, vain. 

fiaKapt^o), to esteem happy. 

veoTTjg, 'TjTog, i], youth. 

vi}^, vvKTog, "}], night, vvk- 
rog, by.nightj in the 
night. " 

bjioLOTTig, -7jTog, 7], like- 

TzaXg, iraidog, b, ij, a child, 
a boy. 

TtevTjg, -VTog,j)^,^, poor, .- 

s^TiovGLog, -La, '-lov, rich. 

TrXovTog, b, riches, wealth. 

(ppovTcg, 46og, 57, care, con- 

(I>cloxp7]fxoavv7j,-7jg, i], ava- 

xdpig, -iTog, i], favor, Hnd- 

Xpv^f^oavvTj, -rig, fj, need- 
inefis, poverty. 

=* Instead of ?Mfi7rddg, Kopv&g, bpvi-&g, avaKvg, Hfitv&g ; Dat. PI. ^.auTraScc, 
etc., see § 8, 3. 




01 opvl^eg dSovGtv. Xaptg xapiv tUtel, eptg epLv. MaKap'^ofiev ttjv veo- 
T7]ra. XpriGnoavvT] rcKrec epcSag. UTiovgloc -KoXkaKiq ttiv imKOTTjra ttIovtu) 
KaraKpvTTTOvGiv. ■'fl Ka?.£ iral, ev Tvparre rovg av&puTVOvg. 'H (1)l2,oxPV^ogvv7} 
urjrrjp KaKorrjrog divaGyc hcTLv. 01 rchijTEg 'KoTJiamg eiclv evSacfioveg. 'H ao- 
6ia ev Tolg ruv uv&puTruv -d^vfiolg ■&av(iaGToi)g ruv koKuv eporag eveyeipEt. 'O 
^avarog roi)g av&pdTzovg (ppovriduv uTzaTJidrrEL. 'H ^iXca dC b(ioL6Tr]Tog yiy- 
verat. Olvog h/EipEi yelara. 'Ev vvktI (iovlrj rolg Gocpolg yiyvsraL. 01 co- 
(pol Kola^ovGi T7]v KanoTTira. 01 av&pwKOi izolluKLg Kov^atg eXttlgl repizovTai. 

The bird sings. From favor arises favor ; from contention, contention. By 
{dat.) wisdom a wonderful love {pi.) of the beautiful is awakened in the minds 
of men. By {dot.) the song of birds we are delighted. Wine dispels the cares 
of men. Flee, my (0) boy, from vice. Erom {dot.) likeness arises friendship. 
We dehght in birds [dot.). 

§ 39. The stems of neuters belonging to this class, end in t and 
>£r. But as the laws of euphony admit neither t nor xr at the end 
of a word, r and also xr, are either omitted, or t is changed into 6, 
Comp. § 33, 2. In the words, to yovv, knee, and to doqv, spear, 
from the stems yovat and dooar, a, the final vowel of the stem, is 
changed into v, in the Nominative. 

TO, Body. 

TO, EJiee. 

rd, Milk. 

TO, Wonder. 

TO, Ear. 

S. N. 




















P. N. 































'Afidprrjfia, -urog, ro, an 

en'or, an offence. 
aKTOfiat, w. gen., to attach 

oneself to, touch. 
3aGra^(j), to carry. 
(3o7]-&T]ixa, -urog, ro, help. 
yd/.a, -aKTog, ro, milk. 
yEvojiai, w. gen^ to taste, 

yviivd^o), to exercise. 
Siaueilionai, to exchange. 

XVI. Vocabulary. 

66pv, doparog, ro, a spear. 

E'&i^o), to accustom. 

-Q-EpaTtELa, -ag, ?;, care, ser- 

Idpcjg, -urog, 6, sweat. 

LKETTjg, -ov, 6, a suppliant. 

jilKpog, -d, -6v, small. 

fiv-d-og, -ov, 6, a speech, a 
word, an account. 

TToiKikog, -7], -ov, various, 

irpdyfia, -arog, to, an ac- 
tion, a business, a thing, 
an exploit. 

^fjca, -drag, ro, a word. 

GTTEvSo), to pom- libations, 
pour out. 

ravrokoyca, -ag, f], tau- 
tology, a repetition of 
what has been said be- 

^avkog, -7), -ov, bad. 

* Instead adfiarci, yovarGi, ydkaKroi, etc., see § 8, 3. t Instead of wf. 




XP'fllJ-a, -arog, to, a thing ; xPV<^Tog, -fi, -ov, useful, x<^P^^f^^C, -ov, 6, gepata- 
pl property, money, good, brave. tion. 


'Ev ;);a/le7ro?f Trpuyfiacnv bXiyoL kraXpoL tclotoI eIclv. Trig aper^g ttTlovtov of> 
(haneifSofiE'&a rolg xpVf^o.'^i'V. OL 'iKETai tuv jovdruv^ airrovTai. '0 d^dvarog 
E(7Tc x^pi-(^[J-^C "^V^ 'i'vxvg nal tov cufiaTog. *0 nXovrog TrapixEi rolg dv&puTroig^ 
TTOiiitXa (^orj'&Tjfiara. M^ 7iEL-&ov koicuv uv&puTVuv ^Tjfjiaaiv.* M^ dovXEve, o) 
rrat, ry rov aufiarog ■&£pa7TEia. 01 "'EXXrjvEg ralg 'Nvfj,(j>aLg^ Kparrjpag yu?iaKrog 
(TTTEvdovGLv. "EiJi^e Kal yvjiva^e rb cufza avv novoig kol Idpuri. 01 udoMoxai 
TEipovac ra ura ralg ravroXoyiaig.* "^vxvv e-&c^e, u rral, irpbg rd XPV^^'''^ Tvpay- 
uara. 01 (l)aJ}'Xot fiv'&ot ruv uruv ovx dTrrovrac. Tolg ucrlv* ukovo/j,ev. M^ 
EX'&CLLps (piXov fiLKpov dfiapT'^fiarog ivEKa. Tevov, u irai, rov yd?MKTog.^ Oi 
urparturat Sopara ^aard^ovctv. 

In a difficult business there are few faithful friends. Exercise, youths, 
your (the) body with labor and sweat ! Strive, boy, after noble actions. 
Many men delight in money. From a noble action arises reputation. "We ad- 
mire noble actions. Boys taste milk with pleasure. Soldiers fight with spears. 

Eemark. The word rb repag usually admits contraction in the plural, after 
T is dropped ; e. g. repd, rspuv ; rb yspag, reward of honor, rb yvpag, old age, rb 
Kpiag, flesh, and rb Kspag, horn, reject the r in all numbers, and then suffer con 
traction in the Gen. and Dat. Sing., and throughout the Dual and PL, except 
the Dat. PI. ; besides these forms, however, Kepag has also the regular forms 
with r. 

Sing. N. 

rb KEpag 

and (KEpa-og) Kepug 
and {KEpa-'i) Kepa 

rb Kpiag 

{Kpia-og) Kpiag 
(Kpia-'C) Kpia 

Plur. N. 


and [KEpa-a) Kspa 
and {K£pd-(ov) Kepuv 

and (KEpa-a) Kspd 

(Kpia-a) Kpia 

[Kped-UV) Kp£U)V 

(Kpia-a) Kpia 

D. N. A. V. 
G. and D. 


and (KEpa-E) Kipd 
and {KEpd-oLv) KEpC)v 

(Kpia-E) Kpia 

(Kped-Otv) KpEU)V. 

XVn. Vocabulary. 

'kvdpca, -ag t], bravery. evE^ia, good condition. 

yipag, rb, a reward, a gift -d-E/iiXiov, -ov, rb, a foun- 

of honor. dation. 

yvpag, rb, old age. Kipag, rb, a horn. 

6ulTpo(pT], -rjg, 7j, nourish- Kpiag, -iaog = -iug, rb, 

ment flesh, meat. 

dvGKoXog, -ov, difficult, TrifiTro, to send. 

troublesome. irpbjSdrov, -ov, rb, a sheep. 
DMfog, -ov, b, 7], a stag. 

Trpo-rpiTro, to turn to, im- 
pel, [pet. 

cdliny^, -lyyog, ^, a tnun- 

a7][iaivu, to give a sign, 
or signal. 

iTrapxi-}, to be at hand, or 
to be had, be. 

^dpiiaKov,-ov,rb,B. remedy. 

Ml58,3. (b). '§161,5. 8 § 161,2. (a), (J). M 161 3. » § 158, 5, (a) 





Oi ^eol Toig uv&pcjTTOic rtpa nefiTiOvaiv. Tuv hv yfjpa kckuv ^dpfiaKov 6 
■&dvar6g kartv. Id, yepa rovg arparccjrag elg uvdpeiav TrpoTpeirsL. 'E^ aiyuv 
Kal Tzpo^aruv yala koI Kpea irpbg diaTpocpyv vnapxec. "Kepaci^ koX aoKniy^LV 
ol arparicJTat aTjfialvovtJLv. HolkHuv Kpeuv^ yEVOfied-a. KaAov yfjpug -d-efie- 
\lov h Tvataiv kanv ?] tov ffufzarog evefca. A I ela^oi Kepa exovaiv. LvgKolog 
^GTiv 6 kv yrjpa (3tog. 

By {vTTo, w. gen.) the gods, prodigies are sent to men. Death abolishes the 
evils of old age. By {dat.) rewards, soldiers are impelled to brnvery. Eejoice, 
O youth, at the reward. We admire the beautiful horns of the stag. Many 
evils accompany old age. Bear the troubles of old age. 

§ 40. (c) 

The stem ends in v or rz. 

7}, Nose. 

6, Dolphin. 

6, Giant. 

6, Tooth. 

Smg. N. 

























Plur. K 

























D. N. A. V. 





G. and D. 





Rem. 1. Here belong: (a) the two adjectives in ~ag, -aiva, -av, \iz. fiiXag, 
-a IV a, -av, blade, and raXag, -aiva, -av, wretched; — (b) "Kag, izaaa, 
T-dv, all, eveiy, and its compounds; e. g. arrag, aTraaa, airav ; — (c) tKuv, 
-ova a, -6v, willing, -ovrog, -ovaTjg, -ovrog, and uKCdv, duovaa, aKov, unwilling ;— 
(d) adjectives in -etg, -e aaa, -ev, whicli are peculiar, inasmuch as the Dat. 
PI., masculine and neuter, ends in - £ c i instead oi - e t a t -, q. g. 



















































































G. and D. 







^ § 161, 3. 2 ^ 158^ 5^ (a). 

* Instead of ^tvg, 6e2,(pti'g, yiyavrg, bdovrg, ^lvgI, etc., see § 8, 6 and 7. 




Singular. Graceful. ^ Plural. 

Xapktg^ Xapicacra ;\;«prfv N. x'^P^^'^'^'^C X'^P'-^'^^^'- X'^P'-^'^'^'^ 
XcpievTog x^pi-^^^VC ;t<2/Ji£vrof G. ;^;apfevrc^)v ;^;apie'7cr6}v ^i^apitVrwv 
X^pcsvri ;^apt£0-cr/; ;i;a/^ievri D. ;i^ap<e(Ti(v) ;t;apie(7(Ta«r ;^;apif;at{v) 
Xaplevra x'^P'-^^^^'^ X'^P'^'^ ■^- X^p'i'^''^~^p x'^P^^^'^'^^ X'^P'-^'^''''^ 

Dual N. A. V. 
G. and D. 

Xapievre ;\;ap(£<7(7ci X'^P'-^'^'^ 
XaptevTotv ;\;apie(TO'a«v x^P'-^'^'^'-'^- 

Eem. 2. Adjectives compounded with odovf, are declined like 6(5oiif ; e. g. o 
^ fiovodovr, TO fiovodov, one-toothed, Gen. [lovodovrog ; adjectives in -ac, Gen 
-avrof, like yiyaf ; e. g. 6 57 u/ca/zaf, untiring, Gen. -avror. 

XVIII. Vocahdary, 

'A/crtf, -ivof, ^, a beam, a e/cwi', -ovaa, -6v, willing. oSovc, -ovrog, 6, a tooth. 

ray. i?i£(l>ur, -avrog, 6, an ele- oadpacvo/nac, to smeU. 

'a/ccjv -ovcra, -ot^, un"udll- phant, ivoiy. Traf, Trdcra, ttuv, every, all. 

ing. £i57ropof,-ov,w.5ren.,abound- Trore, once, sometimes. 

uTtdg, -daa, -dv, aU to- ing in. f)tg, pcvog, ^, the nostril, 

gether, every. ^Xco^, -ov, 6, the snn. the nose. 

avror, -7], -6, ipse, 6 avrog, /c^rtAof, -77, -ov, loquacious. rdXdg,-atva,-uv, wretched. 

the same. Tiealvu, to make smooth, (pikav-S-ptdTzog, -ov, man- 

^p&fia, -drog, to, food, vie- grind. loving, philanthropic. 

tuals. f^^XVf -^f? Vi a battle. x^P'-^'-^ -eaca, -ev, grace- 

ytyaf, -avrof, 6, a giant. fzeXug,, -acva, -dv, black, ful. 

(JeA^ff, -Ivog, 6, a dolphin. dark. 

Oi) rrdcrtv dv&p6xoLg 6 avTog vovg ecTiv. Tolg bdovat} to, l3p6fj.aTa ?isatvofiev 
01 6e?i,(l>lveg (pcXuv&pcjTroi elaiv. 'Ecrriv dvSpbg^ dya-&ov irdvTa koko, <l)ipeiv. 
UolXal Ai(3vT]g x^P^^^ eviropoi elaiv eM(j)avTog. TlavTeg kutlXov av&puTrov ex- 
■daipovcLv. Toif -yiyuap ttote t]v [laxr] Ttpbg Tovg dsovg. Talg tov tjXlov uktZ- 
ci x^'^P'^f'^'^' 'IPt-vuv Ipyov ecTlv dacppaivsad-aL 

The teeth grind the food. We smeU with the nose (dat.). The gods once 
had a battle with the giants (To the gods there was once a battle against the 
giants). "VVe admire the beautiful ivory. Trust not all men. The business of 
the teeth is, to grind the food. It is proper for (it is, w. gen.) every man to wor- 
ship the Deity. 



§41. I. Substa 71 fives in -svg, -avg, -ovg. 
The stem of substantives in -svg, -avg, -ovg ends in v. The v 
remains at the end of a word and before consonants, but is omitted 

* The dropping the v before g lengthens e into ei. 

M161,3. 2^158 2. ni61,2.(d). '•^161,2.fc1 


in the middle between vowels. Those in -£vg have -id in the Ace, 
Sing, and -idg in the Ace. PI. ; in the Gen. Sing., they take the 
Attic Gen. -tag instead of -iog, and in the Dat. Sing, and Nom . 
PL, admit contraction, which is not usual in thjg Ace. Plural. Those 
in -avg and -ovg admit contraction only in the Ace. Plural. 

6, King. 

6, A measure. 

6, 7], Ox. T], 

An old woman. 




[5ovg, bos for buys 













3aat?J d 



























{i36-ag) (3ovc 

(ypd-ag) ypavg 















Eemark. Among the older Attic wi-iters, the Nom. and Voc. PI. of those in 

•Evg, end also in -rjg ; e. g. ^aoilTjg, instead of ^aaiTiElg. 

XIX. Vocahulai'y, 

'Ap.xw, w. gen., to begin, to eIkcc^co, w. dat., to Hken, od-d-aTijxog, -ov, 6, an eye. 

7i o2.v?i6yog,-ov, loquacious. 

Tvpo, w. gen., before. 

re — /cai,both — and, as well 

^ovEvo, to murder, kill. 

command, rule. compare. 

uTljidl^td^ not to honor, de- hrcLn&XELa, -ag, rj, care. 

spise. ■&V0), to sacrifice. 

axapicrrog, -ov, nnthank- lepEvg, -Eug, 6, a priest. 

fol, ungrateful. "^-vpog, -ov, 6, loquacity. 

'Axt-^^^Evg, Achilles, [ing. vofiEvg, -iug, 6, pastor, a x^^^^> A^owf, 6, a measm*e 
jSouAo^ai, to wish, be will- herdsman, a shepherd. for liquids, a pouring- 
yovEvg, -Ecjg, 6, a parent, vofiTj, -yg, ij, pasttire. vessel. 

pi. parents. 

01 l3a(n7iELg £7rifis?iEi,av exovgl rcjv TroTitrCn). 'H ayiXri rib vofiel trrETat.'^ 
'0 "E/crwp VTrb rov 'Axt2,?iEug (povEVErau 01 lEpEig rolg -^Eolg^ j3ovg -Qvovglv. 
Kvpog Tcalg rjv aya-&u>v yovEOv. 01 axapiaroi rovg yoviag aTi/xaCovGtv. Uec- 
■&0V, d Tzal, rolg yovevGCv.^ Trj'kefiaxogTjv 'OSvGGECjg vlog. BovXov rovg yoviag 
Ttpb TcavTog kv TCfzalg execv. 01 rcJv ypauv ?ir/pot rd ura reipovaiv. Ka?Mg 
upXEig, 0) (3aGiXEv. Al ypdEg -noTivloyoi eIglv. 01 vofZEig ttjv (3o(Jv dyEXijv Eig 
voixyv ayovGLv. 'OfiTjpog rovg TTjg "Upag Ofp'S-aljuovg rolg ribv f3oCjv eIku^sc 
UdrpoK/iog (f>i?iog f;v 'Axt^^Mcjg. Kvpov, rov Tuv UspGuv jSaGcXia, Em re rff 
upETy Kol ry Gofia ■&avfid^ofi,EV. 

The king cares for the citizens. The herds follow the herdsman. Oxen are 
Bacrificed by {vno, w. gen.) the priests to the gods. The old womea by (their) 

> § 161, 2. (a), [6). 

§ 161, 5. 

§ 42.] THIRD DECLEX3I0X. — WORDS IN -rjg AND -eg. 


prating (dcU.) plague our (the) ears. Ye rule well, kings ! O priests, sacri- 
fice an ox to the god ! It is proper for (it is, w. gen.) a good herdsman to take 
cai^ of the oxen, Chxildren loA^e then- (the) parents. 

care o 

§ 42. n. Words in -rjg, -eg; -cog (Gen. -coog) and -cog and -co (Gen, 
-oog) ; -ag (Gen. -aog), -og (Gen. -eog). 

1. The stem of words of this class ends in a. In respect to the 
remaining or omission of a, the same rule is observed, as in regard 
to V in the preceding class of substantives, viz. the a remains at°the 
end of a word and before consonants, ^but is omitted in the middle 
between vowels. In the Dat. PI. a V *is omitted; e. g. o '&c6g, 
Jackal, zoTg '&co-ai(v). 

(1) Words in -7]g and -eg. 

2. The endings -r^g, -eg, belong only to adjectives (the ending -t^g 
being masculine and feminine, and -eg neuter), and to proper names 
in -cpdvTjg, -jievi^g, -ysvt]g, -xqaxi^g, -^y]d7jg/ -7zsi'&7]g, -a&evr^g and 
(-ylerjg) -;<Xijg, having the termination of adjectives. The neuter 
exhibits the pure stem. 

3. The words of this class suffer contraction, after the omission 
of (7, in all Cases, except the Nom. and Voc. Sing, and the Dat. PL ; 
and those in -xh'j^g, which are already contracted in the Nom. Sing, 
into -y.X^g, suffer a double contraction in the Dat. Singular. 



(TacpTjg, clear. 
{aa(pe-og) aadovg 









(aa^i-a) aadrj 

Dual N. A. V. 
G. and D. 
V rptvpTjg, trii-eme. {rpLvpe-eg) rpiripeig 
[rptripe-og) rpLrjpovg rpirjpe-ov and rpirjpcov 
{rpLripe-l) rptrjpEL Tpifj'pe-GL{v) 

(rpir/pe-ag) rpi^peig 

{rpifjpe-Er) rpLTjpELg 


I,U/CpuT7jg {TlEpLK?i£Tjg) 

I^coKparovg (Ilepi/cZee-of) 

luKpuTEL {UePCkXeE-I) 
luKpaTTJ {Il£piK:?iEE-a) 

'EcjKpaTEg {lIeptK?^E£g) 





(TptTjpE-e) Tpcrjprj 
(rpiripi-ocv) Tptrjpolv 

[rpLrjpE-a rpc^prj 





(IIepckXeei) 'n.EpiK?i,el 



^ I?EM. 1. The contraction in the Dual, viz. rpcTjpEs =-- rpcrfpn is worthy of no- 
tice, since here -ee is contracted into -v, and not as elsewhere, into -ei. " 
Rem. 2. In adjectives in -m, -ec, preceded by a rowel, -ea is commonly not 




conti-acted into -v (as in cra^ea = cra^^), but into -d (as in JlepiKMe-a = -lea) 
g. ukIetjc, luithout fame, Masc. and Fern. Ace. Sing., and Neut. Nom. Ace. and 
Voc. PL liKktka = d/oled, vyiriq^ hmlthy, vyiia = vytd. 

Rem. 3. Proper names with the above endings, and also 'ApT^f, form the Ace. 
Sing, both according to the first and third declensions, and are therefore called 
Hkeroclites ; e. g Sw/cparea = I,o)KfxirTj, and HcoKpaTTjv according to the firs*, 
declension. Yet -with those in -kI^C the Ace. in -KAijv is not usual in good At- 
tic prose. 

Rem, 4. The Voc. of paroxjtones diflfers, m its accentuation, from the rule 
in § 33, m. (a). In the contracted Gen. PL, TpLrjprjg, avrapKrjc, contented, and 
compounds of 7j-&og, are paroxytones, contrary to the rule [§ 11, 2. (2) (b) (/5)]^ 

XX. Vocabulary. 

Aio-;\;p6f,-a,-6i^,disgracefiil. 6ovleia, -ag, 7], slavery. 

aicpCLTTjg, -eg, immoderate, eAsaipo), to pity, 
incontinent, intemper- eludTjg, -eg, marshy, 
ate. wanting in self- 

a?[,7]-&7ig, -eg, true. 

arvxvCj -£?5 unfortunate. 

'Ac7Tvayi]r, Astyages. 

a^avTjg, -eg, unknown, ob- 

TTOTcifiog, -ov, 6, a river. 

cfo<pt(7T7jg, -ov, 6, a teacher 
of eloquence, a sophist. 

ao)T7]pia, -ag, 7], safety, 

TOTvog, -ov, 6, a place. 

rpayuSia^ -ag, tj, a trag- 

'Iv6lk7^, 7j, India. 

Kokafiog, -ov, 6, a reed. 

liyco, to say. 

M.av6av7j, Mandane. 

bfiiXLa, -ag, fj, w. dot., 
intercourse (with any 

k.1 Tov 'IiO^OK.7:eovg rpayipdiai KaXal elaiv. Tdv lIeptK?ied ettI ry aoica -d^av- 
(ia^o/j.EV. Tii "LoKpaTet^ TroHol fia^Tjrac rjaav. 'H 'IvdiK?) Tzapd re rovg Tcora' 
fiovg Kal Tovg iXudeig roizovg ^epet Ka?Miiovg 'no7i7\,Gvg. Aeye ael ra aXrjd-Ti. 
'kva^ayopag, 6 ao(l>car7jg, SidaaKaXog r]V rov UepcKXeovg. ''Q ''HpaK?ieig, role 
arvxiiyi' aurrjpcav rrapexs- 'Eirafj-eivuvdag irarpbg^ rjv d,<j)avovg. 'EAea^pe rbi- 
aTvxv av&pu'nov. Isiavdavr] rjv -d-vy atrip 'Acrrvayovg, rov My^Suv f3a(n?Jo)g. 
'Opeyec&e, u veaviai, a7i7]-d-uiv Tioyov. 01 uKparelg alaxpciv dovXeiav^ 6ov?.evov- 
OLV. M^ dfiiTiiav ex£ uKparel av&pcjizo).^ 

Pericles had great wisdom (to Pericles there was great wisdom). Pity un- 
fortunate men. Many young men were pupils of Socrates. The intemperate 
(man) serves a disgraceful slavery. We admire Sophocles for his (the) splen- 
did tragedies. True words are believed. We pity the life of unfortunate men- 
Do not have intercourse with intemperate men. 

§ 43. (2) Words in -cog (Gen. -coo?), and in -cog and -ca (Gen. -oog). 

(a.) -u g , Gen. - uog . 


6, 7j d-ojg, Jackal. PL -^CJ-eg 

S. 6 Tfpug, Hero. PL r/pu-eg 


■&io-6g -d^u-ov 

7/po)-og TjpC)-OV 


■&o)-t '&o)-ai{v) 

7]pu)-i 7jpo)-ai(v) 


■&cj-a ■&(J-ag 

VpLo-a and ^po ^po-ag and 



■&6g ■&cJ-Eg 

Vp(^g rjpQ-eg 

D. N. A V. T?« e, G. and D. -^u-otv. 

D. ^pw-E, rjpoi-otv. 

Ml61,2. (d). 

§ 158, 1. 

3 5 159. 2. 

§ 161, 2. (a) (a). 




(b) -Of; and -u, Gen. - o o f = - o v r . 
Substantives of these endings are always feminine. The endinrr 
-^g IS retained in the common language only in the substentivc at 
dcog. The Dual and PI. are formed like substantives in -og of the 
second declension, thus, aidoi, ^xoi, etc. 

V rixd^ (stem ^xoq), Echo. 

[rixb-oi;) ^x^vq 

(vxo-a) Jix(^ 

ivxo-'i) Tixol. 

'A.ya'&og, -rj, -6v, good. 
al6ug, 71, shame, modesty, 

6^6g, dfiuog, 6, a slave. 
EVeGTU, -00^ = -ovg, ji, 

well-being, prosperity, 

XXI. Vocabulary. 

'kv'KTipoQ, -a, -ov, sad, trou- 

Kvalaq, Lysias. 

XvptKog, .57, -6v, lyric. 

oipcc, -Eug, 7], the counte- 
nance, the visage. 

'Kpoa-pieTzu, to look at. 

■Kpou-ELixL, adsum, to be 
present, be joined to. 

(TE^ac, TO, {only in Nora, 
and Ace.) respect, es- 

h^r^' "°"' "• '"' ^'':r\-"°J''' ^°."°'"« *-^". "> belie, deceive; 


KTjTvo^, -ov, 6, a garden. 

(by the father's side). Mid. to lie. 

TTEti^o), -Sog = -ovg, 7], per- 

8jo.Xv.,,,ayovc... 'O r»S .irp.„, «^.„, ,,,,, iaZ 'Opiyov!7a 

>r™ot„T<v 0/ wrropwypa^o,, r^„ « 'Eparo) ol IvpcKol iroinral. 

Homer celebrates the hero Achilles in song. The bravery of the hero is 
wonderful Slaves lead (to slaves there is) a troublesome life The IXZ 
Oo the uncle there is) a beautiful garden. All deUght in prosperity Tto^? 
O joung man wth reverence, the actions of good men ! We admire the^r 
masiveness and elegance of Lysias. We are often deceived by Eeto. 

§ 44. (3) Words in -«g (Gen. -aog). and in -og (Gen. -eo?). 
(a) -Of, Gen. -ao;. 

Ihis^Ss"'' "'"'"'' ^° ''''^'"'' '''''"' ^^ ^^ ^''"'^' O"^^"*' ''''°"« *" 

rh aekaq, light. 

Geka-l and OEka 


cela-a and aeka 


crsXa-a and (XEAa 

Dual. G€}.a-E 






(b) -og, Gen. -eog = -ovg. 
Substantives of this class are likewise neuter. In the Nom., 
f, the stem- vowel of the last syllable, is changed into o. 

Sing. N. 

TO yivog for y£V£g, genus. 
{y£V£-og) yevovg 
lyevE-i) yevEt 

TO KXeog for K?u£eg, glory. 

(/cAee-i) K?^££t 

Plui% K 

{yeve-a) yh'7] 
y£V£-o)u and yevcJv 


lyive-a) yivrj 

(Klee-a) K?i£d 

{k2,££-Cl)v) k7.£C)V 

{K?b££-a) K'Aed 


[yeve-e] yivTj 
{y£V£'Oi,v) ysvotv 

{K7i££-0iv) K?l£Olv. 

Remark. On the contraction in the Dual of -ee into -v instead of -ei, see § 42, 
Eem. 1 ; -ea in the plural preceded by a vowel, is contracted into -a, not into -r] ; 
e. g. K^iea = K^ed. Comp. ILepcKled (§ 42, Kem. 2). . 

XXII. Vocalndary. 

'A.A%d, sed, but. eldog, -sog = -ovg, to, the Kptvo, cerno, to separate, 

uvefiog, 'Ov, 6, the wind. figure, the form. jtidge, discern, choose. 

av&og, -eog = -ovg, to, a sTvog, -eog = -ovg, to, a fJ-vx-og, -eog = -ovg, to, 

flower. [safe. word. length. 

a(j<^d7irig, -eg, firm, secure, ?7/«^a, -ag, 7], injury, pun- Trovrjpog, -a, -6v, dishonest, 

yEvog,-eog= -ovg, to, race, ishment, loss. wicked. 

descent. ■&d?u'nog, -eog = -ovg, to, aeXag, -aog, to, splendor. 

/^j 7^?> ?A the earth. heat. vfog,-£og= -ovg,T6,}xeigh.t, 

JfiPuOf, -7], -6v, cowardly, ■&v?]T6g, -t), -qv, mortal. elevation. 

v.^orthless. Kepdog, -eog = -ovg, to, x^^^f^^^^ '^^^ ^> brass. 

iplvog, -7], -ov, spnng, i. e. gam. 

ipEvdog, -eog 

-ovg, TO, 

belonging to the spring, nXeog, -eeog = -eovg, to, a lie. [cold. 

{eap) vernal. famejpZ.famous actions, "tpvxog, -eog = -ovg, to, 

'H y7} dv&ecnv eaptvotg '&u7J\.£i. Twv KaKcov SetAa eirr] (^epovaiv ave/xoi. M?) 
(iTzexov ijjvxovg koI ■&d7^7TOvg. Tb naXhv ov [iTjKeL xpdvov Kpivouev, aTika dpeTy. 
OvK cicfaMg eaTt Tcdv vijjog hv d-vriTcp yevec, Mtj ipevdj] "keye. 'Arcexov ttovtj- 
puv KepScJv. Kepdi} TrovTjpd Cnfiiav ueI (pepei.^ KaTOTTTpov elSovg x^'^-X-dg eoTW^ 
olvog 6e vov. 01 uvd-puizot K%eovg bpeyovTat. 01 dvSpeg kXeel x<^'i-pov(Jiv. 01 
avdpeloL KXeuv bpeyovTai. Qavfid^ofiev to, tuv dvdpuv Kkea. 

Abstain from dishonest gain. "We delight in spring flowers. Keep not 
yourself, O youth, from cold {pi.) and heat! {pi.). Elee fi'om dishonest gains. 
Pimishment follows the lie. "We admire the Hellenes for {km, w. dot.) their 
(the) famous actions. Soldiers are impelled to noble actions by [dot.) the lovo 
for {gen,) fame. The famous actions of soldiers are admired. 

^ See i-ule of Syntax, p. 27. 

§§ 45, 46.] THIBD DECLENSION. — WORDS IN -ig, -vg, -r, -V. i'J 

§ 45. in. Words in -ig^ "c. -t, -v. 
(1) Words in -Ig, -vg. 

Sing. N. 

6 /c?f, corn-worm. 





6, 7} cvg, a boai', a sow. 


^ Ix^vg, fish. 

Plur. N. 






Gv-ag and avg 




Ix^v-ag, rarer ix-&vg 


D. N. A. V. 
G. and D. 






XXm. Vocabulary. 

'AjKicrpov^-ov, TO, &h.ook. parpaxog, -ov, 6, a frog. veKvg, -vog, 6, a corpse, a 

cppevo), to catch. fSorpvg, -vog, 6, a cluster dead body. 

afiTTeXog, -ov, ^, a vine. of grapes. Tvayig, 4dog, ^, a trap, a 

ava-KVTrru, to peep up or loog, -jj, -ov, like, equal. • snare. 

out, emerge. fivg, -v6g, 6, mils, muris, a araxvg, -vog, o, an ear 

^aailsvu, w. gen., to be mouse. of com. 

king, rule. 

01 IxS-veg kx rov norafiov avaKVTrrovtjLv. 01 ■d-rjpevTai rag cvag aypevovmv. 
Uavreg laoL VEKveg • ^vxC)v 6h ■&ebg PaailevEL} 'H aintelog <f,epec ^orpvg. H 
yv <pepet araxvug Kal fiorpvag. 01 fiveg Tzayimv aypevovTai. 01 l.vpoL ae^ov- 
rat Toi)g Ix^vg d)g ^eovg. ToZg fival^ [laxv ttote ^v Trpdf Toi)g Parpdxovg. 'Ay- 
KLO-poLg eveSpevojUEv ToZg ix'^vatv. 

We catch fishes with hooks. The huntsman lies in wait for the boars. The 
clusters (of grapes) and ears (of com) are beautiful. The vine is abounding 
{evnopog, w. gen.) in clusters of grapes. The frogs once had a battle with the 
mice (To the frogs was once a battle against the mice). 

§ 46. (2) Words in -ig, i, vg, v. 

The stem-vowels i and v remain only in the Ace. and Toe. Sing. ; 
in the other Cases they are changed into «, In the Gen. Sing, and 
PI., masculine or feminine substantives end in -mg and -cov, — ^in 
which case (o has no influence on the place of the accent. Comp, 
§ 30, Rem. 2. 

* « 158, 7. (a). 

§ 161, 2. (d). 




Sing. N. 

i] 'KoTug, city. 

6 TTTjxvg, cubit. 

rd oivaTTL, mustard. 

TO aarv, city. 





















Plur. N. 


































Eem. 1. Here belong adjectives in ^f, -eZa, -v, tiie declension of which does 
not differ from that of substantives, except that the Gen. of the masculine sin- 
gular has the common form -iog (not -ewf ), and that the neuter plural is always 
uncontracted. Thus : 

Sin^ar. Sweet. Plural. 


yTiVKvg ■y?.VKEta ■y2,VKv 


y7i,VKEig y2,vKEtat 



■yXvKE-og yXvKELag y?t,VKE-og 


y?iVK£0}V yXvKELUV 



■yTiVKEc yTiVKEca yXvKsl 


y?i,VK£(n{v) yXvKEiaig 



y7[,VKvv yTiVKElav y'AvKV 


yXvKEcg ylvKEtdg 



y%VKv yTuVKEla ylvKV 


yXvicEig yXvKEtat 


Dual N. A V. 

y?uVK££ ylvKELd y^VKEE 

G. and D. 

ylvKEOtv ylvKELaiv y?t,vKEOiv. 

Here also belong adjectives in -vg, -v, G«n. -eog, which are declined like 
yTiVKvg, -v, except that the neuter plural in -sa is contracted into -tj (as acT?/) ; 
e. g. 6 ?7 SiirTjxvg, rb SItztjxv, two cubits long, rd, Sltt^xV- 

Eem. 2. Some substantives in -tg, and also adjectives in -ig, -i, e. g. tdpti, 
I6pi, shilled in, have a regular inflection ; so also the word ^ Eyx£2,vg, eel, in thn 

Sing. N. 

6, fj Troprig, calf. r 

1 hyx^'^vg, eel. 

6, 7j olg, sheep. 






TTOpTl-t, TTOprl 











Plur. N. 

TToprt-Eg tropTlg 












TTopri-ag rroprlg 


olag, rarer olg 


TzSpri-Eg TTopTlg 










'ApA:^, 'vg, f}, a beginning, 
command, pi magis- 

XXIV. VocaMary, 

trates, authorities, of- daEXyeia, -ag, rjy excess, 
fices of command. j3e/?aiOf,-<2,-ov,finn,secure. 


,3poT6g, -f], -6v, mortal. fiovo^, -rj, -ov, alone. Tzvpyor^ -ov, 6, a tower. 

(SpcJacg, -ecjg, ij, eating. voiio^^ -ov, 6, a law. crruvig, -ewf, i/, ncediness, 

diacpopoc, -ov, different. ovtjcic, -euc, rj, advantage. want. 

6upov, -ov, TO, a gift. ''^VX'^Ci -£«Jf> o, the elbow, araaig, -eur, 57, a faction. 

evdeia, -ag, tj, want. a cubit. sedition. 

iTTLxjvfiia, -ag, ?/, desire. rroAe/zof, -ov, 6, war. avveaic, -c<Jf, V) under- 

Kaprcog, -ov, 6, fruit. iroXig, -eug, ij, a town, a standing. 

KoajjLog, -ov, 6, an orna- state, a city. v(3pig, -f wf, ^, insolence, 

ment, order, the world. izopTig, -tog, 6, i], a heifer. haughtiness. 

KTjjfia, -uTog, TO, a pos- Tioaig, -eug, i], drinking, (pvXa^, -Kog, 6, a guard, a 

session. [session. drink. guardian. 

KTfjGLg, -eug, ^, gain, pos- irpu^ig, -eug, tj, an action, (pvaig, -eug, rj, nature. 

'AaeXjELa tlktel vjSpiv. 'Ev Tvoaet koL ^puaEt tco7Jml eIglv STalpoi, Iv d'e 
GTTovdaco) Tcpdy[iaTL oTiiyoi. '0 T^T^ovTog ciraveug^ Kal kvdeiag Tovg av&purcovi 
\vet. "Ettod Ty ^vaet.'^ At utto tov aufzaTog eTrf& no?J/Li.ovg Kal GTuaecg 
Kal fiuxag TzapixovoLv. 'Ev Talg iroTieaiv at upxcu vojiuv (l)v?MK£g elccv. 'Atte ■ 
,YfO"i5-£, w TfoTuTai, GTucECdv} 'OpEyead^e Ka?MV vrpa^Euv.^ Accupopoi eIglv al 
Tuv (3poTuv (j)vcrEig. 'E^ v(3pE0)g -KoTika KaKu, ycyvETac. KaKov uvipog dupa 
ovTjaiv ovK EX£i: Ao^a Kal TrXovTog uvev crvviaEtog ovk aa(pa'Ari KTri[iaTu elulv. 
01 Kapnol yXvKEig eIglv. 'ApETTjg (Sif^aLai elglv al KTrjOEig yiovai. Tio7Jka ugtti 
TEtxv exsc. 01 TOV uGTEog TTvpyoi. KaXoi eIglv. 01 TzvpyoL T<p UGTEL* KOGflOg elglv. 

Riches free from neediness and want. In the state the magistrates are the 
guardians of the laws. Strive, O young man, after a noble action ! The pos- 
session of virtue is alone secure. Good laws bring order to states. Soldiers 
fight for the safety of cities. Flee, citizens, from factions ! 

§ 47. Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension, 

1. AvriQ, see § 36 ; yaka, yovv, doQV, ovg, § 39 ; yaiQ, § 35, Rem. 2. 

2. Fwri (/}, woman), Gen. yvvaiK-og, Dat. yvpaiy>-i, Ace. yv- 
vaTx-a, Voc. yvvai; PI. yvvaixeg, yvvar/Mv, yyvai^i(v), 

3. Zevg, Gen. /iiog, Dat. /id, Ace. ^la^ Voc. Zev. 

4. Q i^ (7/, hair), Gen. ZQix-og, Dat. PI. d^Qi^t^v), see § 8, 11. 

5. KXeig (?J, key). Gen. nXeid-og, Dat. v.1ei8-1, Acc. yXdd-cx. 
and (commonly) xXeTv; PI. Nom. and Acc. 7().€Tg, also yXaTdsg, 

6. Kvcov (o, ?/, dog). Gen. yvv-6g, Dat. xvn, Acc. y^vra, Voc. 
yvov ; PI. yvveg, yvvav, yvai{v), avvag. 

7. A cig (o, stone). Gen. Xaog, Dat. Xai, Acc. Xav, seldom Ida ; 
PI. Xcteg, Xdojv, XdEa6i(v). 

8. M dQzv g (6, ri, witness). Gen. fidgrvQcgj Dat. ftdgrvQi, Acc. 
ficiQtvQa, more seldom (idgrvv; Dat. PI. fidQTVGi(v). 

9. Navg (ji, navis), Gen. vecog, Dat. vrii. Acq,, vavv. Dual: 

M 157. 2 H^l, 2. (a) (fJ). M158, 3. (b). "§161,5. 

/ ■ 




Gen. and Dat veoiv (Nom. and Ace. are not in use) ; PI. vrjeg, 
vs(av, vavGi(v), vaug. Comp. jQavg, § 41. 
10. "T8(OQ (to, water), Gen. vdatog, etc 

XXV. Vocabulary. 

A-&7jvaloc, -ov, 6, an Athe- l-&vv(o, to set right, guide, fxaprvpta^-ag, f), testimony. 

nian. Icrog, -ov, 6, a loom. o'cKca, -ag, i], a house. 

'A.6j]g, -ov, 6, Hades, the KecpaXr/, -?jg, i], the head, olnog, -ov, 6, a house, 
god of the lower world kcgtt]^ -rjg, t], a chest, a Trepidpojiog, -ov, running 
~ " round, gad-ahout. 

TTerpa, -ag, i], a rock. 
cTdyidv, -ovog, y, a drop, 

or dropping, 
o-wfcj, to save, preserve. 
auTTjp, -Tjpog, 6, a saver, 

a preserver. 
d(pe?ueta,-ag, t], advantage^ 

(Pluto). coffer. 

uTTioTog, -ov, unfaithful, Kotlaivu, to hollow out 
incredible. [treaty. KOfxi^u, to bring. 

6er,aLg, -eojg, rj, an en- Kteig, -evog, 6, a comb. 

dexofiat, to receive. 

eKii?i7]aia, -ag, ij, an as- 

^pi^, rpi-xog, 7J, the hair. 

KTevi^o), to comb. 
Kv[3og, -ov, 6, a die. 
Kvl3epvTjT7]g,-ov,6, a steers- 
man, a pilot. 

At yvvalneg tu Kocficp x^ipovcrLv. 01 "'E?J^7]veg aef3ovTac Aia. Talg yvvai^lv 
7] alddg TTpeTtei. 01 Kvvsg rov oIkov <j>v?MTT0V(nv. '0 Kv^epv^rrig r^ vavv 
Id-vvei. Ai GTayoveg rov vdarog Trerpav KOi?iatvov(Jtv. 'E;^;i9-aip« yvvaiKa Tre- 
pidpofiov. Trig yvvacKog^ ean rov oIkov ^vXarretv. TwatKog^ e(r&?^7jg kari c6- 
^etv OLKLav. 'Ael ev TTiTTTovaiv ol Aibg Kv(3oi. 01 Kvveg rolg av&pcoTTOig d<f)e- 
?\,ecav Kot 7]6ov7jv TTapexovacv. At ruv [xaprvpcdv fiaprvpiai TTo72,dKtg uTncToi 
elaiv. ^IcTot yvvaiKuv epya, Kal ovk. eKKXrjciaL. Kofxt^e, u TTal, ttjv rr/g klg- 
TTjg KTielv. ^G Zev, dexov r^v rov drvxovg derjGiv. Kdarup Kal llo?i,vdevK7]g 
ru)v vecJv aurTjpeg }]aav. TvvaLKi^ TraGij kogjiov ?; GLy'^ (pepei. Oi yepovreg 
d?uyag rpixag ev ry /ce^a/l^ exovGLV. ^fl yvv'ai, Gu^e rrjv oUiav. Tip KrevP rug 
rpixag Krevi^ofiev. 'O AlaKog rag rov "Adov K2,elg (pvXdrrsL. 

The woman delights in ornament. It is the duty (it is, iv. gen.) of women to 
look after the house. Bring, boy, the key of the house ! Women delight in 
beautiful hair. The Athenians had (To the Athenians were) many ships. 
Trust not all witnesses. It is the business (it is, iv. gen.) of dogs to guard the 
house. Zeus had (To Zeus were) many temples. The fishes peep up from the 
water. The steersmei;i guide the ships. Modesty becomes a woman. 


§ 48. Irregular 

Adj ectives. 

Sing. N. 

Trpdog • 


TTpdog, TTpde 

TT p aela 
TT paeidg 
TT p aeia 
TT paelav 
TT p aela 

TTpdov, mild. 




Plur. N. 

TTpdoL and TT pael g 
TT p aeov 

TTpdoig axvdi TT p a e G L [v) 
TTpdovg and tt paelg 
TTpdot and TT paelg 

TT p a el at 
TT pae I C) V 
TT paeiatg 
TT paeidg 
TT paelat 

TT p aea 
TT p aeuv 
TT p aeG l{v) 
TT paea 
TT paea 

D. N. A. V. 
G. andD. 


TT p ae id 
TT pae ia IV 



^ ^ 158, 2. 

§ 161, 5. 

3U61, 3. 

§ 48g 


Sing. N. 

7t oXi) g TzolXi] ttoXv, much. 

Iiiyaq fieyd'Ar] fitya, gi-eai. 


TToPu/loi' 'KoTCkriq Tzo'k'kov 

fxeyuTiov jieyalrjc; iiEyd7.ou 


TToAAcj TTO/t/l^ TTO/l/lcj 

//eya/lci) fieyaAij jxeyd/M 


7rO?iVV 7T07\.}J-jV TT o2,V 

/x £ y av /leyuArjv [ley a 


TT o?iv 'KoTJkri iroJA} 

(ley a jieyaATj jity a 

Plur. N. 

T:o70.oi TzoTJiai Tzo'Akd 

lieyaAOL (Lh/aAai [leyaAa 


TZO^JMV 'KoWdv 'K07JkCiV 

lieya/MV jxeyd'Aov jxeyuAoiv 


etc. regular. 

etc. regular. 

d 1 




ardc ardca 


7u7tc)v 7urrovGa ?U7r6v 


aravroq aTaar]g 


7i,i7r6vTog ACTTOVGTjg 7uTr6vTog 




XtTTOVTC 7u7rOVGiy 7.LTv6vTt 


GTuvra aruaav 


TiiTzovra T.nrovGav Alttov 


aruc GTuaa 



P. N. 

crdvTeg aruaaL 


TiLTTovTeg T^iTTOvGai AcTTovra 


a~avT(jv (TTaacjv 


7,l7t6vto)v ■ 7uttovgC)v Xcttovtuv 


<jTU(7i{v) crdaaig 


7.L7rovGi{v) 7\,LTT0VGaLg Iltvougl^v) 


(jTavrac CTuaug 


Xiizovrag 7uTzovGdg 7.L7i6vTa 


aravrec araaai 


7iiTr6v~eg ?u7rovGai TuTrovra 


aravrt aruaa 


7u7r6vTe ?UTiOVGd Til-kovte 

aravTOiv araaaiv 



S. N. 

Xet^{retg -elaa 


uyye7i.cJv -ovGa -ovv 


7\,eL^-d-EVTog -elarjg 


uyye7iOvvTog -ovarjg -ovvrog 


7i,si(ljd-£vTL -elari 


ayye7uOvvTL -ovaij -ovvvL 


?.ei(l)'&£VTa -elaav 


dyye7iovvTa -ovGav -ovv 


7.ei(l)-&dg -elaa 


dyyeT^Cdv -ovGa -ovv 


7,£i(p-&evTeg -elaat 


uyyelovvreg -ovgul -ovvra 

G. -etaOiv 


dyyeT-ovvTcov -ovacJv -ovvrcov 


7i,ei(pd^el(Ti{v) -eiaaig 


dyyeAovGC -ovGaig -ovgl 


7i.ei(pd-evTag -ecaug 


dyye7MvvTag -ovGug -ovvra 


7iei(p-&evTeg -elaai 


dyye7.ovvTeg -ovaai -ovvra 


7^ei^-&evTe -elad 


dyyeXovvre -ovGd -ovvre 

Tiet^-d-evTOiv -etaaLv 


dyyelovvTotv -ovaaiv -ovvrotv. 

Eesiabk. All participles in -ag are declined like arug, and all present, second 
Aor. and first Put. participles in -uv, like 7u'kC)v, and first and second Aor. pas- 
sive participles, like 7iet(pTd-elg, and all second Put. Act. participles, like dyyeXuv. 

AlyvTrrog, -ov, rj, Eg}'pt. 

d7jyor, -eog = -ovg, to, 

iK^'&ovia, -ag, 37, absence 
of envy, abundance. 

E'&og, -eog = -ovg, to, cus- 
tom, manner. 

Vudg, -dSog, ij, the Iliad, 

XXVI. Vocalmlary. 

Kaiccjv 'lALag, a multi- 
tude of evils. 

'MaKcSon', -6vog,J), Mace- 

fieya, greatly. 

oXtyog, -ri, -ov, little, small. 

h^e7J\.(j), to nourish, in- 

Trai^of, -eog = -ovg, to, 

suffering, a passion. 
'no7^vg, TToAA^jToAt', much, 

many, great. 
-jvpaog, irpaela, rrpaov, soft, 

TrpoG-ayopevo), to call, 



Tcpoa-odoc, -ov, 1], an ap- clrog, -ov, 6, com. be connected or attend 

proach, an income, rev- <j>6j3oc, -ov, 6, fear : (p6[3ov ed with. fear. 
enuQ, reditus. ex^i-v, to have fear, to 

Uolvv olvov TTcvetv KaKov earcv. 01 (SamAelc fieyaXag Tcpogodovg ex^vmv. 
'Ev AlyvTrrc) TioWrj cirov cKp'&ovi.a tjv. 'H ■^aXarra [lEyaXTj eariv. Meya 7ra- 
■&0C TvpogayopevofiEv 'VuciSa kukuv. Kpoiao)^ tjv 7ro?uvg nTiovrog. IIo/iAa/cif k^ 
oAiyrjC fjdovrjg [leya yiyvsTac akyog. Tlpaeai {irpuocg) loyoig ijdeiog eIkouev. 
Ta [leyala Siopa Trjg rvxvc ^X^i- ^ofSov. TLollibv av&pcJTtuv e'&T] earl lipaia. 
Hovog tipsTTjv [xtya o^eA/lei. 0/ naUeg rovg rrpaelg {irpaovg) Trarepag Kal rug 
irpaeiag ju.7]Tepag aripyovaiv. 'Ofiiliav ex£ rolg Tzpaeaiv {irpuocg) uv&piJTTOig.^ 
A.I yvvaiKeg rrpaeiai elaiv. 'ATie^avSpov, rbv ruv MaKeSovuv (3a(jL?Ja, fzeyav 

Abstain from much Mine. Kings have (to kings are) great revenues. Egypt 
has (in Egypt is) great abundance of com. Croesus has (to Croesus are) 
great riches. Strive after mild manners. Women have (to women is) a mild 
nature {^vcig), Alexander, king of the Macedonians, is called the Great. 

§49. Comparison of Adjectives. 

The Greek language has two forms to indicate the two degrees 
of comparison (Comparative and Superlative) ; much the most 
common form is - r e q o g, -r i q a, -t eqov, for the Comparative, 
and -r at g, - r atij, -t at ov, for the Superlative ; a much 
more rare form is - i co v, - i ov, or - (xiv, - o v, for the Compara- 
tive, and - lOT g, - iazT], - lar ov, for the Superlative. 

Rem. 1 . The Superlative expresses a quality in the highest degree, or only 
in a very high degree. 

Rem. 2. Instead of the simple forais of the Comparative and Superlative, the 
Greek, like the Latin, can prefix [xallov {magis) and jidlicra {maxime) to the 

^* §50. A. First Form of Comparison. ' 

Comparative, - r SQog, -r sqcc, • tegov. 
Superlative, -t ar og, -z drij, -rarov. 
The following adjectives annex these forms in the following man- 
ner : 

I. Adjectives in - og, -ij (- a), - o v. 

(a) Most adjectives of this class, after dropping c, annex th 
above endings to the pure stem, and retain the o, when a syllable 
long by nature or by position, § 9, 3, precedes, (a mute and liquid 
always make the syllable long here) ; but, in order to prevent the 

M161,2. (d M 161, 2. (a), (c). 


concurrence of too ;nany short syllables, o is lengthened into ca, when 
a short syllable precedes ; e. g. 

KOv<p-og, light, Com. Kov^-o-repo^ Sup. /ccw^-o-rarof, -77, -ov, 

icx^p-o^i strong^ " laxvp-o-rspog, " icrxvp-o-Taroc, 

/le7rr-6f, thin, " XeTZT-o-repog, " /leTrr-o-rarof 

a(j>o6p-6g, vehement, " G(podp-6-rEpoc, " c(poop-6-raTo^, 

iriKp-oc;, bitter, " TTiKp-o-Tspog, " -rnKp-o-raTog, 

(70(p-6g, wise, " co^-u-Tspog, " aod-u-rarog, 

kx^p-og, firm, " txvp-^-Tepog, " kxvp-cJ-Tarog, 

a\l-og, worthy, " a^L-u-repog, " d|Z-c5-rarof. 

(b) Contracts in -«o? = -ov? and -oo? == -oi;?, suffer contraction 
in the Comparative and Superlative also, since e of the former is ab- 
sorbed by CO, but the latter, after dropping og, insert the syllable eg, 
which is contracted with the preceding o ; e. g. 

TTop^vp-eog = 7rop(pvp-ovg a7c?u-6og = drr^l-ovf 

TTopiipvp-euTepog = Tropcpvp-u-repog d-Trlo-scr-Tepog = aTr/l-ovf-repof 
TTopipvp-euTarog = Tropcpvp-u-rarog d7r?>.o-ea-TaTGg = (ZTT/l-oiio'-raTOf 

Here belong also contracts of two endings in -ov g and -ovv; e.g. evv-ooc 

= evv-ovg, Neut. evv-oov = evv-ovv, Com. evvo-ec-repog = siiv-ova-repog, Sup. 
evvo-ea-rarog = evv-ova-rarog. 

(c) The following adjectives in - aiog, viz. ysqaiogy old, n a- 
Xaiog, ancient, tz SQaTog, on the other side, (jj^oXalog, at lei- 
sure, drop -og and append -tsgog and - r a t o ? to the root ; e. g. 

yepai-og, Com. yepai-Tepog, Sup. yepat-rarog, 
TzaT^ai-bg, " 'Kakai-repog, " ^ra/lci-rarof. 

(d) The following adjectives in -og, viz. ev d log, calm, ^av- 
Xog, quiet, id log, own, taog, equal, fisa og, middle, ogd-giog, 
early, oip log, late, and nTQai'og, in the morning, after dropping 
-og, insert the syllable ai, so that the Comparative and Superlative 
of these adjectives are like the preceding in -aiog ; e. g. 

(lea-og. Com. /xea-ai-repog, Sup. fxea-ac-rarog, 
idi-og " iSi-al-repog, " Idc-ac-rarog. 

Eem. 1. $i/lof, beloved, dear, has three different forms: ^tldrepog, 6l7m- 
Tarog ; ^ilrepog, (^ikTaTog ; ^t7.aiTepog, (pilatTarog. 

(e) Two adjectives in - o g, viz. igQcofievog, strong, and 
a ;< ^ a r ?, unmixed, after dropping -o?, insert the syllable £? ; e. g. 
iQQcofisv-E(j-TSQog, iQQO!)fj,£v-E(S-razog, dxQccr-sa-rsQog, d>iQat-ea-ratog. 
So also aidoTog, modest, has aidoisatazog in the Superlative. 

(f) The following adjectives in -og, viz. XciXo?, talkative, 
\iovocp ay g, eating alone, 6\p o (p dy o g, dainty, and Ttzay ^og, 
poor, after dropping o?, insert the syllable ig ; e. g. XdX-og, Com. 
XaX'ia-reqog, Sup. 7,aA-t(y-raroff. 


n. Adjectives in ^7]g, Gen. -ov, and "ipsvdi^g, -sg, false, Gen 
-8og, shorten the ending -7]g into -Lg; e. g. xls7Tr-7]g, Gen. -ov, thiev- 
ish, Com. yl&m-iG-zeqog, Sup. yl£7it-i6-t(x.zog ; ipsvdiazEQog, 'ipsv- 

XXYII. Vocabulary. 

'AydlTiO, to adorn ; Mid. ed-voc, -eog = -ovc, to, a TVToxog, -n, -ov, begging, 

w. dat.^ to pride oneself nation, a people. very poor, 

in, be proud of, delight AxiKedaLiiovioQ, -ov, 6, a aicon^, -?jc, ^> silence. 

in. Lacedaemonian. rifiiog, -a, -ov, honored, 

alperog, -rj, -ov, choice, vofii^cj, to tliink, deem. esteemed, valuable, 

eligible ; Ccmparative^ ohdeig, ov6e[iia, no one 5 ;^£?-i(5wv, -ovog, tj, a swal- 

preferable to. ovSh, nothing. low. 

piaiog, -a, -ov, violent. 'rzarpig, -tSog, r„ native xpVf^'-f^og, -tj, -ov, useful, 

diKaioc, -a, -ov, Attic 61- country. advantageous. 
Kaiog, -ov, just. 

Rule of Syntax. The expression denoting comparison, which 
in English is subjoined to the Comparative by than, is subjoined 
in Greek, by ly, than (quam), or, what is more usual, by the Gen. 
without ^, when that expression must have stood in the Nom. or 
Ace. after ^ if expressed. Hence the rule : The Comparative gov 
ems the Gen. when ^ is omitted. 

'ApLareLST/g izraxoTarog 7jv, uX}m dLKaiorarog. 01 KvuXuTreg fSLatorarot Jjeav. 
Kal2,Lag 'iT?i,ovaicJTaTog J]v 'A-&7]vaLuv. Gvdsv audivTjg hart xpriC^iiJ.idTepov. ^tyr] 
tot' ecxTiv alpsTUTepa %6yov. Ova egtl ao^iag TtfiiuTspov. "Eotpia ttT^ovtov 
KTTJfia TiixiuTspov kaTiv. 'H Aatcedacfioviuv oiacTa i]v dirlovcrTaTTj. 01 yepai- 
Tepoc TaZg tuv vecov Ttfzalg^ ayaXkovTai. Ovdev TcaTptdog Tolg av&pccnroi^ (pi2r 
repov. 01 'Ivdol 'n-aXacTaTov e'3-vog^ vofziCovTai. 'Q, veavcai, e<JT€ ^avxatTaTOi. 
01 '^izapTiaTLKol veaviai k^j^ofieveaTepoc r/aav tuv A'&jjvaiuv. TloXkol tqv x^' 
2.i66vuv eld XaXiaTepoi. 01 dovXoi TroATiaKig ipsvdicrTaTOL koI KXeirTLGTaToi 

The father is wiser than the son. The most valuable possession is that of 
virtue. The life of Socrates was very simple. No one of the Athenians was 
more just than Aristides. The eldest are not always the wisest. Men aro 
quieter than boys. The Lacedaemonians were veiy strong. Old women are 
often very loquacious. The raven is very thievish. 

m. Adjectives of the third Declension : 

Those in -vg, -8 Ta, -v, i]g, - sg (Gen. -sog), ag, -av, 

and the word fidn aQ, happy, append -r sqog and -ratog im- 
mediately to the pure stem, which appears in the Neuter form ; e. g. 

yTiVKvg, Neut. -v — y}.VKv-Tepog yT^VKv-TaTog 

akri-Q^rig, Neut. -kg — a.%7]-& ea-TEpog alijd-ea-TaTog 

^ § 161, 2. (c). ' § 161, 5. (a). ^ 5 ^45^ g. 


nevrjg, Neut. -ff — Tzevic-Tepo^ Trevea-raror 

jXEAag, Neut. -av — /leAuv-Tepoc (ie^Aav-Taror 

ra/uGf, Neut. -av — ra/MV-repo^ TaXav-raro^ 

juunap, Ncut, -ap — jxanup-repog fiaiiup-TaTog. 

Rem. 2. The adjectives ijdvc, rax^C and 7ro?i,vg are compared in -icjv 
and -cjv. See § 51, 1, and § 52, 9. 

IV. -T EQog and -t ar og are appended to the pure stem, after 
the insertion of a single letter or of a whole syllable : 

(a) Compounds of xdqig insert co ; e. g. 

ETZixaptg, -t, Gen. eirixapiT-og, pleasant, 

Com. eTvixcipcT-cj-Tspog, Sup. eTrixapir-u-TaTor. 

(b) Adjectives in -oovj -ov (Gen. -ovog), insert sg; e. g. 

evdai/iov, Neut. ev6at/j,ov, happy, 

Com. evdaiLLOv-ect-Teoog, evdaiuov-io-rarog. 

■M . , 

(c) Adjectives in -§ sometimes insert eg, sometimes ig; e. g. 

cKpfjTil^, Gen. u^rjliK-og, grotving old, apTva^, Gen. aprray-og, rapax, 
Com. a^r]?uK-icr-Tepog, Com. apnay-ia-repog, 

Sup. dd>j]?iiK-e(j-Tarog, Sup. dpTray-ia-raTog. 

V. Adjectives in -s i g, -s v, insert 6, the v of the stem being 

dropped, § 8, 6 ; e. g. 

Xapietg, Neut. x^^P'-^'^^ pleasant, 

Com. x'^P'-^-'^'^^P^Cj Sup. ;j;ap££'-oTaroi'. 

XXVm. Vocabulary. 

kld-ioip, -oirog, 6, an JE- yvpag, -aog, to, old age. op[iT], -7jg, rj, impulse, zeal, 

thiopian. h/Kpar^g, -eg, continent, desire, rusMng. 

AcTVTj, -rjg, r], ^^tna. abstinent, moderate. ov6e, and not, neither, not 

ahpa, quickly. evcefirig, -eg, pious. eyen. 

upira^, -ayog, rapacious, evxaptg, -trog, attractive. 'irapa7r?if/cnog, -a, -ov, and 

rapax. [weak. Tjlirj, -jjg, rj, youth. 'irapaTclTjoiog, -ov, like. 

do'&evfig, -eg, powerless, fjtsaoTTjg, -~i]rog, ?/, me- Trapepxouai, to pass by. 
arvxta, -ag, rj, misfortune. diocrity, moderation. ■Kpec^vg, -sla, -v, and 
j3a-&vg, -eXa, -v, deep, pro- v67}{ia,-aTog,T6, a thought, Tzpial^vg, -vog, and -ewr 

found. a conception. old. 

^api}f, -eia, --y, heavy, bur- opd-og, -t], -ov, straight, uKvg, -ela, -v, quick. 

densome. correct, upright. 

Alipa, ug voTjixa, TrapipxETat tjISt], ov6' lttttcov bpfirj ytyveraL uKvrepa. To yf} 
pag [3apvTep6v sartv AlrvTjg. 'O ■Qavarog rib (Sad-vruru vtwo)^ Trapa-?ifjGL6g ha 
rtv. 01 veot rolg ruv Trpea^vrepuv eTvacvocg^ ;t;qipor«7iv. ^iXiag SiKatag KTTjai^ 
' hanv da(j)a?ueoTdT7] . 'H fieaorr^g hv Trdaiv d(j(pa7ieaTepa eariv. Oi yepovreg dcr- 
•d^eviaTspoi elat rcjv veuv. BovXr/g op'&TJg ovdev eartv uo(i)a?Ja~£pov. Oi Kopa- 
Keg fieXdvTaroi elccv. 'H 'AcppodirT] 7]v evxapiTcordTrj. 01 evaelSicrraroc evdaC' 
fioveaTaToi ei<nv. ^uKpdrrjg eyKpareGrarog t]v Kal audpoviuTarog. 'Ev ral^ 
drvxtaig iro^XdKig ol dv&pcoTrot cco(l>pov£cr£poi elatv, ?) hv ralg Evrvxiaig. Kpc 
riag tjv dpTzayiaraTog. 'H 'A(ppo6irij rjv xapieGrdrij TcaaGtv "d-euv. 

' § 161, 2. (b). 2 5 161^ 2, (c). 



Age is very burdensome. Nothing is quicker than thought. Moderation is 
the safest. No bird is (there is not a bird) blacker than the raven. The 
-^Ethiopians are very dark. Nothing is more attractive than youth. No one ot 
the Athenians was more moderate or more sensible than Socrates. No one was 
more rapacious than Critias. Notliing is more graceful than a beautifixl flower. 

§51. B. Second Form of Comparison. 
Comparative, -t (o v, Neut. -T a v, or -co v, Neut. -o v. 
Superlative, -igz eg, -ictt], -lgt ov. 
Eem. 1. On the declension of the Comparative, see § 35, Eem. 4. 
This form of comparison includes, 

I. Some adjectives in -v g, which drop -vg and append -icov, etc. ; 

this usually applies only to '^ d to g, stveet, audi r a^vg, swift. T a 

y^v g has in the Comparative S^daacov (Att. d'arroov, § 8, 11), Neut. 

d^dcGov (&dTTOv). Thus : 

7j6-v^, Com. i^d-tcov, Neut. tjS-cov, Sup. f/d-iarog, -tj, -ov,- 

Tax-vc, " 'd-daaov, Att. i^arrwv, Neut. ■&dGaov, Att. 'd-arrov, Sup. raxicrrog. 

Eem. 2. The others in -vg, as 13 a-&vg, deep, (3 apvg, heavy, (3 paSvg, sloiv, 
^ paxv g, short, yTiV Kvg, sweet, daavg, thick, ev pv g, ivide, o ^vg, sharp, 
TT p e (T j3 V g, old, uKvg, swift, have the form in -vrepog, -vrarog, § 50, III. 

II. The following adjectives in -q o g, viz. aiaxQog, base, i X' 
>& q6 g, hostile, av d q 6g, honoraUe, and a Iht q 6 g, wretched (but 
always in the Comparative, oiHtQozEQog), the ending -Qog here also 
being dropped; e. g. ala^Qog, Com. aiax-tojf, Neut. aio'i-lov, Sup. 

XXIX. Vocabulary. 

'A7Ji.og, -ri, -o, alius, -a, ud, icaipog, -ov, 6, the right oUrpog, -a, -6v, pitiable, 

another, to, ahJka = time, an opportunit}'" ; miserable. 

Tokla, the rest, every- time (in general). bafii], -rig, ij, a smell. 

thing else. [imical. 2,ot7:6g, -tj, -6v, remaining o(pig, -eug, 6, -rj, a snake. 

ex'^pog, -d, -6v, hostile, in- /xeTa-(pepu, to remove, Trapexofcai, to afford, bring 
Cwov, -ov, TO, a living be- change. forth. 

ing, an animal. 

'O ^ad^vrarog virvog r/^tCTog kariv. Ilo/l/ld av&r] ijdiarriv ba[jirjv TvapsxsTai. 
Ov6ev ■&dTT6v hcri rrjg ?/f37]g. T^v alaxiCFrrjv dovXeiav^ ol aKpareig dovXevovacv. 
mdvTuv T/Scarov hariv tj (pt?ua. OvSev alaxibv eariv, ?j dXKa \ikv kv vC) tx^i^v, 
aXka Sz Myecv. 01 b<^eLg rolg Xonrolg ^uoig^ ex'&iciTol elccv. 'O ruv t^Xovgluv 
Scog TToHaKtg oUrporepog hoTLv, rj 6 rcov nev^ruv. TdxLora^ 6 Katpbg /neradyipet 
rd Trpdyp-ara. 

Nothing is more pleasant than a very deep sleep. Nothing is more disgrace- 
ful than slavery. The horses are very quick. There is nothing more inimical 
than bad ad\ace. The old man has for (dat.) the old man the most pleasant 

M 159, 2. ^ § 161, 5. (a). ^ Adverbially. 


speech, the boy for the boy. The poor have always a very miserable life. 
Nothing is more miserable than poverty. 

§52. Anomalous Forms of G 

1. aya-&6c, good, 

ufielvcjv, Neut. afzetvov 

Kpeiacuv, Att Kpetrruv 



Tjaaov, Att. ^/ttuv {inferiai ) 





iXaaaav, Att. eXarrov 


TrXeccov or Tr/lecjv 


XXX. Vocabulary* 

'AvayKaiog,-d,-ov,and.av- efKpvroc, -ov, implanted. 

ayKalog, -ov, necessary, hiore, sometimes. 

avayKrj, -rjg, tj, necessity, k7ri-&v/iia, -ag, tj, desire. 

compulsion. evrvxvc, -k, fortunate. 

avapxia, -ag, fj, want of ?/, or; 57 — 7?, either— or, 

government, anarchy. aut — aid. 

(3Mi3ij, -T^g, 7], injuiT. 'l!37]pca, -ag, rj, Spain. 

yecTuv, -ovog, 6, 57, a hx^o, to be strong or 

2. KQKog, bad, 

8. KaXog, beautiful, 

4. aXyeivog, painful, 

5. fiaKpog, long, 

6. (UKpog, small, 

7. bHyog,few, 

8. fisyag, great, 

9. Ttolvg, much, 

10. ^ddcog, easy, 

11. TreTtcov, ripe, 

12. 7ri(jv,fat; 

mp an son. 







fiaKpoTaroQ and fi^Kierot 









[laXaKog, -rj, -ov, soft 
7:67^ziiog, -ov, 6, war. 
o-/cw7rrw, to joke, jest [Eng. 

crepyo), to love, to be sat- 
isfied, contented with. 
avjj,f3ov?^og, -ov, 6, an ad 
neighbor. able, have power, avail. (Tco(ppoavv7j, -rjg, i], sound ■ 

yvuiiT], opinion, view. keTievo), to order, bid. mindedness, modesty, 

k7xv-&Epog, -a, -ov, and KolaKsta, -ag, 7, flatteiy. wisdom, chastity. 
elevd-epog, -ov, free- KpoKodsilog, -ov, 6, a croc- 
bom, free. odile. 

Rule of Syntax. 'S2g with the Superlative strengthens it, as 
quam in Lat. ; e. g. cog r arietta, quam celerrime, as quick as possible. 

Ovx o [laKporarog ^iog dpiGTog egtlv, oUm b anovdatoraTog. Mirpov IttI 
iruatv upiGTov. Tvu/Lcat ruv yepatTEpuv a/xEivovg ciaiv. J^vju(3ov?Log ovdEig egtc 
Pe1tlu)v xpovov. 'H Aeye Giyijg Kpetrrova, 7) GLyrjv exe. 'AeI KpariGTov egtc 
rb uG(pa?i.£GTaTov. HaCiTZTELg, w Xugte. 'Eg-&?,u)v Kaaiovg evlote EvrvxioTEpot 
eIglv. Ovk egtc ?t,v7rr}g x^ipov avd-pcjivo)^ kckov. KolaKEca ruv uXkidv d-TzavTuv 
KttKuv x^t-pt-<^~bv EGTcv. 'AvTjp [lalaKbg ttjv -tpvxvv^ kcrrt KaP xPVf^o,TC)v tjttuv.^ 

' § 161, 5. 2 The' Ace. means, in regard to, see § 159, 7. 

* is a slave to money. 

^ alsa 


Talg ■yvvai^lv'^ tj au^poavvrj KokXiajr] aperri kanv. Ovk eon KTrjjia KukAiov 
^i?iOV. H Sov?i,eta rw eTisv&epo) akyiori] kariv. 'H b^o^ iir,KLaT7i eariv. 'O 
KpoKodetXoQ k^ klaxiorov ycyveTac fxeyiGTog. 'H yTJ kXdrTuv karl rov ijTiiov. 
Hrepye Kol^ ra (ielu. 'OliytoroL av&puiroi evdai/iovic eiatv. OvSelg vofiog la- 
XVEL fxeZ^ov rrjq avayKTjg. MiKpa KepS?] 'koWukiq juei^ovag jSldfta^ (pepet. 'Avap- 
Xiag fxel^ov ovk kari kckov. 'O TTole^og izXeloTa kuku (^kpEi. 'EfKpvrog kavL 
Tolg dv&pG)7roig tj rov TrXeiovog k7Tf&vfii.a. Twrj ktr&'k^ TrXelara aya&a tg) oIkc) 
pepei. Ta dvayKola rov j3iov^ (pepe ug (jaara. To ke'Kevelv (yabv ken rov rrpdr 
TELv. 01 Kapizol TTETairaroi Elatv. 'Et- ro) rov irarpbg ktjttc) ol (SorpvEQ TZETzai 
TEpoi Eiatv, rj kv T(p rov ysirovog. 'I/3??pm rpk^Ei Tnbrara Trpb/3ara. 

There is nothing better than a very diligent life. The opinion of the old is 
the best. The best adviser is time. Nothing is better than that which is most 
safe (than the safest). The worst (persons) are often very fortunate. Sadness 
is the worst evil to man. Nothing is worse than flattery. The immoderate 
man is a slave to pleasures. In women nothing is better than modesty. To a 
free man nothing is more painful than slavery. The crocodile is very long. 
The son is smaller than the father. The good often have more property than 
the bad. The poor are often in greater honor than the rich. Avarice is a very 
great evil. Nothing brings more evils than war. To order is very easy. It is 
easier to bear poverty than sadness. Y/e taste the ripest fruits with great plea- 
sure."* The sheep of the father are fatter than those of the neighbor. 



§53. Nature, Division and Formation of the 


1. Adverbs are indeclinable words, denoting a relation of placcy 
time or manner ; e. g. i'Aeiy there, vvv, now, aaXoog, beautifully, in a 
beautiful manner. 

2. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by assuming the 

ending -(ag. This ending is annexed to the pure stem of the 

adjective ; and since the stem of adjectives of the third declension 

appears in the genitive, and adjectives in the Gen. PI. are accented 

like adverbs, the following rule may be given for the formation of 

adverbs from adjectives : viz. - co y the ending of the adjective in 

the Gen. PL, is changed info - cog; e. g, 

ij>i2,-og, lovely, Gen. PI. (pcX-uv Adv. (pik-ug 

Kok-bg, fair, " KuX-ibv Kok-Cyg 

KaipL-og, timdy, " KaipUuv Kuipc-ur 

* § 161, 5. ^ also. ^ § 158, 3. ■* Neuter plural of the superlative of ijSvc. 




TTuc,-, all, TavTog, 
ccj(pp(j)v, prudent, 
XapletQ, pleasant, 
raxvg, smjt, 
ueyag, great, 
a}^r)-&Tjg, true, 
Gvvfjd-TjC} accustomed, 

&iTl{6-og)ovc, simple, Gen. PL A7r?.{6-o)v)u)v Adv. &7rl(6-uc)u>^ 
evv{o-og)ovg, benevolent, " (evv6-o)v) evvuv {evvo-ug) eivu^ 

" TrUVT-0)V TTUVT-Cjg 

" au(pp6v-o)v cu(l>p6v-cjg 

" XapuvT-uv ;t;a/5ievr-cjf 

" raxE-cov raxi-cjg 

" /j.E-yuX-cjv p-EyaA-ug 

*' u7^ri'&[e-(j)v)uv uA7]'&{E-ur)C)g ^ 

" {avvTid^E-cov) avvTi'&uv {avvriTS^E-ug) avvf/TS^ug. 

Rem. 1. On the accentuation of compounds in -^i^wf and of the compound 
ahrapKug, comp. § 42, Rem. 4 ; also on the accentuation of eivug, instead of ev- 
vog, § 29, p. 29. 

Rem. 2. By appending the three endings --^ev, -■&l and -Se {-ce), to substan- 
tives, pronouns and adverbs, adverbs are formed to denote the three relations of 
place, whence {-■&£v), where (-'^t) and whithjer {-Se or -ge) ; e. g. ovpav6--&£v,froni 
Heaven, ovpav6--&t, in Heaven, ovpavov-de, into or to Heaven. 

Rem. 3. The ending -de is commonly appended to the Ace. of substantives 
only. To pronouns and primitive adverbs, -ae is appended instead of -de ; e. g. 
kKEl-OE, thither, aXko-ce, to another place. In plural substantives in -ag, -c6e be- 
comes -f£ ; e. g. 'A.-d7jvai^e, to Athens. 

3. Besides adverbs with the ending -mg, there are many which 
evidently have a case-inflection ; e. g. i^amW^g, suddenly, avroiv, 
there, etc. The Ace Sing, and PI. of adjectives is very frequently 
used adverbially ; e. g. fiiya nXaieiv, to weep much. 

§54. Comparison of Adverbs, 

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives, have commonly no indepen- 
dent adverbial ending for the different forms of comparison, but, in 
the Comparative, use the neuter singular, and in the Superlative, 
the neuter plural of the corresponding adjective ; e. g. 

co(pC)g from 






aatpcjg " 




XO-piEVTog " 




evdaLfiovag " 




aicxpibg " 




^dsug " 




TaxE(''ig " 




2. All primitive adverbs in -co, e. g. avoD, Kccrco, a^co, eaoj, etc., 
retain this ending regularly in the Comparative, and for the mos* 
part in the Superlative ; e. g. 

uvo), above 
Karcj, bdow. 

Com. dvuTEpu 

Sup. avurdro} 

In like manner, most other primitive adverbs have the ending -co in 
the Comparative and Superlative ; e. g. 



^yxov, near, 
irepa, beyond, 
knag, far, 
kyyvg, near, 


Com. &yxoTepcj 



[§ 55, 56. 

Sup. waDting 


iyyvTaro) and 



§ 55. JVa ture and Division of Pr onouns. 

Pronouns do not, like substantives, express the idea of an object, 
but only the relation of an object to the speaker, since they show 
whether the object is the speaker himself (the first person), or the 
person or thing addressed (the second person), or the person or 
thing spoken of (the third person) ; e, g. I (the teacher) give to-you 
(the scholar) it (the book). Pronouns are divided into five^^il^ci- 
pal classes, viz. personal, demonstrative, relative, indefinite and 
interrogative pronouns. 

§ 56. I. Per so 71 a I Pronouns. 

A. Substantive personal pronouns. 

(a) The simple iyco, ego, avj tu, 02), sui. 


^0), I 

av, thou 


//,0V (/zov), EfLov, ofjne 
lioi {/J.01), kfioL to me 
He {fie), kfie, me 

aov {aov), of thee 
aoi {(7oi), to thee 
ae (gs), thee 

ov {oi)), of himself, etc 
ol (ol), to himsdf, etc. 
& (k), himself, etc. 

Dual. 1 


vu), we both, us both 

(j(pcj, you both 


vu)v, of us both, to us 

c(i>C)v, of you both, 
to you both 

CTiputv (acpcj'iv), of them 
both, to them both 

Plural. 1 


Tjfiecg, we 

TJfXUV, of US 
■)][UV, to US 

VHc.g, us 

ijielg, ye {v) 
vfxcjv, of you {v) 
vjilv, to you {v) 
i'fxdg, you (v) 

<y<pEcc, Neut. c^sa, they 
G(l>C)v, of them 
c(!)iai{v) (afiac), to tJiem 
acpdg, Neut. c^ia (a^ea), them. 

Hem. 1. The forms susceptible of inclination are put in a parenthesis, with- 
out any mark of accentuation. Comp. § 14, (b). On the signification and tise 
of the third person of the pronoun, see ^ 169, Rem. 2. 

§ 57.J THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS ii^avzov, GeavTov, tavtov. 63 

XXXL Vocahdary. 

B^eTTW, to look at, see. dia-cpipo), w. gen., to be arcovdaiug, zealously, dili- 

yap, for. different from, differ gently. 

■ypaiiiia, -arog, to, that from. ovyxaipu, w. dot., to re- 

which is written, an al- dLa-cpd-eipu, to destroy, lay joice with. 

phabetical letter, pi. let- waste. x^^P^^T^^d gracefully. 

ters, literature. 

'Eyw fiev ypcctpu, (ri) Se irai^etg. Iiefiofxai ae, d \itya Zev. 'Q TraT, uKove^ 
uov. '0 Tzarrip fiot (piXrarog hariv. 'O "Q-eog aei ae j3?jTTet. 'El fie (SXcnrreig, 
oi'K EX^pciv^ dta^epeig. 'Eyw i^^uixevearepog eiju gov. 'HSecog Trei^ofiat aoL,* 
ij TTciTep. 'Hfielg v/j^ cruyxatpoftev:- 'H Ivpa vfidg ev(l>paLvec. 'O ^ebg jj/xlv 
T:o7J[,a aya'&a Trapex^c. 'O nar^p vfiug arepyei. • 'Avdpecug fiaxecr&e, u arpa- 
Tcurat • rjfiuv*' yap earc r^v 'rSliv (pvTiarreiv ' el yap vfzelg <pevyeTe, iraaa f] izo- 
Xcg 6La<p'&ELpeTai. 'HficJv^ harLV, u Traldeg, ra ypa/xfiara (jTTOvSaiug fxav&aveiv. 
'H iJiijTTip vd arepyei. "Nuv f]v Kanrj voaog. 2^w exere (piXov TnaroTarov. 
206JV 6 Tvarrip xo-pKerai • c^cj yap aTzovdacug ra ypafXfcara /uav&dvere. 

Rule of Syntax. The Nom. of personal pronouns is expressed, 
only when they are emphatic, particularly, therefore, in antitheses. 

Rem. 2. In the following examples, the italicized pronouns must be express 
ed in Greek. 

We write, but you play. We both are writing, but you both are playing. I 
reverence you, gods ! boy, hear us ! God sees you always. If you injure 
us, you do not differ from enemies. We are stronger than yoit. You rejoice 
with us. '\ I obey you cheerfully, parents. Our (the) father loves me and 
thee. I Oiir (the) mother loves us both.; It is my duty (it is of me) to guard the 
houj;e ; for I am the guardian of the house. / It is thy duty, boy, to learn dili- 
gently ; for thou art a pupil. The lyre affords (to) me and thee pleasure. Both 
of you had (to you both was) a very bad illness. Both of you have (to you 
both is) a very faithful friend. Our (the) father gratifies both of us (us both) 
cheerfully; for both of us study literature diligently. 

§ 57. (b) The reflexive pronouns i^avtov, aeavrov, iavzov. 

1. The reflexive pronouns of the first and second person decline 
separately, in the plural, both pronouns of which they are composed ; 
e. g. r^fjiav avzmv \ that of the third person is either simply iavtojv, 
avzcov, etc., or ogjcSv avzmv, etc. 

' § 158, 5. (b). 2 § 157. 3 ^ 161^ 2. (a), ((J). * § 158, 2 






e/xavTov, -rjg, of 

kfj,avTui, -fi, to 

efxavTOi', -Tjv, 


7jfj.C)v avTuv, of 

Tjfilv avrolg, -alg, 

to ourselves 
rjjuug avTovg, -ag, 



asavTOv, -ijg, or 

aavTov, -f/f, of tJiyself 

aeavTG), -y, or 

aavru, -y, to thyself 

aeavTov, -rjv, or 

oavTov, -f]v, thyself 

vficbv avTcJv, of your- 

vfilv avTolg, -alg, to 

vfiug avrovg, -ag, your- 

iavTov, -r/g, or [^"If- 

avToi), -rjg, ofldmsdj, of lier- 
tavrC), -77, or [to itself 

avToj, -y, to himself to herself 
kavTov, -T]v^ -6, or \itself 
avrov, -T/v, -6, M)nself hei'self 

tavTLdv or avTuv, or 
G^ibv'avTuv, of thetnselves 
eavTolg -atg, or avrolg -alg,or 
a<piaLv avrolg -alg,to tlieinsdves 
eavrovg, -ag, -d, or avrovg^ 

-ag, -a, or 
ai^ag avrovg, -ag, c^ea av- 

ra, themsdoes. 

§ 58. (c) The reciprocal pronoun. 
The reciprocal pronoun expresses a mutual action of several 
persons to each other. 

Plur. G. 

a7 Ji'T]7\,iov, of one aiKdher, 
aXkifkoig, -aig, -oig 
a7Jir]7iOvg, -ag, -a 

Dual. aAkipioiv, -atv, -otv 
aTiXrjXoLV, -aiv, -olv 

'A^-d-ovog, -ov, not grudg- 
ing, unenvious. 

3\a!5Ep6g,-a,-6v, injurious. 

KCKovpyog, -ov, injurious, 
wicked. [doer. 

KaKovpyog, -ov, 6, an evU- 

Kara, w. ace, according to. 

XXXII. Vocabulary. 

fiuXkov, ( = jiaklov com- 
parative of iia7M) more, 
rather, sooner. 

fiovov, adv., only, alone. 

Ovpavi6ac, -uv, ol, the in- 
habitants of Ouranos, 
the gods. 

ovaia, -ag, ij, being; pro 
perty, possession. 

TcepL-^epu), to carry about. 

Tr7.£oveKrijg, -ov, avari- 
cious, [rich. 

TrAovTifu, to emich, make 

uxpsXijiog, -ov, useful. 

'O piog TToA/ld 7iVTTT]pa kv kavru (avru)) (l)epec. TiyvuaKe oeavrov [aavrov). 
BotiAov apiaKEiv Truai,^ fir) travru fiovov. 'O aofog kv kavrcb TrepKpepEL rrjv ov- 
aiav. $f/iwv ETcaLvov ^aWov 7) aavrov Aeye. 'Apsr?) Ka-Q' kavrrjv sari Ka7.7]. 
01 TcT-EOVEKrai tavrovg jiev 7c7Mvri^ovaLV, u7i7,ovg 6e l37idTTrovatv\ Ovx ol ciKpa- 
TElg rolg fisv a7JMLg f3Xa(3Epoi, tavrolg [cipiaLV avrolg) 6e ucpEXifioi elaiv, uTiTii 
KaKovpyoi jMEV ruv a/L/lov, tavruv [a^uv avrcJv) 6s tvoXv KaKOvpyorEpoi. 'Huelg 
Tjjiclv^ avrolg i^dcara x^pi'^ofiE'd^a. 'K<pdovoi Ovpavidat Kal kv a7J\,rfkoLg eiaiv. 
01 KaKoi {iK7\,Tfkovg (37M7Trovcnv. 

The wise carry about theii' (the) possessions with them. The avaricious man 
makes himself rich, but he injures others. Ye please yourselves. The immode 
rate man is not injurious to others and useful to himself, but he is an evil-doer 
to others and much more injurious to himself. Good children love one anotJier. 

M161,2. (c). 


§ 59. B. Adjective personal pronouns, or possessive pronouns. 

Possessive pronouns are formed from the gepitive of substantive 
personal pronouns : 

e/^of, -?7, -6v, mens, -a, -itm, from Ifiov ; Tjfiirepor^ -read, -repov, noster, -tra, 
-trum, from r^fzcJv ; 

ffof, -7, -6v, iims, -a, -urn, from oov ; i/xirepog, -repu, -Tepov, vester, -tra, •trum, 
from vfcuv ; 

Of, rj, Gv, suits, from ov, instead of which, however, the Attic writers use the 
Gen. iavTov, -r,q, -uv, in the reflexive signification, and avrov, -i/g, -Cjv, 
in the signification of the personal pronoun of the thiid person ; e. g. tvi^tu 
rhv kavrov vlov or roi' vlov rbv iavrov, Tie strikes his own S07i, tviztel avrov 
70V vlov or rbv vlov avrov, he strikes his son, (i. e. the son of him, ejus). The 
position of the Greek article should be observed. 

XXXni. Vocabulary. 

Me^T7fio)v, -ov, negligent, f^erax^ipl^ofcat, to uphold, cuua, -arog, ro, the body, 
dilatoiy. lead. rsuvov, -ov, ro, a child. 

Rule op Syntax. The possessive pronouns are expressed in 
Greek, only when they are particularly emphatic, especially, there- 
fore, in antitheses. When not emphatic, they are omitted, and their 
place is supplied by the article, which stands before the substantive ; 
e. g. Tj firiTTjQ arsgyei Tt]v S^vyariqa, the mother loves her daughter. 
Instead of the adjective personal pronouns l^iog, aog, etc., the Greek 
uses, with the same signification, the Gen. of substantive personal 
pronouns, both the simple forms (in the singular the enclitics iiov, 
gov) and the reflexives (s(A,avzov). The position of the article may 
be learned from the following examples. 

'0 efibg TvarTip aya-&6g hanv or 6 Tvarrjp fiov or f/,ov 6 Tiarijp aya-&6g hcriv ; 
or 6 euavrov irarrjp or 6 rrarr/p 6 kjxavrov aya'&og kartv. 01 Vfiirepot iraldec 
aiTOvdaiag rd. ypafi/j,ara fiav&dvovcnv. , 01 Tzaldeg vtiuv Ka?iOL elcrtv. 'Tfiuv ol 
iraldeg cTtovdaloi elaiv. ^ Td ^|Uwv avruv reKva or ra rsKva ra Tjficov avrcJv ipe- 
yo/xev. 'O ceavrov (pi7i,og or 6 (pi?Mg 6 aeavrov iziarog hanv, 6 kfiavrov fD.og or 
b <j)LAog b kfiavrov amarog karcv. 'O abg vovg rb abv ccJ/LLa fieTaxetpl^sTat. 'O 
fiev efibg Tvalg ^TKOvdalbg ecrrtv, b de abg /j.e'&Tjfiuv. 

Thy father is good. My slave is bad. Our children learn diligently. IMany 
(persons) love the children of others, but not their own. He admires Us own 
actions, but not hose of the others. 




§60. n. Demonstrative Pronouns. 




self, or he, she, it. 







avTog avTT] avTo 





TovTOV ravTTjg . 


avTov avTrjg avTov 





TOvr(f) ravTrj 


avTO) avTy avTO) 






Plural. -^* 


aiiTov avTTjv avTO 





ovTOL avrai 


avToc avTat avTit 







avTov avTO)v avTov 





TOVTOig TavTacg 


avTocg avTatg avTOig 





TovTOvg TavTag 


avTovg avTug avTu 

N. A. 






avTO) avTa avTO) 





TovTOiv TavTacv 


avTOiv avTatv avTOcv. 

Like ovTog are declined TouovTog, ToaavT7], tociovto{v), tanfus, -a, -um, TOiovTog,\ 
TotavT}], Toi,ovTo{v), toIis, -6, T?]?uiwvTog, TTjXtKavTTj, t7]2,ikovtg{v), SO great, so 
old; it is to be noted, (a) that the Neuter Sing., besides the form in o, has 
also the common form in ov ; (b) that in all forais of ovTog, which begin 
with r, the r is dropped. 

Like avTog are declined EKelvog, knelvr], IkeIvo, he, she, it, aXXog, akJ^r], a7iXo, 
alius, alia, aliud. Th-e article 6, ?;, to is declined like 06 e, the oe being omit- 





ToaavTT] ToaovTo{v) 






ToaavTijg togovtov 






ToaavTrj togovto 






ToaavTrjv ToaovTo{v) 





N. A. ToaovTO) ToaavTa ToaovTO 

G. D. ToaovToiv TocavTaiv togovtolv. 

Remark. The pronoun av Tog, -tj, -6, signifies either self, ipse, ipsa, ipsinn, 
or is used for the oblique Cases of the personal pronoun of the third person, he, 
she, it ; is, ea, id. With the article, ■\az. 6 avTo g, ij avTrj, Td avTo, it sig- 
nifies the same {idem, eadem, idem). The article usually coalesces by Crasis (§ 6, 
2) mth avTog and forms one word, viz. avTog, instead of 6 avTog, avTrj, TavTo, 
usually TavTov, TavTov, TavTcp, TavTy, etc. 

§ 61. IIL Relative Pronoun. 





bg, qui V, quae 

0, quod 


al a 





ov rjg 








^ ^ 



alg olg 





5v 71V 


ag a 







§62. TV. Indefinite and Inter rogativ e Pronouns . 
The indefinite and interrogative pronouns have the same form^ 
but are distinguished b^^y^^ accent and position, the indefinite be- 
ing enclitic [§ 14, (c)l«|pcl placed^ter some word or words, whilst 
the interrogative is aoiented and pwHd before. 

Eem. 1. ^Yhen the interrogativJK»nouns stand in an indirect question, they 
place before their stem the relat^^^, which, however, (except in the case of 
oi^tlq) is not inflected : e. g. b'^rolog, buoco^, oKorepog, etc. 

Declension of ric , rig and bgr Lg . 











Dual. :N^ 


G. and D. \ 

TL^j some one 
TLvbq or roh 
Tivi or rw 
riva ' .v-^ 

Tiviq i 




N. Tt, some thing 

^.N. rl ^ ■ 

N. TLvci and arra 

N. TLva and arra 

Tcg ; quis 1 
rivog or tov 

TLVL or Tip 







bgTLg, ichoever ring 
ovrtvog or orov ^grivog 

(fiTLVL or orcj 

TjvTiva rt 


Dual. N. A uTCve, utlve, G. D. olvr 

airtveg uriva or arra 
(rarer orov) [rtai(v) 

(rarer oroiai) algri<Ji{v) olg- 

agrivag anva or arra 
tvoiv, alvrivoLv. 

Hesi. 2. The negative compounds of rig, viz. ovrig, cvri, firing, /irin, no one, 
rtothing, are inflected like the simple rig ; e. g. ovnvog, ovnveg, etc. 

BaaL7^Evg, -tog, i-, king. 
iKaarog, -7], -ov, each. 
kKelvog, -T], -0, that. 
evioc, -ai, -a, some. 
e^era^o), to examine. 

XXXrV. Vocahidary. 

V'fLepa, -ag, rj, a day. rrj^uKovrog, -avrrj, -ovro, 
olog, -a, -ov, qualis. so large, so old. 

baog, -T/, -ov, quantiis. roXog, -a, -ov, talis, 

bang, 7ing, o re, whoever, rbaog, -rj, -ov, tantus. 

whatever. rpb—og, -ov, 6, a way, or 

E'ncaro?i'^, -Tjg, ij, episiola, ^bSov, -ov, rb, a rose. manner, the mode ol 

a letter. crr/3ar;?76f,-oi;,6,a general. life, the character. 

'0 avrfp ovrog or ovrog b avrjp aya-^bg ianv. 'H yvofZT} avr?j or avrij tj yvu- 
jXTj SiKaia EGriv. 'K yvvi] ride or r/Se rj yvv?) KaXij kanv. 'O av^ip Enelvog or 
iKElvog b uvTip jSaaiTiEvg Ecriv. 'O (3aai?^Evg avrbg or avrbg 6 ^acii?.Evg arparr;- 
ybg kcrcv. ^eps, o Tral, avru rrjv /cAeh'. ''Evlol TVEpl ruv avrov rrjg avrrg 
ijpLEpag ov ravra ytyvocKOvaiv. To ?JyeLV koI rb izpdrrEiv ov ruvrbv kcriv. 
Tavra ra ^bba, a -QuXkEi ev ro ktitto, Koka kcnv. 2o06v ri XPVf^(^ b avd^poizbg ^ 
hanv. Ei 6i7uav rov {rtvbg) diOKELg, avrov rbv rpbirov e£era^E. Tig ypa(t>Et 
rrjv Euiaro/.T/v ; ''Qv^ £A'^'f» rovruv^ a7XoLg rzapexov. "OJ.^iog, 6j 'nalbeg oi/.o. 

' By attraction for u, see Syntax, § 182. 6. 

§ 158, 3. (b). 




Tl (ppovri^eig ; 

daiv. 'E/ceiVOf ol^LuraroQ, otu {(hrivt) fiv<5ev naicov hcrtv. 
Ov liycj, ri dpovriCo}. Olov rb ed^og EKaarov, rolog 6 piog. 
hariv kKeivrj rj yvvrj. 

These men are good. These opinions ai-e jus^|he children of these vfomm 
are beautiful. That rose is beautiful. The falll^mself is writing the letter. 
His (ejus) son is good. Her (.»i|fghter is bcilfcl. I admu-e the beauti- 
fill rose ; bring it to me. The children of Uic same parents often differ. 


rose which blooms in the garden is beaiJ[| Virtue is^mething beautiful. 


What are you thinking about? I am 
What is more beautiful than vu-tue ? 

linking what [fem.) friendship is. 

§ 63. Correlative Pronouns. 

Under correlative pronouns are included all those which express a mutual 
relation (coiTelation) to each other, and represent this relation by a coiTespond- 

inix foiTn. 

(a) Adjective Correlatives. 


TTOCOf, -Tj, -OV ; 

hmofjreat? Jioio 
much ? quan- 

nolog, -d, -ov ; 
of ichat kind ? 
quails 1 

T7}/uKoc, -7], -ov; 
hoio great? Jimv 


TTOCTOg, -?;, -GV, 

of a certain size, 
or number, ali- 

TTOiog, -a, -OV, 



Toaoc, -7], -ov, so greaf^so 
viiich, tantus 
ToaogSs, roaf/Se, roaovSe 
roaovrog, -avrrj, -ovto{v) 

Tolog, -a, -ov, of such a 

kind, talis 
roLogde, rotuSe, roLovde, 
TOtovTog, -avrri, -ovto[v) 

r7}?uKog, -ov, so great, so old 
TTjliKogSe, -i]6e, -6v6e 

Relat. and De- 
pend. Interrog. 

o(7og, -7], -ov and 

OTTOGOg, -7], rov, 

as great,as much, 

olog, -a, -ov and 
OTColog, -a, -ov, 

of tvhat kind, 


i]7iiKog,-ri,-ov and 

b~7i7uKog, -Tj, -ov, 

as great, as old 

(b) Adverbial Correlatives. 







TTov ; wheie ? 

TTOV, somewhei-e, 

wanting (hie, ov, wJiere, 




ibi) nbi 


7[6-&£v; whence? 

7iOT9-£v,from some 

wanting (liinc, b-d-ev, whence. 


unde 1 

place, alicunde 

i^de) unde 

Tzol ; whitJier ? 

rrni, to some place. 

wanting (eo) ol, whither. 

OTTOt, ivhi- 

quo ? 



thei', quo 

rrnre ; ichen ? 

TTO-f, some time. 

TOTE, then, turn 

ore, ivlien, 


quand© 1 




Ttj/vLna ; quo 


rrivi- ' hoc 

7]VLKa, ivhen, 


temporis pun- 

Ko^e I ipso 

quo ipso 

when, quo 

cto ? quotk ho- 

TTjVi- ' tem- 


ipso tem- 


Kcvra J pore 


TTtJg ; how ? 

Tcug, some hoio 

ovTcj{c) (l)Se,so 

cjg, hoio 

OTvug, hoiv 

TTTJ ; tchither? 

777, to some place, 

T7]Se ( hither 
ravrri \ or here 

7j, where, 

Stttj, where, 

how ? 

thither, in some way 




Eemark. The forms which arc wanting in the Common language to denote 
here, there {hie, ihi), are expressed by ivrav-&a, and those to denote Itence (hinc, 
inde), by tv&ivdt, tvrev'&cv. 

§64. Lengthening of the Pronouns . 

1. The enclitic ye is join^^^K^pcrsonal pronouns of tlie first and second 
person, in order to make thfe^^^^^tmphatic. The pronoun hyu then draws 
back its accent in the Nom. am^^B^ e,. g. eyuje, 1/j.ovye, e /lo ly e, kjieye ; 
-avye. Moreover ye can be join^^dth any other word, and also with any other 
pronoun, but does not fonn on^^ord with it ; e. g. ovto^- ye. 

2. The particles 6 f/, most commoT^f^T/TT ore, said o v v, are appended to rela- 
tives compounded of inten'ogativesiOT indefinites, as well as to ocrof, in order to 
make the relative relation general^'i. e. to extend it to everji;hing embraced in 
the object denoted by the pronoun- ; e. g. ogrL^dr], ogrigd'^TroTE, ogrigovv, T^rigovv, 
oTiovv, quicimque (Gen. ovrcvogom^i^ otovovv, rjgnvogovv, Dat, (Irrivcovv or 
GTOiovv, etc.) : — drroaogdTj, btrooo^ovv, oaogd^jTrore, quantuscunque j- — bTrrj^uKogovv, 
however great, lixnv old soever: 

3. The sufiix (3 e is appended to some demonstratives for the purpose of 
btrengthening their demonstrative relation ; e. g. ode, 7j6e, rode ; roiogde ; ro- 
(Togds ; TT]7uK6c6e, from rolog, roaog, Tr]?uKog, which change their accent after 
<) e is appended 

4. The enclitic -rrep is appended to all relatives, in order to make the rela- 
tive relation still more emphatic ; hence it denotes, even icho, loMch ; e. g. orTrep, 
jjTtep, uTzep (Gen. oinrep, etc.): uaocTrep, ologrrep (Gen. oaovTzep, oiovTvep, etc.); 
o^iTzep, o-d-evirep. 

5. The inseparable demonstrative t, is appended to demonstrative pronouns 
and some demonstrative adverbs, always giving them a stronger demonstrative 
sense. It takes the acute accent and absorbs every short vowel immediately 
preceding it, and also shortens the long vowels and diphthongs : 

ovToat, this here (hicce, celui-ci), avrf/t, tovtc, 

Gen. TovTovi, ravTrjat, Dat. rovrilJ!, ravryt, PI. ovrolt, avTolt, ravrt ; 
odt, 7/6t, To6t from oSe ; udt from dice ; ovruat from ovrog ; 
evTev&evt from evrevS-ev ; kvd-adi from ev&afh ; vvvt from vvv ; Sevpi from 


§ 65. iVa ture and Division of the Nu merals. 
The numerals express the relation of number and quantity. 
They are divided into the following classes, according to their sig- 
nification : 


(a) Cardhitds, wMch answer the question, ''Hotv manyf The fii'st four nu- 
merals and the round numbers from 200 (diaKoatoi) to 10,000 (fLvpioi), &s well 
as the compounds oi fivpioi, are declined; all the others are indeclinable. The 
tliousands are expressed by adverbial numerals ; e. g. Tptgx'^?uou 3000. 

(b) Ordinals, which answer the question, " Jlliich one in the series ?" They all 
have the three endings of adjectives -og, -t;, g|^xcept devrepog, which has -of , 

(c) MiiUipUcatives, which answer the q^^^K'xToi^ ma77y foldf They are 
all compounded of 7rAoi}f, and are adjecMpof three endings, -ovg, -^, -ovv. 
For the declension of these, see § 29. Numeral adjectives in -a/cif, answer the 
question, ''•IIow many times ?" ^ I 

(d) Prop(xHionals, which answer the question, ^'■How many times moref^ They ^ 
are all compounds of -TvT^acLog, -ca, -lov ; e. g. 6L7:7MGiog, two-fold, double. 

(e) Substantive-numerals, which express the absti-act idea of the number; e. g. 
7j dvcig, -aSog, duality. 

§ QQ. Numeral Signs. 

1. The numeral signs are the twenty-four letters of the Greek alphabet, to 
which thi-ee obsolete letters are added, viz. after e, Bai) or the digamma F or 
2r?, «■, as the sign for 6 ;— Kottttq;, 5, as the sign for 90; — l,afnrl,^7f^, as the 
sign for 900. 

2. The fii'st eight letters, i. e. from a to ■& vrith the Bav or 2r?, denote the , 
units ; the following eight, i. e. from c to tt with the Kottttc;, the tens ; the last 
eight, i. e. from p to cj with the laf.Lnl, the hundreds. 

3. Up to 999, the letters, as numeral signs, are distinguished by a majrk 
placed over them, and when two or more letters stand together, as numeral signs, 
only tlie last has this mark. With 1000, the alphabet begins again, but the let- 
ters are distinguished by a mark placed undei- them, thus, a'= 1, ^a = 1000, i'=3 
10, / = 10,000, ,e7p/i(S"= 5742, aofij3'= 1842, p'= 100, ^p = 100,000. 

§ 67. Summary of the Cardinals and Ordinals. 
Cardinals. Ordinals. 

1 a' elc, u'la, ev, one irpurog, -rj, -ov, primus, -a, -um 

2 j9' Svo or dvG), tvx> devrepog, -a, -ov, secuadus, -a, -um 

3 Y rpelg, rpca, three rpirog, -rj, -ov, tertius, -a, -um 

4 6' rirrapeg, -a, or reaaape^ reraprog, -rj, -ov 

5 e' •Kevre 7te[n:rog, -rj, -ov 

6 g' S^ ixrog, -77, -ov 

7 C iTrra ^fSSofiog, -77, -ov 

8 v' oKrCi bydoog, -rj, -ov 

9 19-' kvvea J^varog, -7], -ov 

10 i' 6eK.a 6eKaTog, -57, -ov 

11 La' ivdsKa ivdeKarog, -rj, -ov 

12 L^' duSsKa ScjdeKarog, -?], -ov 

13 lY TpigKaideKa rpigKaiSeKarog, -77, -ev 

14 t6' rerrapegKacdcKa or reaaapegKaideKa TerrapaKaideKarog, -rj^ -ov 




15 le 

16 iff' 

17 lc: 

18 iv' 





19 f&' EvvEaKaideKa 

20 k' eiKO<TL{v) 

21 «a' eIkoglv, eIc^ ftia, ivm 
30 /I' TptuKovra 

40 u' TETTapuKovra or reaaapaKovra 

50 v' 7rEVTi]K0VTa 

60 I' k^fjKOvra 

70 o' ipdo/XTjKOVTa 

80 tt' bydo7]KOvra 

90 5' EvevTjKOvra 

100 p' EKarov 

200 c/ didKoGiOL, -at, -a 

300 r' rpLUKoaLoi, -ai, -a 

400 T^' TETpaKOGLOL, -UL, -a 

500 ^' TCEvraKOGCOi, -at, -a 

600 ;^' e^uKOGLOL, -at, -a 

700 '^' eTzraKOGtot, -at, -a 

800 cj' oKTaKOGtot, -at, -a 

900 <7r>' EvvatiOGLOt, -at, -a 

1000 ^a ;^i/ltoi, -ai, -c 

2000 ^/? Ji£-;{;i/iiOi, -cf, -a 

3000 ^7 rpif^Y^AWi, -ai, -a 

4000 ,(5 TETpaKL^x't^'-ot, -at, -a 

5000 ^£ 7revT-a/£if;t;i/liOi, -ai, -a 

6000 ^^ i^aKigxL^^ot, -at, -a 

7000 ^f EnTaKtgx'i'^i'Ot, -at, -a 

8000 ^77 oKTaKtcx't^^i-ot; -at, -a 

9000 ,1? £vva/£if;\;i?i,ioi, -ai, -a 

10,000 ^i fj-vptoi, -at, -a 

20,000 ,ic 6tg/uivptot, -at, -a 

100,000 ^p dsKaKtgfxi'ptot, -at -a, 

TCEVTEKatdEKaror, -rj, -(^v 
iKKatdiicarog, -77, -ov 
iTZTaKatdEKarog, -rj, -ov 
OKTUKatSiKaTog, -ij, -ov 
ivvEaKacdEKaTog, -rj, -ov 
elKoarog, -rj, -ov 

EtKOGrhg, -7], -dv, Trpurof, -ij, -o» 
TptdKocTog, -7], -ov 
TETvapaKOGTog, -^, -ov 


i^rjKOGTog, -rj, -ov 
i(3dofirjKOGTC'g, -7], -ov 
bySorjKOGTog, -t], -6v 

kVEVTjKOGTOg, -7), -OV 

iKaroGTog, -tj, -ov 
StdKOGtoGTog, -7], -ov 
rptdKOGtocTog, -ij, -ov 
TsrpaKOGtOGTog, -t], -ov 
'KEvraKOGtoGTog, -7}, -ov 
E^aKOGtoGTog, -7], -ov 

bKTaKOGLOGTOg, -71, -OV 
kvvaKOGtOGTog, -7], -OV 
XtTitOGTOg, -7}, -OV 

dtgxi^LOGTog, -t], -ov 
rptgxt^uoGTog, -tj, -ov 
TETpaKtgxi'^'^toGrbg, -tj, -ov 
TrEvraKtgxtXtOGTog, -tj, -ov 
i^aKtgxt/itoGTog, -tj, -ov 
kTTTaKtgxt^uoGTog, -7], -bv 
oKraKigxtXtOGTog, -tj, -bv 
kvvaKtgx'-'^^'-OGTbg, -f], -bv 
ftvpioGvbg, -71, -bv 
dtgiivptoGrbg, -ij, -bv 
^EKaKLgfivpLOGTog, -i], -bv. 

Remark. In compound numerals, the smaller number -vritli Kai is usually 
placed before the lai-ger, often also the larger -without Kai is p:aced first, some* 
times with /cat ; e. g. 


:^o : TTEvre Kat EtKOGt, or elkocl tevte, 
345 . TCEVTE Kai TETTapaKovra Kat TptanbGtot, or rpiaK. tet 
The same holds of the ordinals ; e. g. 






§ 68. Declension of the first four Numerals. 



liia ev 

Svo and dva 



fj.(.ug £v6g 

Svolv, Attic also dvelv 



fZLa evi 

Svolv, more rarely dvaL{v) 



fuav ev 




Neut. Tpia 

rerrapeg or reaaapeg Neut. reTrapa 









Neut. rpta 

rerrapar Neut. rerrapa. 

Rem. 1. The Gen. and Dat. of iiia, viz. iiLug, /uid, have the accentuation of 
monosyllabic substantives of the third declension. See § 33, HI. (b). Like elg 
are also declined ovveig and /^.T/Seig, no one, which have the same irregular ac- 
centuation, tluTS : 

ovdeig, ovSe/nia, ovSev, Gen. ovSevog, ovde/uag, Dat. ovdsvt, ovde/ita, etc., but 
in PI. oi'deveg iinjSeveg) -evov, -e(n, -evag. 

Rem. 2. Avo is often.used indeclinably for all the Cases. The numeral ufKjxo, 
both, like dvo, has -oiv in the Gen. and Dat. {afi^olv) ; the Ace. is like the Nom. 
Like 6vo, it is also sometimes used indechnably. 

XXXV. Vocahulary. 

'AfKpc, about. 

uva-jSaaLg, -eug, 17, a go- scythes. 

ing up, an expedition hnavror, -ov, 6, a year. 

{fi-om the sea inland), evpog, -eog = -ovg, ro 

apf&/j.6g, -ov, 6, number, 

extent, length. 
upfia, -arog, ro, a cliariot. 
duvverog, -ov, senseless, 

3upl3apog,-ov, 6, barbarian, 

bearing, furnished "with iz/J/d-or, -eog = -ovg, to, 

a multitude, extent. 
TTOvg, Tcodog, 6, a foot, 

pes, pedis. 

arad-jiog, -ov, 6, a station, a 

day's journey, a march. 

iiig down (from inland arpdrevfia, -arog, to, an 

to the sea), retreat. army, an armament. 

6-/ur7]g, -ov, 6, a heav^'- nvyypddco, conscribo, to en • 



^^f5 "'i, a go- 

list, to describe. 

aviiTTug, -Oaa, -civ, all to- 
gether, in a body, whole. 

(yvvcTog, -7], -ov, sensible, 

armed man. 
(every one not a Greek). 'TTupeiai, to be present. 
3rifia, -aroc,, ro, a, step, a ■7r«"/ircar7/(:,-o£',6, a shielus- 

pace. man. 

SpeiTai'Tjcpopog, -ov, scythe- , 

Eu^paTT/f TToraf^og kan to evpog rerrapuv araotuv. To de crddiov exei "^ev- 
~E Kal eluodL ical EKarbv (jrjfiara 7} Ttivre koI elKoat kgI itaKoakvg TzoSag. Ki'po) 
napyaav at e/c Ile?i.OTcovv'^crov vJjeg TpLuKovra tvevte. Tov llupcj Ki?UKcag rcora- 
uov TO evpog ^/]V rpta Tr/.e'&pa. To 6e -nAed-pov exei rerrapag Kat eKarbv TTodag. 
Ki'dvog KL?.iKiag izorauog evpog egti 6vo {(heZv) TiT^t&puv. Tov MatdvSpov 
^pvyiag Trorafiov rd evpog kariv eIkogl nevre ttoScjv. 'O Trapaadyyrjg, TlepaiKov 
uirpov, exet rptaKOVTa drdSia ?j Trevr^Kovra Kal iTrraKomovg Kal oKraKigxt^^iOvg 
Kal uvptovg Trodag. 'Aptd-fidg cvfXTrdarjg rfjg oSov rrig uvajSdaecog Kal Karafidceug, 
7] inrb 'S.evo<bC)VTog avY)'pd(peTat, crad-fiol dtaKoaiOL 6eKa izevre, Tvapaadyyat. x^' 
Moi eKarbv TtevrrjKOVTa nevre, arddia TpLgfxvpLa rerpaKigxtMa i^aKoaia Tzevrri- 
Kovra. xpovov T:%7}'d^og T?jg dvajSdaeug Kal Karafidaeug hcavrbg Kal' rpelg [irjVEQ. 

§§ 69—71.] 



'Evdc (^ikia tJvvETov Kpeirruv knriv aavvercjv AiravTuv. Tov Kvpov arparev- 
uarog tjv aptT&fidg riJv fxev 'EXXr^vov dwXlTai /j.vptoi kqI terpaKocioi irEXraarat 
Jf dff^iAioi Kol TTevraKoatot, rcJv 6e fiera Kvpov Pap/Supuv dcKa fivpcudec no-i 
apfiara SpeTrav7](p6pa ufi^l to, elkoglv. 

It is better to have one sensible friend, than all senseless ones. Seventy 
years afford about 25,555 days. The extent (number) of the way from the ba^ 
tie at {h) Babylon to {ek) Cotyora on the retreat [gen.) which is described by 
Xenophon, amounts to (is) 122 days' journeys, 620 parasangs, 18,600 stadia; 
the length (multitude) of the time eight months. The number of the armament 
b 12,639,850. The generals of the armament are four, each of 300,000 (gen.). 
In the battle were present 96,650 soldiers and 150 scythe-bearing chariots. 

§ 69. Numeral Adverbs. 

1 uira^, once 


2 (5(f , twice 

19 EvveaKatdEKCiKig 

3 Tpig 

20 elKOGuKtg 

4 TtrpaKvg 

30 rpiaKovToKLg 

5 TvevTaKig 

40 TETTapaKovTuKig or reccap. 

6 i§uKig 

50 TrevTTjKOVTuKcg 

7 iirraKig 



70 ij36o[j,7jKovTaKig 

9 kvveaKC^, kvvaKic 

80 bjdorjicovTaKcg 

10 SeKaKig 

90 evevrjKovruKi'g 

11 EvSeKaKig 

100 EKarovraKcg 

12 dudeKo-Kig 

200 SiaKOffiuKig 

13 TpigKOideKOKog 

300 ^ptaKouiaKig 

14 TEtTapegKaiieKaKig or reaaap 

1000 ;^tPad/cif 

15 TrevTEKatSeKaKcg 

2000 d-igxiXiuKig 

16 iKKaideKuKtg 

10,000 fivpiuKig 

17 knTaKaideKUKig 

20,000 Sig/xvpidKlc 



% 70. Nature of the Verb. 
The verb expresses something which is alBrmed of a subject ; e. g. 
the father writes, the rose bIoo?ns, the boy sleeps, God is loved. 

§71. Classes of Verbs. 
Verbs are divided, in relation to their meaning and form, into the 
following classes : 



1. Active verbs, i. e. such as express an action, that the subject 
itself performs or manifests ; e. g. yQaipo, I write, d-dlXfo, I hloom; 

2. Middle or Reflexive verbs, i. e. such as express an action, 
that proceeds from the subject and again returns to it, i. e. an ac- 
tion which the subject performs on itself ; e. g. §ovXevofiaij I ad- 
vise myself, I deliberate ; 

3. Passive verbs, i. e. such as express an action that the subject 
receives from another subject; e. g. rvTzzo^ai vno rivog, lam smiU 
ten by some one. 

§72. The Tenses. 

1. The Greek language has the following Tenses : 
L (1) Present, ^ovXevco, I advise, 

(2) Perfect, ^e^ovlevy.a, I have advised; 
11. (3) Imperfect, i^ovXevov, Twos advising, 

(4) Pluperfect, i^e^ovXevxsiv, I had advised, 

(5) Aorist, i^ovXevGa, I advised, (indefinite) ; 
ni. (6) Future, ^ovXev6co, I shall or mil advise, 

(7) Future Perfect (only in the Middle form), ^s^ovXevaofiai, 
I shall have advised myself, or / shall have been ddvised.- 

2. All the Tenses may be divided into, 

a. Principal tenses, viz. Present, Perfect and Future ; 

b. Historical tenses, viz. Imperfect, Pluperfect and Aorist. 

Eeuark. The Greek language has two forms for the Perf and Pluperf. Act., 
two for the simple Tut. Pass., and two each for the Act., Pass, and Mid. Aor. ; 
these two forms may be distinguished as Primary and Secondary tenses. 
Still, few verbs have both foi-ms ; most verbs construct the above tenses with 
one or the other form. No verb has all tlie tenses. Pure verbs form, with very 
few exceptions, only the primary tenses. Mute and liquid verbs may form both 
the primary and secondary tenses. The Put. Perf , which is found in but fow 
verbs, is almost entirely wanting in liquid verbs. 

§73. The Modes. 

The Greek has the following Modes : 

I. The Indicative, which expresses what is actual or real ; e. g. 
the rose blooms, bloomed, will bloom. 

n. The Subjunctive, which denotes merely a representation or 
conception of the mind. The Subjunctive of the historical tenses, 
is called the Optative ; comp. vQacpoifit, with scriberem. 

Eemakk. How the Aor. can have both forms of the Subjunctive (i e. Subj. 
and Opt), and the Future an Optative, will be seen in the Syntax (§ 152J. 

§§ 74 77.] VERBS. — PARTICIPIALS, ETC. 75 

III. The Imperative, which denotes a direct expression of one's 
will ; e. g ^ovXeve, advise. 

§ 74. Participials . — Infi nitiv e and Participle. 

In addition to the modes, the verb has two forms, which, from 
their partaking both of the nature of the verb, and also of that of 
the substantive and adjective, are called Participials, namely, 

(a) The Infinitive, which is the substantive-participial ; e. g. 
id^iXca ^ovXeveiv, I wish to advise, and r 6 § ovXev ctv, the 

(b) The Participle, which is the adjective-participial ; e. g. ^ o v- 
Xe,v (ov avriQ, an advising man, \. e. a counsellor. 

Remark. These two participials may be called verbum infinitum; the re- 
maining forms of the verb, ve^rhum Jinitum. 

§75. Numbers and Persons of the Verb. 
The personal-endings of the verb show whether the subject of 
the vei±^e l!he speaker himself {I, first person) ; or a person or 
thing a^Rssed {thou, second person) ; or a person or thing spoken 
of (he, she, it, third person). They also show the relation of num- 
ber, viz. Singular, Dual and Plural ; e. g. ^ovXevco, I, the speaker, 
advise ; ^ovXevsig, thou, the person addressed, advisest ; ^ovXevei, he, 
she, it, the person or thing spoken of, advises ; ^ovIev&zov, ye two, 
the persons addressed, advise ; ^ovXevovGi, they, the persons spoken 
of, advise. 

Remark. There is no separate form for the first Pers. Dual in the active 
voice^nd in the Pass. Aorists ; hence it is expressed by the form of the first Pers. 

<^(^ §76. The Conjugation of the Verb. 

The Greek has two forms for conjugation, that in -co, which in- 
cludes much the larger number of verbs, e. g. ^ovXev-o), to advise^ 
and the older conjugation in -jUt, e. g. lazrj-iii, to station. 

§77. Stem, Augment and Reduplication. — Verb- 
char act eristic . 
1. Every verb is divided into the stem, which contains the ground- 
form of the verb, and into the syllable of formation, by which the 
relations of the action expressed by the verb, are denoted. See 
§§ 71 — 75. The stem is found in most verbs in -co by cutting off 
the ending of the first Pers. Ind. Pres. ; e. g. §ovXev-(o, Xty-co, tqi^-oj. 


2. The syllables of formation are either annexed as endings to 
the stem, and are then called inflection-endings, e. g. §ovXev-(o, §ov 
lev-<jco, §ovX&u-aoixai; or are prefixed to the stem, and are then 
called Augment and Eeduplication, e. g. s-^ovXevov, I was advis- 
ing, ^s-^ovXevxa, I have advised. 

3. The Augment, which belongs to the Indicative of all the his- 
torical tenses, i. e. the Imperfect, the Aorist and the Pluperfect, is 
£ prefixed to the stem of verbs which begin with a consonant ; e. g. 
i-^ovXsvaa, I advised; but in verbs, which begin with a vowel, it 
consists in lengthening the first stem-vowel, a and e being changed 
into 7] (and in some cases e into ei), l and v into l and v, and o into co. 

4. Eeduplication, which belongs to the Perfect, Pluperfect and 
Future Perfect, consists in repeating the first stem-consonant to- 
gether with £, in those verbs whose stem begins with a consonant ; 
but in verbs whose stem begins with a vowel, it is the same as the 
Augment ; e. g. ^E-^ovXEVxa, I have advised, 'r/JiEvxa, I have sup- 
plicated, from 'i%eiei)-o:>. For a more full definition of the Aug- 
ment and Eeduplication, see § 85. * ^^ 

5. The last letter of the stem, after the ending -oj iRift off, is 
called the verh-characteristic, or merely thg characteristic, because 
according to this, verbs in -co are divided into different classes ; ac- 
cording, as the characteristic is a vowel, or a mute, or a liquid, verbs^ 
are divided into pure, mute and liquid verhs ; e. g. ^ovXev-co, to ad- 
vise, ri^d-co, to honor, rof^-co, to rub, q^afv-co, to show. 

§78. In f lection-ending s . ^ 

In the inflection-endings, so far as they denote the relation ot 
tense, mode and person, there are three different elements, namely, 
the tense-characteristic, the mode-vowel^, and the personal-ending; 
e. g. ^ovXEv-a-o-^iai. According to the three classes of verbs, they 
are divided into the Active, Middle and Pas*ve endings. 

§79. (a) Tense-characteristic a 71 d Te7ise- endings. 
1. The tense-characteristic is that consonant which stands next 
after the stem of the verb, and is the characteristic mark of the 
tense. In pure verbs, y. is the tejiee-characteristic of the Peif. and 
Plup. Ind. Act. ; e. g. 

jSc-jjov/.ev-ic-a l-;3e-jJov/[.ev-K-£iv ; 

that of the Fut. and first Aor. Act. and Mid. and the Fut. Perf. is 
a; e.g. 


(3ovXev-a-(j j3ovAev-(j-o/uat fje-(3ovXev-<T-ofiaL 

l-l3ov?.ev-G-a e-fiovXev-cr-uurjv ; 

that of the first Aor. Pass, is x)^ ; in addition to the tense-character 
istic a, the first Fut. Pass, has the ending -&ij of the first Aor. 
Pass , thus, 

l-j3ov?iev-'d--7]v [3ov?.£V--&T/( 

The primary tenses only, see § 72, Rem., have a tense-character- 

2. The tense-characteristic, together with the ending following, 
is called the tense-ending. Thus, e. g. in the form ^ovIevcco, a is 
the tense-characteristic of the Fut, and the syllable croo, the tense- 
ending of the Future. The stem of the verb, together with the 
.tense-characteristic and the augment or reduplication, is called the 
tense-stem. Thus, e. g. in i^ov).ev<j-a, i^ovlevo is the tense-stem of 
the first Aor. Active. 

§ 79 (b) Personal-endings and 3Io de-vowels. 

The4)ersonal-ending takes a different form according to the dif- 
ferent persons and numbers ; and the mode-vowel takes a different 
form according to the different modes ; e. g. 

• • 1 Pers. Sing. Ind. Pres. M. iSovTiev-o-juat Subj. ^ovlev-oy-fiai 
^ 3 " '■ '" Put. " f3ov?i.ev-a-e-Tat Opt. (SovXev-g-ol-to 

1 " PI. " Pres. " fSov/.Ev-o-fiET&a Subj. (Sovlev-u-iie^a 

2 " " " " " f30V?.£V-£-G-&£ " (30VA£V-7i-O-&£ 

1 " Sing. " A. I. " El3ov?^£v-a-u-fj,7]v '' (^ov'AEv-a-u-fiai 

3 " " " " " efjovXEv-a-a-TO Opt. ^ovXev-cj-at-ro. 

Remark. In the above forms, (3ov?.£v is the yerb-stem, and i3ov?i.Ev, l3ov7.eva 
^nd Plf^.evcr are the tense-stems, namely, of the Pres., Put. and fii-st Aor. Mid. ; 
the endings -^at, -rai, etc., are the personal-endings, and the vov.-els o, u, e, oi, 
7], a, at, are the mode-vowels. 

§ 80. Remarks on the Per s onal-ending s and Mode- 

V 10 el s . 

1. The personal-endings are appended directly to the mode-vowel, 
and are often so closely united with it, that the two do not appear 
as separate parts, but are united in one ; e. g. ^ovXsva-rig, instead of 
^ovXsvG-?]-tg, §ovlav-ri, instead of ^ovXsv-s-ai, — the £ and a coalescing 
and forming j], and /- being subscribed. 

2. The difference between the principal and historical tenses is 
here important. The principal tenses, viz. Pres., Perf. and Fut., 
form the second and third person Dual with the same ending, -o v ; 
e. g. ^ov).ev-s-Tov ^ovXev-e-Toyf (iovXev-s-ad-ov ^ovXsv-e-a&ov ; but 



the historical tenses form the second person Dual with the ending -o v, 
the third with the ending -7/ r ; e. g. 

kQovXei'-e-T v ei3ov?.ev-e-T 7] v, e,8ov7iev-e-G ■& v ej3ov2,ev-e-a d^Tjv. 

3. The principal tenses form the third person plural active with 
the ending -a i (v) [arising from -v r i, -v <y i], the third person plu 
ral middle with -vz ai, the historical active with -v, aad the mid 
die with - V z ; e. g. ' 

j3ov/.£v-o-v(jt = i3ov?.EV-ov(jc{v) £j3ovAev-o-v 

fS0V?i,6V-0-VTaC £-fS0V?^ev-0-VT0. 

4 The principal tenses in the singular middle end in -/*««, -aai, 
zai ; the historical, in -/xiyr, -go, -to ; e. g. 

l3ov?iEv-o-/x a t el3ov?i£v-6- fi ^ 

j3ov?^ev-E-(j a l = jSov/.ev-ri ejSov/.ev-E-a = ef^ovXev-ov 

j3ov?.£v-e-T a i kj3ov?iev-E-T 0. 

o. The personal endings of the subjunctive of the principal tenses, 
are the same as those of the indicative of the same tenses ; and the 
endings of the optative are the same as those of the indicative of 
the historical tenses ; e. g. ' ^ 

2 and 3 Du. 

Ind. Pr. 


Subj. f3ov2,EV7]-r v 

f3ov?iEve-(J ■&0V 



3 PI. 



I30V?.£V0V-(J i {v) 


(3ov?i£va)-a c (v) ^ { 

(3ov2,Evo-v T a t 


(3ov7\,Evcj-v rat . 

1 S. 



l3ov?.Evo-/ii a c 


f3ov?i£V(o-iu. a c 

2 " 






3 " 



(SovTlEVE-T a t 


(3ov?i,EV7]->T a t 

2 and 3 Du. 



'. klSovTiEve-T V, - 

■e-r 7) V Opt. (3ov?i£voc-T v, -ol-t tj v 

£j3ovXEve-a d-ov, 

,-i-a'&7]v " 

(3ov'k£voL-a -^ov, -ot-a "d-ijv 

3 PI. 





f30V?iEV0L-£ V • 



i30V?^£V0t-V T ^ ^ 

1 S. 



Ej3oV?.£v6-/H 7] V 


f3ov2,EVOC-fJ, 7] V 

2 « 



{ki30V?i£V£-(J 0) £[3oV?i£V-0 V " 

[(3ov7i£voi.-c b) l3ov2,Evoi-o 

3 " 





(3ov7i,EVOi-T 0. 

Eemark. On V EdElKvaruiov, see § 7, 1. (b). 

6. The mode-vowel of the subjunctive of the principal tenses dif- 
fers from that of the indicative, merely in being lengthened, viz, o 
into CO, € and a into 7/, and e,i into 7/ ; e. g. 

'nd. (3ov?,Ev-o-fL£v Subj. f3ov?.£v-u-/Li£v ; Ind. (3ov?.£v-E-cr&E Subj. (3ov}.£v-7]-a^E. 
nd. (3ov?^Ev-£ig Subj. (3ov7.Ev-rig. 

7. The mode-vowel of the optative is i in connection with the 
preceding mode-vowel of the first person singular indicative. (The 
pluperfect is an exception, the optative of this taking the mode- 
vowel of the present). Thus : 

1. Sing. Ind. Impeif. Act Opt. ol i3ov2.Ev-o-v f3ov2.£v-ot-fit 

" Plur. " Aor. I. Act. a " at if3ov2£v(7-a-fiEv (3ov'kEvc-aL-uEv 


§81. Conjugation of the Regular Verb in -to, ex- 
hibited in the Pure Verb {^77, 5) ^ovXsv co . 

Pkeliminaet Remarks. As pure verbs do not form the secondary tenses 
(§ 72, Rem.), these tenses are supplied in the Paradigm from two mute verbs 
and a liquid verb (rpi/3-w, ZelTr-w, stem AlII, (^aiv-u, stem *AN), so as to ex- 
hibit a full conjugation. 

In learning the table of conjugation, it is to be noted : 

(1) That the meaning in English is opposite the Greek foiTus. All the par- 
ticular shades of meaning, however, v,^hich belong to the different Modes and 
Tenses in connected discourse, cannot be given in the table. 

(2) That the Greek forms may always be resolved into their constituent 
parts, -vdz. (a) Personal-ending, (b) Mode-vovrel, (c) Tense-characteristic, (d) 
Tense-stem, (e) Verb-stem, (f ) Augment or Reduplication. 

(3) The spaced forms, e. g. (3ov?.ev-eT ov, j3ov?.ev-7] r o v, 3d Pers. Du. Ind- 
and Subj. Pres., may call the attention of the learner to the difference between 
the historical tenses in the Ind. and Opt. and the principal tenses. 

(4) Similar fonns, as well as those that differ only in accentuation, are dis- 
tinguished by a star {^■^). The learner should search these out and compare 
them together; e. g. (SovXevcu, 1. S. Ind. Put. Act. or 1. S. Subj. Aor. I. Act: 
(3ov?^evaai, 2. S. Imp. Aor. I. Slid., (3ov?.evc>ac, 3. S. Opt Aor. I. Act, (3ov?uev- 
cat, Inf Aor. I. Act. 

(5) The accentuation should be learned with the fonn. The following gene- 
ral rule wiU suffice for beginners : The accent of the verb is as far from the end as 
the final syllable icill permit. Those forms, whose accentuation de^dates from this 
rule, are indicated by a cross (t). 

(6) ¥/lien the following paradigm has been thoroughly learned in this way, 
the pupil may first resolve the verbs occurring in the Greek exercises into their 
elements, i. e. into the personal ending, mode-vowel, etc., obsei-ving the follow- 
ing order, viz. (Sov/ievGC), is (1) of the first Pers., (2) Sing., (3) Ind., (4) Put., 
(5) Act, (6) from the verb ^ov7^eva), to advise; then he may so translate into 
Greek the verbs in the English exercises, as to exhibit the elements of which, 
the form of the Greek verb must be composed ; these elements may be arranged 
in the foUowing order: (1) Verb-stem., (2) Augment or Reduplication, (3) 
Tense-characteristic, (4) Tense-stem, (5) Mode-vowel, (6) Tense-stem with 
Mode-vowel, (7) Personal-ending, (8) Tense-stem mth Mode- vowel and Perso- 
nal-ending. E. g. What would be the form in Greek of the phrase, Ae advised 
himself using the;A.or. of the Pres., [3ov?yev-o}, to advise ? Answer : The verb- 
stem is j3ov?^ev-, augment e, thus efSovlev ; the tense-characteristic of the first 
Aor. IVIid. is cr, thu-S tense-stem is k-jSovlev-G ; the m^ode- vowel of the first Aor. 
lad. Mid. is-c, thus e-jSovXev-c-s ; the personal-ending of the third Pers. Sing, 
of an historical tense of the Mid. is to, thus h-^ov%ev-a-a-To. 

(7) In order that the memory of the pupil may not be tasked by too many 
forms at once, it is best to commit the verb in parts, and in the order in which 
the exercises in § 84 follow each other. He may at the same time translate the 
exercises from Greek into English, and from English into Greek. After all the 
forms have been thoroughly committed in this way, he may turn back to the 
tables and repeat all the forms together. 



[§ SI- 





•53 3 

S C (E 

S rt -r. 


l3ov?iEv-o),* I admse_ 
(3ov?iev-ec^, thou advisest, 
(3ov7\.£v-et, he, she, it advises, 
j3ov?.Ev-ETOv, ye two advise, 
[3ov7.£v-e r o v, they tivo advise, 
[3ov?u£v-G/u,Ev, we advise^ 
lSov%Ev-ET£,* you advise, 
(3ovAev-o V a t'\y), they advise, 

pov/iEv-co,* I may advise, 
l3ov?.£v-yg, thou mayest advise^ 
(SovTiEv-ri,* he, she, it may adv. 
j3ov?i£v-7] T V, ye two may ad. 
jiov7iEv-Tj r V, they two may a. 
(jov7i,£v-cou.£v, we riio.y advise, 
[3ov?i,£v-7]T£, you may advise, 
j3ov7iEv-oaL(v), they may adv. 


stem : 


stem : 






P. 1. 



k-l3ov7.EV-cv,* I teas advising, 
£i3ov7iEv-£g, thou wast advising, 
£-^ov7^£V-£{v), he, she, it was ad. 
E-[3ov7\,£v-ETOv, ye two ivere adv. 
£-[3ov7.£v-£ T7JV, they two were a. 
E-f3ov7\,Ev-oiJ.£v, ive luere advising, 
£-l3ov7i,Ev-^£TE, you ivere advising, 
£-3ov7i,£v-Gv^t/ieii were advising, 

S. 1. l[3£-i3ov7.£v-K-a, I have advised, 

2. \3e-l3ov\£V-K-ag, tliou hast adv'd, 

3. i3e-(3o v2,EV-K-£{ V ) ,*hs,she,it has a 
D. 2. \ j3E-l3ov7iEv-K-aTov,ye two havea. 

3. (3£-j3ov7i£v-K-a t ov , they two 
hjive advised, 
j3£-(3ov7i£v-ti-ajj.£v, we have adv. 
l3£-f3ov2,Ev-K-aT£, you have adv. 
(3£-3ov7iEv-K-d a i {v),theyhave a 

fect L 







Perf. 11. 
Plpf. II. 

Aor. I 


i Am: H. 

£-(3e-^ov7.£V-k-eiv, I had adv'd, 

e-(3E-(3ov7uEv-K-Eig, thou hadst a. 

£-j3£-i3ov7i£v-K-£t,he,she,it had ad. 

£-ps-l3ov7i£v-K-£irQv, ye two had 
3- 1 £-(3££ irrjv, they tivo 

I had advised, 
!• I €-l3e-j3ov7.ev-ii-£iju.Ev, we had ad. 
2. 1 e-i3e-(3ov7.ev-k-£LTc, you had ad. 
3. 1 £-(3£-(3ov7,£v-k-£ (j a, v, they had a. 

I .iTe-(bnv-a,^ I appear, 
! E-TCE-'-prjv-Eiv,^ I appeared. 

of the Principal tenses. 

i3£-[3ov7u£v-ic-u, I may have ad. 

(3£-l3ov7i£v-K-T]g, tlwu mayest 
have advised, etc., declined 
like the Subj. Pres. 

rre-f^v-u), I may appear, 

S. 1. i £-(3ov?.£v-G-a, I advised, {'mdef.)\l3ov7,£v-(j-u,* I i7iay advise, 

2. £-(3ov7.£v-G-'j^, thou advisedst, i3ov7iEv-a-ijg, thou mayest ad- 
3. 1 £-f3ov7i£v-(y-£{v), he, she, it adv. 

D. 2. Ij £-j3ov7,£v-G-aTov, ye two adv'd, 

3. \ £-j3ov7:,£v-G-a ttjv, they two ad. 
P. 1. 5 £-(3ov7<.£v-(T-auEV, loe advised, 

2. } E-j3ov7i£v-a-aT£, you advised, 
3. \ h-(3ov7o£v-G-a v, they advised. 

vise, etc., declined like the 
Subj. Pres. 

S. 1. 1 £-7uTr-ov, I left, 

2. 1 E-TiCTT-eg, etc., declined 
I Impf. Ind. 


AiTT-cj, etc., declined like the 
Subj. Pres. 



S. 1. \l3ov7xv-G-(.),'* I shall advise, j 
{ declined like the Indie. Pres.j 

I ' The declension of the 2d Ferf. in all the Modes and Participles, is like that of the 1st Peif. 




Modes. | 

Participials. | 

i. e. Subj. of Historical tenses. 




(3ovXEV-e, advise tlum, 
(SovXev-etcj, let him a. 
(3ovX£v-£Tov, ye two a. 
(3ov7i,£v-£Ttjv, let them 

both advise, 
(SovXev-ete,* do ye ad. 







G. f3ov7.£V-OVTOg 


(3ov7.9ti-£Tcjqav,Visusi\lji3ovXEv-6vTO)v*, let them a.\ 

j3ov?i£v-oifj.L, I might advise, 
^ovlEv-OLg, thou mightest advise, 
BovIev-ol, he, she, it might adv. 
^ov?^£v-OLTov, ye two might ad. 
l3ov7iEV-o Lrrjv, they two mig. a. 
(3ov7^£v-oLfi£v, we might advise, 
(SovXev-olte, you might advise, 
(3ovXev-o l e V, they might advise. 


[P£-f3ovXEV-K-E,*] etCw 

declined >jL^Q'tte 
Imp. Prg's. ; yet 
only a few Per- 
fects, and such as 
have the meaning 
of the Pres., fonn 
an Imperative. 



to have 



G. -K-oTog, -a- 
viag, having 

^£-l3ovXev-K-oifj,t, I mig. have a. 
(3e-l3ov7i£v-K-oLg, thou mightest 

have advised, etc., declined 

like the Opt. Impf. 

TTE'^Tjv-oLfiL, I might appear. 

TTE-cpTjv-Ey appear thou, 



l3ovX£v-(j-aiuL, I might advise, 
l3ov7i,£v-(r-aig or -Ecag 
f3ov7iEv-(T-aL*^ or -ele{v} 


jiovXEv-a-a lttjv 


j3ovXEv-cr-a lev or -e Lav 

(Bov7^EV-a-ov, advise, 

jSovXEv-G-are » 





having advised. 

^ovXEV-a-druaav, us 

iially -GcivTuv* | 

XiTc-oLfii, etc., declined like the 
Opt. Impf. 

Xltc-e, etc., declined 
like the Imp. Pres. 


X-L-rz-cov, ovaa, oif 
G. ovTog, ova7]g, 

^ov7.Ev-G'Oijii, Iicculd advise, 
declined like, the Opt. Impf. 




etc., like Pr, Pt. 

* The decl«nsion of the 2d Pluperf. 

s like that of the 1st Plup 

erf., both 

in the Ind. and Opt 





Tense-stem : 



Tense-stem ; 



Tense-stem : 


Tense-stem : 

Aorist I. 

Tense-stem ; 

Aorist n. 



3 " O 

S. 1. 


D. 1. 


P. 1. 



S. 1. 











P. 1. 






P. 1. 





^. 1. 



of the Principal tenses. 

(SovXev-o fiai, I deliberate, or 

3ov"Aev-ij* [am advised, 

j3ovXev-e rat 



(SovXev-e a-& ov 



(Sov'Xev-o vt at 

e-j3ov?iev-6 fzijv, I teas ddibe- 

e-(3ov?iEv-o V 
E-fSovXev-e r 

£-l30V?iEV-£ (j'&TJV 


k-f30V/i,EV-0 VT 


j3£-(3ov?,EV-u at, I have delibe- 

IS£-^ovAsv-(y a t 
(Se-jSov'Xev-t a t 


(je-povXEV-a ■& ov 
j3£-j3ov?iEV-v rat 


£.[3£-fSovX£v-fi r)v, I had de- 
£-(3E-j3ov?i£v-ao [liberated. 

E-jSe- ~ 









•^ovXev-g I? ?7 V 


-(SovXev-v t o 

£-(3ov?uEV-G-d /iT/v,! ddibera- 
e-PovXev-g-cj [^e«?,( indefinite) 

E-j3ov7uEV-G-a T 


£-j30V?.£V-C-d G'&TJV 

k-j3ov?.£v-a-a v r 

£-/u7T-6fj.r}v, I remained, decli- 
ned like Ind. Imperf. 

f3ov?,Ev-G-o/, I shall delibe- 
rate, declined like Pres. Ind. 

l3£-(3ov?.Ev-G-o/iai, I shall delib- 
erate, declined like Pres. Ind. 

i3ovXev-0) jiaL, I may 
)iovX£v-if [deliberate. 
(3ovXev-7] t a I 

f3oV?^£V-1] G-& ov 



(3ov?i,£v-o V T at 

fi£-fiovX£v-[iEVog u, I 
may have deliberated, 

(SovXev-g-o) fiat, I may 
(iovXEV-G-if [deliberate, 

etc., declined like 

Pres. Subj. 

Xirc-ufiat, I may remain, 
declined likePres.Subj. 





Optative ' 

i.e.Subj. of tho Hist, tenses. 

I Participials. 






oi/iTjv, I might 
10 [deliberate, 

CT o 






l3ovXev-ov, deliberate thou, 


to delibe- 


l3ov%ev-t<T&e* \ 

(iov%ev-£Gd-uaav, usually ^ovTiev-icr&uv'' 

(ie-^ovXev-tr&e* ^ 

f3e-l3ov?.ev-a'&G)(Tav, usually fSs-jSovXev-cr&uv* 

.8£-(3ov?^ev-fievoc ecTjv, I 
might have deUbeaated, 

(3ov?.Ev-a-a ifiij vJ^migH 

Pov?.Ev-a-c '. o \delibe- 
^ov\Ev-u-a t T [rate. 
(3ovX£v-a-a ic-&7]v 
jiovAEv-a-a cv r o 

?i,i7r-0Lfj,'rjv,ImigH remain, 
like Opt. Impf. 

(3ov?.£v-a-oi/Ji7]v,Im. have 

l3E-Pov2,Ev-(j-Oi/xriv,I sh^d 
deliberate,\ike Opt. Impf. 

l3E'^ov2,Ev-ffo,deliberate thou 


j3e ^ovXev-ct&ov 

(7T?ai,t to 
have de- 



vov,^ having 

liov%Ev-G-aL* deliberate thou. 




i3ov?i,£V-G-ucr&cjGav, usually ^ovTiEv-a-daTd-uv* 


to deliber- 


having ddib- 


AiTT-oi),! •EG'&u, declined 
like Pres. Imp. 




AlTi-OfiEVOg, -0- 
fiEVJJ, -6f2.EVOV 


vog, -7], -ov 





Aorist L 

£ c w 


Tense- j^ J' 
stem : 







S. 1. 
Aorist JJ. \ 2. 

Fut. IT. 




e-l3ov2,ev-'&-?]v, I was advised, 




h-iiov%ev--&-7] TTJV 

e-l3ovXev-'&-7} c av 

[3ov?iev-'&'^-a-oLtat,I shall be adv. 
l3ov7.£v-'&7j-G-ri, etc., declined 
like the Ind. Pres. IVIid. 

k-rpljS-'ijv, I was nibbed, 
eTpl(3-7]g, etc., declined like the 
first Aor. Ind. Pass. 

rpi(i-i]-G-ouai, I shall be rubbed, 
rptp-v-G-ri, etc., declined like 
the first Put. Ind. Pass. 

of the Principal tenscB. 

[Sov'A£v-'&-u, I might have 
l3ovAEV--&-ric [been advised, 


f3ovXev-'&-jj Tov 

i3ovAev--&-u a L (v) 

Tpi(3-cj, I may have been rvbd, 
Tpi/3-^f ,etc.,declined like the 
first Aor. SuDJ. Pass. 

Yerbal Adjectives : (3ov2.£v-t6c, -v, -6v, advised, 

§82. Remarks on the Paradigm, 

1. In the first person Sing. Plup. Act., Attic writers use besides the form in 
'ELv, a form in -r] ; e. g. el3e(3ov/.evK-T}, instead of -k-elv. The mode-vowel ei 
in the third Pers. PI. is commonly shortened into e ; kSeBov/iEv-K-E-aav, instead 

of £3£l3ov2.EV-K-£L-(jaV. 

2. In the second Pers. Sing. Pres. and Put. Mid. and Pass., the Attic writers 
besides the form in -y, use another in -el ; e. g. ISovlEv-rf and (3ovlev-ei, jSott^ 
"Ksva-ri and -£i, l3E(3ov2.£vc7-ri and -£«, jSovlEv&TJc-y and -ei, rpi^Tja-rj and -e^ 
This last form in -el is exclusively used in the following forms of the three 
verbs, viz. 

j3ov?iO!Wi, I wish, (3 ov2,ei, thou wishest (but Subj. f3ovXy) 

olo fiat, I think, Oi ef, fAou iA/n^esi (but Subj. Oi??) 

mpoiiai, I shall see oip e t, thou vnlt see. 

3. The abbreviated forms of the third Pers. PI. Imp. Act. have in all tenses 
except Ibe Perf , the same form as the Gen. PI. of participles of the respective 
tenses. The pupil should seek out these forms. 

§ 83. Remarks on the Fo r mat ion of the Attic Fu ture. 

1. When in the Put. Act. and Mid. of verbs in -ao), -(TOfiai, from stems of two 
or more syllables, the short vowels a, e, I, precede a, certain verbs, instead of 
the regular form, have another, which, after dropping a, takes the cu'ciunflexed 
ending -o, -ovfxai, and because it was frequently used by the Attic writers, it is 
called the Attic Future ;<e. g. eAaw (usually kT^avvu), to drive, h'Xa-G-u, Put. Att. 
k'XUf -§.£, -q,, -drov, -ufiEv, -are, -wai(v) ; re/lfw, to Jinisf, reTii-a-u, Put. Att. 





i. c. Subj. of the Hist, tenses. 





0ovl£v--&-eir]Vy I might he 
(3ov?.ev-'&-Etrig [advised, 
l3ov/iev-'&-etT]TOv ^ 
(3ov7\,ev--d--e li] t 7] v \ 
l3ov2,sv-d--£ir]/j.ev and -stfiev 
(3ov?.ev-'&-ei7iTe and -elre 
8ovXev-'&-e lev 

l3ov?<,Ev--&7i-a-oiiLt7]v, T should 
be advised, etc., declined 
like the Impf. Opt. Mid. 

rpLJi-£l7]v, I might be rubbed, 

rpc^-eiTjg, etc.. declined like 

the first Aor. Opt. Pass. 

Tpt(3-7]-(j-oi./Lcr]v, I should be 
rubbed, etc.,.declined like 
the first Put Opt. Pass. 

(3ov?.£v-'&-rjTi, be thou ad- 
l3ov?.ev--&-7]T(j [vised, 


like first Aor.Imp.Pass, 

to be ad- 




Genitive : 


having been 


fl£V0g, -7J, -ov 

TpLj3-£Lg,\ etc., 
declined like I. 

-7], -ov 

(3ov?i£v-T£og, -via, -T£Ov, to be advised. 

teXu, -£ig, -£C, -eItov, -ovfj.£v, -Eire, -ov(7t{v) ; T£X£-a-0[j.aL [TEAEO/nac), TE/.ovfiat, 
-El, -Etrat, etc. ; koiil^u, to carry. Put. KOfucru, Put. Att. Ko/nicJ, -lel^, -tel, -ulrov, 
-lovfiEV, -LELTE, -t,ov<jc{v) : KOfxtovfiac, -LEL, -lEtvat, -lovfXE^ov, etc. 

2. This form of the Put. is found only in the Ind., Inf and Part., never in the 
Opt., thus teIu, teXelv, te/mv ; but r£XEcoi(j,i. The verbs which have this 
form are the following : (a) e A d w {hTiavvij)), to drive, t eT^eu, to finish, KaXec^, 
to call, and, though seldom, aXiu, to griiid; — (b) all polysyllables in -O^u ; — 
(c) a few verbs in -cf w, A^ery generally (3tf3a^(o ; — (d) of verbs in -fii, all in 
-dvvvfic and afKpiEvvvfii, to clothe [aiKpisatJ, ajKptib, -ulg, Qio,.). Excep- 
tions to this forai of the Put. are found but seldom in the Attic dialect. 

% S4:. Accentuation of the Verb. 

1. Peimakt law. The accent is draivn back from the end of the word towards 
the beginning, as far as the nature of the final sylloble permits ; e. g. (3ov7.,£ve, (3ov- 
2.evouat, -iravE, tvttte, ^ovXevgov, iravcov, rvipov, but l3ov2,evEig, (SovIeveiv. 

Rem. 1. The diphthong -ac at the end of a word, is considered short in re- 
spect to accent ; e. g. l3ovlevo/iat. The Opt. ending -at, however, is considered 
long ; e. g. (3ovl£vaai, third Pers. Sing. Opt. first Aor. Active. The Opt. end- 
ing -01 is also long ; e. g. EKTisi-noi. 

2. The same law holds good in composition, yet with this limitation, that the 
accent cannot go back beyond that syllable of the word prefixed, ivhich before composi- 
tion had the accent; nor beyond the first two words forming the compound, neither be- 
yond an existing augment ; e. g. 

^eps Tzpogt^EpE TiEtire airokEnze 6u(iev evSuuev 

^evys iK^Evye oida ovvoida TJfiaL Ku^Tjfiai ; 



but Trpoguxov like elxov, irapicxov like Inxov, h^Tjyov like ^702--, TvpogrjKOv like 
■^Kov, aTTElpyov like elpyov (not npogeixov, Tapeaxov, etc.), but Imp. uTzeipye. 

Exceptions to the Primary Laic. 

3. The accent is on the ultimate in the following forms : 

(p.) In the Inf second Aor. Act. as circumflex, and in the Masc. and Neut 
Sing of the Part, of the same tense as acute ; e. g. linelv, 7u'kC)v, -6v, and in 
the second Pers. Sing. Imp. second Aor. Act. of the five verbs, elTre, kX'&e, evpe, 
?.a,8E and ISe (but in composition, aireLTze, airolajSe, aneMe, eigiSs). 

(b) Also in the Imp. second Aor. Mid. as circumflex ; e. g. ?.a(Sov, ■&ov, from 


Bem. 2. In compounds, the Imp. (not Participials) of the second Aor. Act. 
draws back the accent in all verbs according to the primary law ; e. g. e/c/3a/le, 
e^eld-e, eadoc, skSote, ciTcodoc, ccTzodore, /leraSog, jxeradoTe (but not uTzodog, fxe- 
radog, see No. 2), but kKpa?.elv, kK^dXuv, kKXnrelv, k^el-S-dv, etc. But in the 
Imp. Sing, second Aor. IMid. of verbs in -w, the circumflex remains on the ulti- 
mate in compounds also ; e. g. £K[3a?iOv, a^cKov, kKliTzov, kTrtTia-d-ov, a(pe?iov, 
iveveyiiov ; so in verbs in -[it, when the verb is compounded with a monosylla- 
bic preposition ; e. g. Tvpodov, ev&ov, a<pov ; yet the accent is dra^wn back, when 
the verb is compounded with a dissyllabic preposition 5 e. g. uttoSov, Kcra-d-ov, 
ano-d-ov ; but in the Dual a,nd PI. of the second Aor. Mid., the accent is in all 
cases drawn back ; e. g. EKf^aXec-ds, a7ro2,af3£<T-&E, Trpodocr&e, Ev&E(r&e, a<^E<r&Sy 

(c) The acute stands on the ultimate in all participles in -r (Gen. -roc), con- 
sequently in all active participles of verbs in -fii, as well as in those of the first 
and second Perf. Act. and first and second Aor. Pass, of all verbs ; e. g. (3ej3oV' 
Xevicuc, Gen. -orog, Tre^Tjvug, Gen. -orog, (^ovlEvQ-eig, Gen. -ivrog, rvTVEcg, Gen. 
'ivTog, larag. Gen. -avrog, Tf&sig, Gen, -ivrog, ScSovg, Gen. -ovrog, SsiKvug, Gen. 
■ vvTog, dtacFTug, EK'&Eig, irpodovg. Gen. diaaravTog, kK-&Evrog, TtpoSovrog. 

Eem. 3. The first Aor. Act. Part., which is always paroxytone, is an excep- 
tion ; e. g. iratdevaag, Gen. TraidsvaavTog. 

(d) In the Sing, of the first and second Aor. Subj. Pass, as circumflex ; e. g. 
(3ov?i,£vd-o), rpi,[3co. 

4. The accent is on the penult in the following forms : 

(a) In the Inf. Perf. Slid, or Pass., first Aor. Act. and second Aor. IMid. ; also 
in all infinitives in -vai, hence in all active infinitives of verbs in -fit, as well as 
in the Inf. of first and second Aor. Pass, and of the Perf Act. of all verbs ; e. g. 
TeTvtp^at, f3E(3ov/>,EV(j-&at, rsTL/ir/a'd-ai, Tre^i/l^fTiS-ai, /j.efita'&cja'&at ; — (pv?.a^ai, 
BovT^Evaai, riiirjaat, <pt?Sj(7ai, /utad^uaat ; — TifKEad-ai, iK-&£(T&at, dtaSoad-at ; — lu' 
Tuvai, Tf&Evai, didovai, SstKvvvai, crr/vat, EKaTrjvai, '&eivai, eK'&Elvai, dovvai^ 
fisraSovvat ; — jSovTiEvdr/vai, rptjSr/vat ; — (3£J3ov7ievK£vat, 2.E?iOt7r£vac. 

(b) In all Optatives in -0 1 and -a c, see Rem. 1. 

Eem. 4. The three similar forms, ^iz. the Inf. first Aor. Act., Imp. first Aor. 
Mid. and the third Pers. Sing. Opt. first Aor. Act., when they consist of three 
or more syllables, whose penult is long by nature, are distinguished from one 
another by the accent, in the following manner : 


Inf. first Aor. Act. [Sov/.evaac, Imp. first Aor. Mid. ftovltvaai, 

Trotrjaai TroitjcaL 

Opt. first Aor. Act. ^ovXevaai 

But when the penult is short by nature or long only by position, the Inf. first 
Aor. Act. corresponds with the third Pers. Sing. Opt. first Aor. Act. ; e. g. ^^- 
Aa^ac ; but Imp. first Aor. Mid. ^vla^ai. 

(c) In the Part. Perf. Mid. or Pass. ; e. g. 0e/3ov?\,ev/ievoc, -fiivrj, -fiivov, -re- 

TtfJ.1J/ItV0g, TZE<l>l?iT}flEVO^. 

XXXVI. Vocabulary. 

(a) Present and Imperfect Active 

'Ayopevu, to say. irepog, -a, -ov, alter, the fire, when. 

aizecpog, -ov, {adv. cnTei- other (of two), opposite, ovTuc,{bef.cons.ovTii,)&o, 

pwf), w. gen., unac- difi'erent. thus, 

quainted with, unskill- Iva, in order that. rratdeca, -ag, 57, education, 

ed in. KaXlog, -eog = -ovg, to, instruction. 

uTzo-TpeTro), to turn away, beauty. 7^7^71 a ta!^u, to approach, 

avert. itev'&u, to conceal. izpovoia, -ag, rj, foresight, 

uTTO-cpevjo), to flee away, fiovaiicf] {rexvTj understood) precaution. 

uporpovy-ov, TO, a plough. -?jg, rj, every art under Trpog-mTzru, {in third pers. 

yevvaiug, nobly, bravely. the patronage of the sing.), it falls out, it oc- 

detvog, -rj, -ov, fearful, ter- Muses,especially music. curs, it presents itself, 

rible, dangerous ; rb orav, w. svhj., when, when- aTaaidi^c), to live at va 

deivov, the danger. ever. riance with. 

Alio 660I wpog TTiv TToXiv uyeTov. Boe rd aporpov dyerov. 'Kacpu/xsv, u Tval 
deg. 'Qg ijSi) KaTJ^g, orav exy vovv aoxppova. 01 Tro?uTat rot'g vofiovg ^v7m~- 
Tovrav. 'Eralpog eracpov (ppovri^src). Uarr/p re Kal fiTJTTjp Trpovoiav ixiruv 
T^g t€)v tekvuv Traideiag. '0 ypafLfzaruv direipog ov (SXeTvei (3?j7r(ov. Tag irpog- 
TZLTTTovaag rvxag yevvaiug (pepe. 'O italg rcj itarpl ()66ov fepei, Iva x^'i-PV' '^ 
iralg roj irarpl pSSov ecpepev, Iva x^^^poi- '^.OKpdrjjg ugnep kyiyvQcuev, ovrcjg 
e?<,eyev. "Ore 01 "'E?i%7jveg k.-rc'kTjaLa^ov, ol (SdpfSapoi. cnze^evyov. QejMiaT0K7^r,g 
Kal ^KpLGTeidrjg Tzora E(yTacna^eT7jv. AaKedaifiovcoi fiovacKTJg aTreipug elxov. 
'ATrorpsTTOLTe, c5 iS-eoi, to Secvov u(p' yjiuv. M.rj iTspov Ksvd-otg Kapdtg. vovv, 
&'k7\,a dyopeduv. 

Two horses drawing (driving) the chariot, hasten. Two women sing. Let 
us flee from vice. The boys study literature diligently, that their parents may 
rejoice. The boys studied literature very diligently, that their parents might 
rejoice. Let the citizen defend the laws. Let friends care for friends. Two 
horses, drawing the chariot, hastened. Two women sang. Those who are un- 
acquainted with literature do not see, when they see. Bear nobly the danger 
which presents itself {part.), citizens ! You speak (so) as you think. We 
were unacquainted with music. May the gods avert the danger from us ! 


XXXVIL Vocabulary. 

(b) First Perfect and Pluperfect Active. 
VvvaiKELog, -a, -ov, be- nara-Tivu^ to loosen, de- about to do, delay ; rd 
longing to women, wo- stroy, dissolve. jiDjmv, the future, 

manly. Kvpcevu, w. gen., to be or TioAefiiog, -a, -ov, hostile, 6 

Iv'dvci, to go into, put on. become master of, con- iroXefiiog, the enemy. 
eTTt-diuKu, to pursue. quer, obtain. TrpocpTjrevo), to pi'ophesy. 

Kara-dvo), to dip; go down, fiavrig, -ewf, 6, a seer, a <pvco, to bring forth. Per/. 
set, conceal oneself. prophet. to have become, be. 

fie?ila), to intend or be 

01 TTols/Licot eKarbv Troltrag TzecpovevKduLv. ^epeKvSTjg D^eye, fxrjSevl i^ecj re- 
■&vKEvai. Neof TtscpvKdr TvbXka ;!(p7j(jTa fidv&ave. 'O fidvrcg rd jiDJiovra Ka- 
Xcjg T:e7rpo(^f]TevKev. Ta rsKva ev TreTcaidevKag. M-^deLa rd. rsKva TcefovevKvia 
exO'i.pEV. 01 AaKe6aif/.6viot UTiaratug KaTe2,e2,vKe(yav. 'ZapSavdnaXog aro7J^v 
■yvvaiKsiav eveSedvKec. "Ore r/liog KareSeSvKet, ol ttoTiejilol e7r?i'>] ala^ov. 'AXe- 
^avSpog encdtuKuv Aapelov, rov rcJv IlepcjcJv PaaiMa, 7ro2.?iO)v ;t;p77^arcjv skekv- 


The sun has gone down (is set). The Lacedaemonians have destroyed Pla- 
taea. We admired the woman, who had put on (having put on) a purple robe 
Diodorus {AioSopog) says that Alexander {ace. w. inf.), pm*suing Darius, ob- 
tained many treasures. The enemies had killed 400 soldiers. Thy fnend 
had brought up his (the) children well. 

XXXVin. Vocalmlary. 

(c) Pirst Future and Aorist Active. 
^AfSlddELa, -ag, tj, inno- enyovog, -ov, descendant, klvSwevo, to incur dan- 

cence. descended from. ger, run a risk. 

a/Li(t>o), both, ambo. e'^ttI^cj, to hope, expect. fisra, w.^en., with; iw.occ., 

avvo), to complete, finish. ETrayyEXXco, to announce. after. 
dciKpvov, -ov, TO, a tear. ettl-jSovXevu, to. dot., to ftrjvicj, w. dot., to be angry 
dia-lvu, to dissolve, sepa- plot against. with. 

rate. Eoxarog, -rj, -ov (snperl. of otl, that, because. 

Slku^u, to judge. c^), outermost, utmost, Ttplv dv, w. subj., before, 

dcKaaTTjg, -ov, b, a judge, last. ere, until. 

a magistrate. lketevu, to ask, suppli- (pvTEvo)^ to plant. 

Et'&E, w. opt, that. cate, entreat. 

01 arpariuTat rfjv Tzokiv uTro rdv 'koJ.eiiluv u7ro?iV(jov<nv. 'O xpv^'^'^Q dv' 
■&po}7rog Kal^ rolg sKyovotg fvTEvaEL. ''E?.7:i^ofi£v Trdvra ev avvastv. 'O dyye- 
2,og kTiriyyETJiE rolg TroliTacg, on ol tto?J/j.ioi tCj crpaTEVfiari k'rtL^ov'XEvcouv. 
'Axi-/'-X£'i>g 'Aya/LLEfxvovc EfiTjvcGEv. Ol"E/i?i.7]V£g uvSpsia TToTiXdlaxvaav. 'O Sw- 
Kodrng ovx I-ketevge Toi)g SiKaardg ixetu 7roPi./lcJv daKpvov, dX?.d TriGTEvaar ry 
eavTov djSXajSEia kuLvOvvevae tov saxarov klvSvvov. Tag rcov c^avTiuv ct t>7j'S^eia( 

' also. 


blijoc xpovog dielvcev. TLplv av a/j,^otv /xv-&ov uKOvayr,^ ^r/ SiKa^e. 01 AuKe- 
Saifiovtoi UTiaTaca^ Kare'^vaav. Tig uv Tnarevaat {Tncrrevaeie) ^l^evcry ; El-&e 
■KuvTa /cc/lwj" avvcaijjLt. 'AKOvaatg {a/covaecag) fiov,^ d ^iAe. 'O uyyeTiog cTr^y- 
■y£?i.?uev, OTL ol 7zo7\,£[iiOi T^ arpaTiq. kTTi^ovXevuacev {tTrifiov/^evaeiav). 'Akov- 
aov fxov, u (piXs. 'E,Taipog tralput Tnarevcdru. Tyv no'Acv Myovoc uh/av aiv- 
dvvov KcvSvvevaai. 

Rule of Syntax. The particle dv denotes a condition either 
expressed or to be supplied. 

You -mil free the town from the enemies. Good men will plant also for 
their descendants. He said, that the town would incur great danger. Achil- 
les and Agamemnon were angry with (dual) one another. We entreated the 
magistrates with many tears. Achilles kUled Hector ("E/crwp, -opog). Judge 
not ipl) before you have heard the account of both. Thou canst not trust (opt. 
w. av) 2i liar. May we complete [merely the opt.) everything well. O that you 
would hear me, friends ! May the soldiers free us from the enemies. Hear 
me, friends ! Friends should trust [imp.) friends. To command [aor.) \s 
easier than to do. Medea rejoiced in having mm'dered [aor. part.) her children. 

XXXIX. Vocahilary. 

(d) Present and Imperfect Middle or Passive. 
^Ade?.(p6g, -ov, 6, a brother. epyd^oiiaL, to work. Trivofxai, to be poor. 

dTvo-dexofxai, to receive, Epxofiaif to go, come. Ttpdrro), to do, to act ; w. 

admit, approve of. i'jGvxog, quiet, quietly. adv., to fare. 

avTiog, -ov, 6, a flute. T^avd-avu, w. ace., to be (TTparevo), to make an ex- 

kdv = ^v, or uv, if, w. subj. concealed from, escape pedition ; Mid. to make 
kyx^jpi'Oc, -ov, and eyxcj- the notice of ]lateo, Mid., war, march (in a hos 

piog, -a, -ov, native, of to forget. [die. tile manner). 

the coimtry. fxsaog, middle, in the mid- tpsvdofiat, to lie. 

Avo dvSpe fidxecrd-ov. Tevvatog /zaxu/j.e'&a^ Tzepl TTJg Tzarpidog. 'AvayKalov 
hcTL Tov vlbv '!T£i-&e(j-&ai TO) Ttarpi. 'n.o2,?i.ol dya&ol tcevovtul. Nofiocg rolg ky- 
X^pioig eiread-ac Ka?i,6v ecxtlv. M^ dnodixov tuv <pi?ia)v rovg -irpbg rd (pavXd aot 
XapL^ofxevovg. "^Kaarog rjavxog iiegtjv t^v odbv ep;^eai9^ca. Oi Tro?uTai rolg 
vofibcg 7vef&e<T&G)v. Td G6e7i(pG) fioi Snecp&ov. 'El (3 ov'Xe i Ka'kug irpaTTeiv, 
epyd^ov. 'Edv j3ov?\.ri KaXcJg itpdrreLV, kpyd'Cov. "^evSoiievog ovdug 7.av&d- 
vei 7ro?ivv xpovov. 01 AaKedaifiovcoi fier' avXuv earpaTevovTO. El-&e rcavreg 
dvev opyrjg (Sovlevoivro. Avo Ka?.d Ittttci) Etg rrjv tzoXlv T]7^avvE(T&7]v. 'Eav 
'Ksvri, b7uyoL (pilot. 

The magistrate should consult without anger. He who goes [paH.) the mid- 
dle path, goes safest. Two beautiful horses are diiven to the town. If [hdv] 
warriors fight courageously, they are admired. We will not lie, but always 
speak the trath. Sons should obey their fathers. With God and fate [alaa) 
it is terrible to contend. Two men contended. The soldiers fought courage- 
ously. that every one would consult without anger ! that thou wouldst 
always worship the Deity ! 

^ § 158, 5. (b). * § 153, (a), (1). 



XL. Vocabulary, 
(e) Perfect and Pluperfect Middle or Passive. 

A/t-pa, -af, 7j, a summit, e/xfyrevu, to implant. Isyofiat, dicor, to be sail 

a castle. Idpvu, to build, found. hjarf/g, -ov, 6, a robber. 

VTCvcfila, -ag, rj, freedom, KaTa-K?.ecu, to shut, lock avv&Tjurj, -rjc, tj, a treaty 
independentlegislation. up. 

Oi Xvcrral -KE^ovsrovTai,. Avo a6e?.^d vrzb tov avrcv dcSaaicaAov TreTcaidev- 
a~3-ov. 'H (SacrtXeia vizb tov dfjfiov M7iVTai. Tolg ■&eoig vtto rcJv ^A.'&rivaiuv 
iro?.?i.ol veu 'idpvvrai. 'H -dvpa /ce/c/l£icn?w. Upb rov epyov ev (3ef3ov/iev(70. 
Ruatv av&puTiOig efi.7re(j)VTevfj.evi] hcrlv eTrfd-vfiia rijc avrovouiag. 01 7\,r)aTal 
7tE(povevG-&a)V. 01 iroXefiioc elg ttjv uKpav KaTaiteK%elGd-aL Myovrai. ^evocpuv- 
rog vtu, Tpv7Ji.og Koi Acodupog, kTTE'7vai6eva-&m> tv Hrraprrj. Ac (Tvv&^Kat VTzb 
ruv (3apl3apuv eXi/.vvTO. 

The robber has been murdered. The children of the fiiend have been well 
brought up. The doors are said to have been shut. Before the work, you have 
deliberated well. Good and bad desires have been implanted in men. The 
ti-eaties are said to have been violated by the barbarians. The two children 
have been brought up by the same teacher. The royal authority had been abol- 
ished by the people. 

XLI. Vocabulary. 

(f) Future and first Aor. Mid., and Put. Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

'Ava-iravu, to cause to kTnrTjdevu, to manage, Tropevu, to lead forward; 

rest ; Mid. to rest, re- transact with diligence, Mid. to go, march, set 

cover oneself. practise. out (w;. pass, aorist). 

yevu {tlvo. nvog), to give "KolLTeia, -ag, 7/, the state, ttv/itj, -rig, rj, a gate {usU' 

any one a taste of any- the administration, ally in the plural). 

thing ; viid. w. gen., to 

taste, enjoy. 

01 7T0?Jij,tci eirl TTjv ^iierepav izoXiv GvpaTEvaovrai. Uspl r^f ruv tto'Xltuv 
(juTTjpiag j3ov?\,eva6/Lcs'&a. 'O Tiarrjp ftoi eXsyev, on, Tropevaocro. 01 "'ETiT^TjVE^ 
IttI Tovg llEpcrag harparEVGavTO. 'Ava7ravaujiE-&a,^ u (piXoc. Upb rov Epyov 
EV j3ov?^£VCiai. JlavTsg TLjxrjg^ yEVGa(y&aL [3ovXovTaL. 'O Tzar^p avaTzavadfievog 

TLLTECaV £7nT7j6EVri, aVTT) EV (3e(3ov2,EV(T£TaL. 

You will deliberate about the scfety of the citizens. The messenger an- 
ounced {kirayyE/JM), that the enemies would march against our tovra. The 
general enjoyed a great honor. If {sdv, w. subj.) the enemies shall have been 
led {■KopEvw, suhj. aor.) against us, the gates of the town will remain (have been) 
closed. Before the work, deliberate well {pi). In {h) such a danger it is not 
easy to deliberate (aor.). If you have dehberated, {aor. particip.) begin the work. 

M153, (a), (1). 2^158, 5. (a). 3^158,4. 


XLII. Vocahulary. 
(g) r i r s t j^ o r i s t and first Future Passive. 

dvuoKparia, -ag, ?/, tlic [irj after verbs of fear, u\ in ne, to be translated 

rule of the people, de- suhj., if a pres., perf. or by ' that ' or ' lest.' 

mocracy, f ut. goes before : w. opt., TTo7Jixior, -a, -ov, hostile 

kTi-L-cpspu, to bring upon ; if an historical tense of the enemy. 

iroXeiiov TiVL, helium in- goes before ; as the Lat- rvpavvog -ov, 6, a soA'e- 

fero. reign, a tyrant. 

'O "E.'craip i'Tzb rov ' A^x'-'^-'^^^^ k^ovev-&T]. Tw aJeZ^w vizb rov airov diSatJKu- 
?„ov k7zatdsv&7]TrjV. Tloa7mI STifiOKpariaL vno rcJv rvpuvvuv KaTe?d!-&7jaav. Me- 
ya^ <p6^og rovg TToXirar f;^ei, [jltj al cvv&rjKat vtzo rcJv 7ro?>.e/uiuv 7i,vS-(Laiv. E?i9e 
•Kavreg veaviai Kalur Traidev&elev. ^ovev'&rjri, u KaKovpye. 01 crparLurat 
elg TT]v 7T0?^efiiav yHjv Tzopev&jivaL 7.eyovTaL. 01 TzoTiquoc, tuv cvv&tjkuv TlV- 
^eicruv,^ 7][ Tz67.ej.iov eTrtcpepovacv. '0 T-TicrT?/^ (povev&TjGerat. 

You were both educated by the same teacher. We were freed {a-o7.vo)) from 
a great danger. I fear much (a great fear holds me), that the friend, who set 
off [particip.) six days ago, has been murdered by robbers. I feared much, that 
you had been murdered by robbers. The two robbers are said to be killed. 
The youth is said to be well brought up. The treaties are said to have been 
violated by the enemies. Well brought up youths are esteemed by all. The 
robbers will be killed. 

§85. A more particular vieio of the Augment and 


After the general view of the Augment and Reduplication (§ 77, 
3 and 4), it is necessary to treat them more particularly. 

As has been already seen, all the historical tenses, viz. the Impf., 
Plup. and Aor., take the augment, but retain it only in the Indica- 
tive. There are two augments, the syllahic and temporal, 

(a) Syllabic Augment. 

1. The syllahic augment belongs to those verbs whose stem be- 
gins with a consonant, and consists in prefixing e to the stem, in the 
Impf. and Aorists, but to the reduplication, in the Pluperfect. In 
this way, the verb is increased by one syllable ; e. g. ^ovXevco, Impf. 
i-^ov).svov, Aor. l-^ovlevaa, Plup. i-^e-^ovlevKSiv. 

2. If the stem begins with q, this letter is doubled when the aug- 
ment is prefixed (§ 8, 12) ; e. g. qitzzco, to throw ^ Impf. 'i^qimoyy 
Aor, sQQi'tJja. 

* Gen. absolute, like the Abl. absolute in Latin. 

92 VERBS.— TEMPORAL AUGMENT. [§§ 86, 87. 

Kem. 1. The three verbs l^ovlo/Liai, to will, Svva/xaL, to be able, and 
lj,8?i2,o), to be about to do, among the Attic writers take v, instead of s, for the 
augment ; still this is found more with the later Attic writers, than with the 
earlier ; e. g. Aor. efSovX^d-rjv and fii3ovl7i-8-r]v ; Impf. edwufcr^v and Tjdvvdfirjv, 
Aor. k6vvj]'&7jv and 7j6vv?j-&i]v (but always eSvvlKn^Tjv) ; Impf. e[ie7Ji.ov and 
TifisX/Mv (the Aor. is very seldom riiiil0.r,Ga). 

Eem. 2. Among the Attic writers the augment e is often omitted in the Plup. 
of compounds, for example, when the preposition ends with a vowel ; in sim- 
ples, when a vowel which is not to be elided, precedes ; e. g. uvaftejS^KeL, Kara- 

§ 86. (b) Te mp or al Augment . 
The tem-porcd augment belongs to verbs, whose stem begins 
with a vowel, and consists in lengthening the first stem-vowel ; in 
this way the quantity of the syllable is increased ; 

a becomes 

V, e. g. 

V, " 


Impf Jjyov 

" 7)7.77 t^OV 


?]X(^ Plup. 
ijlnLica " 



"t " 

I, " 






CO, " 

V, " 






at " 
av " 

7]V, " 







01 " 

(P, " 





Remark. Verbs which begin with 77, l, v, u, ov and ec, do not admit the aug- 
ment ; e. g. ?} T T a fi a L, to be overcome, Impf. fjTTUfirjv, Perf '-qTrri^ai, Plup. rirrri- 
firiv ; 'i IT 0), to press, Aor. 'liruaa ; 'v ttv 6 o),to lull to sleep, Aor. "virvcoaa ; dcp e- 
?<.E0), to benefit, Impf. wc&e/iow ; ovrd^u, to wound, Impf. ovra^ov ; e'iko, to 
yield, Impf elicov, Aor. el^a; eIkcc^co, to liken, is an exception, Avhich among 
the Attic writers, though seldom, is augmented ; e. g. ecKa^ov, seldom yaaCov, 
EtKaaa, seldom yKaaa, ECKacr/j-ai., seldom -^icaa^uai. Also those verbs whose stem 
begins with ev, usually take no augment ; e. g. ei'xofiai, to supplicate, Evxa/xriv, 
more rarely i]vx6i^7]v, but Perf ifoyfiai, not Evy/iat ; evplGnu, to fi.nd, in good 
prose, always omits the augment. 

§ 87. Remarks or. the Augment . 

1. Verbs beginning vn\h. a followed by a vowel, liave u instead of 7] ; but 
those beginning with d, av and oi followed by a vowel, do not admit the aug- 
ment; e. g. 'd'Co), to perceive (poetic), Impf "Clov; 'uri 6 i^o juai, to be dis- 
gusted with, Jmjit'd'r]6i,0/L(.7]v; avatvu, to dry, Im'ptavaLvov; olaniCa), to 
steer, Impf. olaKt^ov ; also dvd?u(jKG), to destroy, although no vowel follows d, has . 
iiv'TAoma, uvd7uUKa, as well as dvi]7Maa, dvfiTiUtna. But oloiiat, to Idieve, alwaj'i 
takes the augment ; e. g. uofj-i^v. 

2. Some verbs, also, beginning with ol followed by a consonant, do not take 
the augment ; e. g. 1 kov p e u, to guard the house, Aor. olKoiprjaa. 

3. The eleven following verbs, beginning with e, have el instead of v^ for the 
augment, viz. e a w, to permit, Impf eIuv, Aor. Elaaa ; k^i^u, to accustom, (to 
which belongs also Eccj-d-a, to be accustomed) j ela ujirjv A.or. (stem 'EA), I f^s- 


tahlished^ founded ; k'kiccu, to wind; i^K(o, to draw; Aor. eD.Kvoa (stem 
'EAKY) ; elXov, to talce, Aor. (stem *EA) of a/pecj ; ircofiai, to follow; kp- 
yd^ofiai, to work; epKo, ipizv^o, to creep, to go; karidu, to entertain; 

4. The following verbs take the syllabic, instead of the temporal, augment : 
uyvv/xc, to break, Aor. ta^a, etc. 

dXicTKOfcac, capior, Pei'f. iuXcoKa and ^AtJ/ca. 

ud- Eo), to push, kuid-ovv, etc. 

cjv eo fxat, to buy, Impf. kuvoviirjv, Perf. kuvrjfxai. 

5. The verb eo prd^u, to celebrate a feast, takes the augment in the second 
sjllable, Impf. eupra^ov. The same is true of the following forms of the Plu- 
perfect : 

EIKi2, second Perf. cotKa, lam like, Plup. eaJKe cv. 
eXTTo/xat, to hope, second Perf. eo?i,7za, I hope, Plup. e6?i,TT e iv. 
EPPQ, to do, second Perf. eopya, Plup. kupy e iv. 

6. The three following verbs take the temporal and syllabic augment at the 
same time : 

6 pdu, to see, Impf. iupcov, Perf. kupaKa, iupa/xat. 

dvoiyu, to open, Impf. dvsuyov, Aor. dveu^a (Inf. dvoUac), etc. 

dT^ia Ko jiaL, to be taken, Aor. iaAwv (Inf. dTiuvat, d) and rfkuiv. 

% SS. Heduplication. 

1. Reduplication consists in repeating the first consonant of the 
stem with e. It denotes a completed action, and hence is prefixed 
to the Perf., e. g. Xs-Xvy.a, I have loosed; to the Fut. Perf., e. g. 
7iE-}io(jfi^aofA,ai, I shall be adorned, from noafisco ; and to the Plup., 
which as a historical tense, takes also the augment e before the re- 
duplication ; e. g. i-^e-^ovXavy.eiv. It remains in aU the modes, as 
well as in the Inf. and Part. 

2. Those verbs only admit the reduplication, whose stem begins 

with a single consonant or with a mute and liquid ; verbs beginning 

with Q, yv, yX, p^* (except ^s^aqja, ^s^lafxfiai, from ^aTztco, to 

injure, ^spMaqn^fAT^xa from ^aoqjTjixsco, to hlaspheme, ^s^dcnr^'Aa 

and ipd<3jriy.a from ^Xactdvdo, to sprout,) are exceptions, inasmuch 

as they take only the simple augment ; e. g. 

'Avcd, to loose, Perf. M-?..VKa Plup. e-?\.e-?uVKsiv 

■Q-vti, to sacrifice, " re-dvKa (§ 8, 10.) " k-re-'&vxELv 

(pvrevo), to plant, " ire-fvrsvKa (§ 8, 10.) " k-TTe-dwevKecv 

Xopsvcj, to dance, " Ke-^opevKa (§ 8, 10.) " i-Ke-xopsvKeiv 

ypd(po}, to urite, " ye-ypa^a " k-ye-ypd<pecv 

K?uvu, to bend, *' Ke-KXcKa " k-KS-KXiKELv 

Kplvco, to judge, " ne-KpcKa " e-Ke-KpiKecv 

* Such verba are excepted on account of the difficulty of repeating these 
lettere. — Tr. 


TTi^fw, io breathe, Perf. Tri-irvevKa Plup. e-'xe-'jtvevkelv 
^?Mu, to bruise, " re-^/^aKa {§ 8, 10.) " £-r£-^?MKeLv 

ftiiTTU, to throw, " Vpbicfia " kfypiqiuv 

yvupLio),tomakeknoivn, " h-yvupiKa '' e-yvcopiKEtv 

(S?,aK£V(j, to be slothful, " e-J3?MK£VKa " t-j3/MKevKeiv 

yAixjxo, to carve, ' " £-y7.v<^a " z-yA^ELV. 

3. The reduplication is not used (beside the above cases of verba 

be<yinning with ^, 71', jSX, 7?.), when the stem of the verb begins 

with a double consonant or two single consonants, which are not a 

mute and liquid ; e. g. 

^7?Z6a), to emulate, Perf. e-^v^oKa Plup. k-^T]?MKEiv 

^£vo(o, to entei-tain, " k-^huKa " e-^evukeiv 

7ba?.?M, to sing, " E-ipa^Ka " E-i}ja?iKEtv 

(jTTEipo, to soic, " E-onapKa " E-anapKELv 

KTil^CJ, to build, . " E-KTLKa '* k-KTlHElV 

TVTvaau, to fold, " E-Trrvxa " E-irrvxetv. 

Rem. 1. The two verbs /xLfivrjG ku (stem MNA), to remind, and ktLo fiaL, 
to acquire, take the redupHcation, although their stem begins with two conso- 
nants, which are not a mute and a liquid: /.li-fivr^/xai, KE-KT7j/, k-fiE-fiv^firjv, 

4. Five verbs beginning with a liquid do not repeat this letter, 

but take at for the augment : 

lafij^dvu, to take,^ Perf. etXTj^a Plup. eUJiOEiv 

layxo-vo, to obtain, " ellrjxa " EllrixBLV 

Aeycd, Gv7JiEy(j), to collect, " GVVEL7i,ox<t " cvvELloxeiv 

'PEQ, to say, " elprjKa " ElprjKEiv 

fMEipo/iai, to obtain^ " etuaprai (with rough Breathing), it is fated. 

Rem. 2. A LaT^sy ofiai, to converse, has Perf. dietXey/Liaiy though the 
simple /ieyw in the sense of to say, always takes the regular redupUcation, /leAcy- 
[lai, dictus sum (Perf. Act. wanting). 

§89. Attic Reduplicati on. 
Several verbs, beginning with a, a or o, repeat, in the Perf*^ 
and Plup. before the temporal augment, the first two letters of the 
stem. This augmentation is called the Attic Keduplication. The 
Plup. then very rarely takes an additional augment ; 7jxt]y.6£iv has 
the regulai' Attic reduplication. 

(a) Verbs whose second stem-syllable is short by nature : 

apocj, -u), to plough, kMu (k^.avvo)), to drive, 

ap-?]poKa ap-Tjpojiai. IX-rfkaKa ' 

ap-rjpoKEiv ap-rjp6fj,7jv k?i-7]2,uK£CV kX-'r}?MUj]v 

kliyXO), to convince, bpvTTCd, to dig, 

iX-rfkEyXd kl-rj^Eyiiai dp-6)pvxa op-upvyjuai 

tX'ijlEyx£iv kl-rjAEyiiijv bp-upvxeiv dp-upvy/iTjv 

(b) Verbs which in the second stem-syllable have a vowel long 


by nature, and shorten this after prefixing the reduplication (except 
SQeidco, to prop J SQrJQeiKa, iQjjgeiai^ai) : 

aAei(^(j, to anoint, ukovcj, to Jiear, 

^i7i-7]2.Lfa uX-7]7^i filial, uK-r)Koa qKovciiat 

&?i-i]Xl<l)€tv aX-7]?i,ififii]v i] K-Tj Koe Lv ^KOvaiiTjv 

uyeipo), to collect, tyeipo), to amalcen, 

uy-fiyepua ay-Tiyepiiai iy-ijyepKa ey-7Jyepfiai 

ay-7}yepiceLV ay-7jyepfi7]v ky-TjyepKetv ey -7jy ep nrjv. 

Eemakk. The verb ayu, to lead, forms the second Aor. Act. and Mid., and 
if>epo, to carry, forms all the Aorists with this reduplication, with this difference, 
however, that the vowel of the reduplication takes the temporal augment only 
in the Ind., and the vowel of the stem remains pure : 

ay (j), to lead, Aor. II. riy-ayov, Inf. ayayslv, Aor, 11. Mid. rjyayonrjv. 

(pepo), to canry (stem 'EFK), Aor. 11. ^y-ey/cov, Inf. kv-eyKelv, Aor. I. 7v- 
eyaa, Inf hv-h/Kai, Aor. Pass. Tjv-ex^vv, Inf h-sx&rjvaL. 

§ 90. Augment and Reduplication in Gompound 


1. First rule. Verbs compounded with prepositions take the aug- 
ment and reduplication between the preposition and the verb ; then 
prepositions which end with a vowel, except tzbqi and Tzgoy suffer 
Elision (§ 6, 3) ; nqo frequently combines with the augment by 
means of Crasis (§ 6, 2), and becomes tzqov, and ev and ovv resume 
their v which had been assimilated, or dropped, or changed ; e. g. 

a7ro-/?a/l/la), to throw from, lm.a7C-e(jaAlov 'Bf.aito-BeiSXrjKa 'Flp.dTr-epefSTif/Keiv 

rrepc- (3 6,2,2,0), to throw around, -nspi-e^a'XToOv TTspL-QeiS/iTjKa 'rzepL-Epeli'ArjKELv 

Tcpo-^aTiko), to th'ow before, Trpo-if^aXXov Trpo-iSijS'vTjKa ■;rpo-e/3e,5/i^/C£iv 

7rpov(3a?.lov -tt pov^e (37.7] ice lv 

kfi-f3a?.?.o}, to throw in, kv-e(3a?,?.ov efi-l3E3?.7jxa kv-e^ejBArjKELv 

ky-yiyvofiai, to he in, kv-eyi.yvoiiTjv ky-yh/ova kv-eye^/ovELv 

ov-aKEva^o), to pack up, avv-ECTKEva^ov avv-EaicEvana cvv-EcnEvaKEiv 

sv^piTTTG), to throw togetJier, avv-£^j!)i7rTov cvv-e^^ida avv-£^pi(peiv 

ev?i-?,,£yo), to collect together, cvv-sXEyov crvv-EcXoxa cwv-eikoxsiv 

2. Second rule. Verbs compounded with dvg take the augment 
and reduplication, (a) at the beginning, when the stem of the sim- 
i)!e verb begins with a consonant or a vowel which does not admit 
ihe temporal augment ; (b) but in the middle, when the stem of the 
i^ivnple verb begins with a vowel which admits the temporal aug- 
ment ; e. g. 

(^vr-Tvx£(J, to he unfontmaie, k-dogrixovv . d£-drfrt\:^,7/ca k-de-dvcTVxvKeLV 

cvg-o)T£0), to nuake ashamed,, t-JtrcjTroyy 

(■vr-apeurko, to he disuhasecl, ovc-J/pECJTOvv Cvr-yp£(TT?jKa. 

Verbs compounded with ev may take the augment and reduplica- 
tion at the beginning or in the middle, yet they commonly omit 
iliein ?.t the beginning, and eveQystsco usually in the middle ; e. g. 


ei-rvxto), to be fortunate, tjv-tvxovv, commonly sv-tvxovv 

Ev-ux^ouat, to feast well, ev-ux^^^f^W 

Ev-spyereo), to do good, Ev-ripyirovv, Perf. EV-TipyeTijKa, commonly e'^- 

epyerovv, ev-epyerTjKa. 

3. Third rule. All other compounds take the augment and re- 
duplication at the beginning ; e. g. 

/iv&oXoyeo), to relate, Efiv&oloyovv fiefzv&oloyijKa 

o'tKoSofieo), to build, (pKo66/zovv unoSofiTjKa. 

§ 91. Remarhs. 

1. The six follomng words compounded with prepositions, take the augment 
in both places, \dz. at the beginning of the simple verb and before the preposi- 
tion : 

uix-nExoiiai, to clothe oneself, Impf. Tj/inreixofivv or afnreix- Aor. T^fzirEaxofiVv 
avEXO/xat, to endure, " ijvEtxofivv " rjveaxofiijv 

afttpcyvoio), to be uncertain, *' ij/j.(p£yv6ovv and rjiz^cyv. 

dvopd-ou, to raise up, " 7jvup-&ovv Perf. jjvupd-uKa *' i}vc)p-&(oaa 

t'Vo;^Aea), to molest, " ^vux^ovv " ^v(j;^277/ca *' Tjvux^^rj^^ 

TrapoLveo), to riot, " knapuvovv " 7re7Tapojv7]Ka'' kirapoivrjCia. 

2. The analogy of these verbs is followed by three others, which are not com- 
pounded with prepositions, but are derived from other compound words, viz. 

diaiTuo (from Siaira, food), (a) to feed, (b) to be a judge, Impf eSiyruv and 

di'^Tuv, Perf. dediyTTjKa. 
SiaKoveo), to serve (from Slukovoc, servant), Impf. eSltjkovovv and dcTjKovovVf 

Perf. 6£6i7]K6v?jKa. 
dfi(j}[.aj3T]Teo) (from AM$I2BHTH2, to dispute), Impf. i^n<p£c^7}Tovv and tjIM- 


3. Exceptions to the first rule (§ 90, Ij. There are several verbs compound- 
ed with prepositions, which take the augment before the preposition, since they 
have nearly the same signification as the simple verbs ; e. g. 

dfj.(ptyvoio) (voeu), to be uncertain, Impf. 7][i(pLyv6ovv or 7jfi(peyv6ovv (No. 1) 

d^(pL£vvv(u, to clothe, Aor. t^fKplEaa, Perf. r^ficpcoafiai 

eTriarafiai,, to know, Impf. ?}7Viaruij.7jv 

Ka'&L^o}, to cause to sit, " kKo.'&i^ov, Perf. KEKa-&ih:a 

Ka'&eCofiat, to sit, " e/cai?£-Co/W?7^ and a: aT9^£C- (without Aug.) 

Kif&rjuaL, to sit, " e/caT3^^,«77v ani/caiJ^/^Tyv (without Aug.) 

Ka'&ev6u, to sleep, " EKa&Evdov, seldom Ka'&7]v6ov. 

4. Those verbs fonn an apparent exception to the first rule (§ 90, 1), which 
are not formed by the composition of a simple verb with a preposition, but by 
derivation from a word already compounded (Comp. No. 2) ; e. g. 

kvavrLovfiai, to oppose oneself to, from evavTcog Impf. ?^vavTwvjU7]v 

dvrtdifceu, to defend at law, " avriSiKog " 7]vtl6lkovv 

kjUTreSou, to establish, ** EfiTvedog " ijinzEdovv. 

§ 92. Division of Verbs in -co according to the Characteristic, to- 
gether with Remarhs on the Formation of the Tenses. 

Verbs in -oa are divided into two principal classes, according to 
the different nature of the characteristic (§ 77, 5) : 


I. Pure verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel ; these are again 
divided into two classes : 

A. Uncontracted verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel, except 
a, s, o; e. g. Tzaidev-co, to educate, Xv-co, to loose ; 

B. Contract verbs, whose characteristic is either a, 6 or o ; e. g. 
Tifid-(o, to honor, cpde-co, to love, ^la&o-co, to let. 

II. Impure verbs, whose characteristic is a consonant ; these are 
again divided into two classes : 

A. Mute verbs, whose characteristic is one of the nine mutes ; 
e. g. lEi7t-Gi, to leave, tzIsk-co, to twine, neid--o3, to persuade ; 

B. Liquid verbs, whose characteristic is one of the four liquids, 
I, i^, V, Q', e. g, ayyell-(o, to announce, v^^-co, to divide, 
qjcciv-G), to show, qjdsiQ-w, to destroy. 

Remark. According to the accentuation of the fii-st Pers. Pres. Ind. Act, all 
verbs are divided into, 

(a) Barytones, whose final syllable in the first Pers. Pres. Ind. Act. is not ac- 
cented ; e. g. Xv-o), tcIek-o), etc. ; 

(b) Perispomena, whose final syllable is circumflexed in the first Pers. ; these 
aie consequently contract verbs ', e. g. n^<y, ^iP^w, fjLLcr&d. 

§93. I. Formation of the Tenses of Pure Verbs. 

1. In pure verbs, both Barytones and Perispomena, the tense- 
endings are commonly appended to the unchanged characteristic ; 
e. g. ^ovlev-Gco, §s§ov).EV-y.a. Pure verbs do not form the Second- 
ary tenses, but only the Primary tenses ; the Perf. with a (xa), the 
Put. and Aor. with a ((Joj, ca). Pure verbs, however, are subject 
to the following regular change in the stem : 

2. The short characteristic-vowel of the Pres. and Impf., both in 
Barytones and Perispomena, is lengthened in the other tenses. The 
Barytones will first be considered, thus : 


I into I, e. g. fn]v4a), iir/vt-au, e-pjvl-aa, etc, ; 
V into V, e. g. kuav-(j, koAv-ou, Kt-KCi\v-nai. 

/"J^w, to hinder. ACTIVE. 


Ind. K0}7,v-u Subj. kcj?.v-o) Imp. ,K(l>?'Jj-e Inf. K0}2.v-eiv Part, kcj/.v-uv 
Ind. e-K6? .v-ov Opt. KO)?i.v-oifiL 

Perf. I Tnd. Ke-KC)7,v-Ka Inf. Ke-ncjlv-Kevai Part. K£-fccj?.v-K6^ 
Plnp. I Ind. e-Ke-KuXv-KEiv 


Ind. Ko)Ay-a(^ Opt. Kio?.v-crotfic Inf Ku?,v-Geiv Part. kuM-ccjv 
Ind. e-K(l)?.v-aa Subj. Ku/^v-ao) Opt. Kcj?LV'<Tatfzt 

Imp. Kcj?.v-crov Jnf KO)?.v -(yat Part. KoM-aac- 










KuTiv-o^ac Subj. kuXv-u^j-cl Imp. K(^'kv-ov Inf. KOjXv-ecr&ac 
Part. KO)2,v-6'fievog 
k-K(ji7M-6fn]v Opt. K0}?.v-oi/j.7jv 


S. 1. 




P. 1. 



Ind. Ke-KcoXv'fiat 








KS-KuXv-fievog u 


KE-KuXv-ad-uaav or Ke-Ku?iv-a'&(ov'\ 


S. 1. k-KE-KuXt-fiTjv D. k-K.e-KcoXv-jie'd-ov P. e-tce-KcoXv-fied-a Opt. K£- 

2. k-KB-Ku'Xv-CO k-KE-K0)/iv-O-&0V k-KE-KuXv-G'&E [KuXv-fiS 

3. E-KE-KC)2,V-T0 k-K.e-KldTiV-G'&TjV t-KE-KCJXv-VTO [vOg EtTJV 


Ind. KuXv-GOjiaL Opt. Ku?i.vGoiix?]v Inf. kuav-geg'&cu Part. kw/Id- 


Ind. e-Ko?iv-GdjLirjv Subj. KUAv-GOjuac Opt. Ko)?^v-Gac[iT}v Imp. 
KidXv-Gai Inf. K(d}:V-GaG-d-aL Pait. Kco/^v-Gafj.Evog. 



Ind. E-KoTiv-'d-riv Subj. /cw/lC'-'i9^u Opt. Ko)?iv--&Eir/v 

Imp. KCd7\,i--&r]TL Inf. KcoXv-d-^^vac Part. K0)2,v--&Etg 

Ind. KO)%v-'&'^Go/j.aL Opt. k(i)?iv--&t]goi/j.7]v Inf. KoXv--&7JGEGd-ac 
Part. Ko7M-'&jjG6fiEvog. 

"§"94. FerSs which, cordrary to the rule, retain the short Gharacier- 
istic-vowel in forming the Tenses. 

1. Several pure verbs, contraiy to the rule (§ 93, 2), retain the short charac- 
teristic-vowel, either in all the tenses, or at least in some tenses. Most of these 
verbs take a c in the Perf Mid. or Pass, and in the first Aor. Pass. This is 
indicated by the phrase, Pass, with a (see § 95). Thus : 

Xptu, to pjicJc, Put. XP^<^"j -A.or. EXpi-^f^j Inf- XP'^^^^''- Pass, with g ; (but ;t P ^ "» 
to anoint, Put. ;^;picrcj, Aor. Expl(yct, Inf xP~^^^'-j -^or. Mid. expl(^a/j,?]v ; Perf. 
Mid. or Pass. KEXpLGfiai, KEXplG-d-at ; Aor. Pass. ixP'-^'^V'^)' 

'Avvu, to complete, Put. avvGu ; Aor. rjvvGa. Pass, with c 

aptu, to draw water, Put. apvGio ; Aor. rjpvGa. Pass, with c. 

tf V w, to cZose, e. g. f/ie eyes, Put. fivGu, Aor. E/avGa ; but Perf. fisfivKa, I am shutj 
am silent. 

iTTvo), to spit, Put. TTTVGG) ; Aor. ETTTVGa. Pass, with <r. 

ISpvo), to cause to sit, Put. IdpvGo; Aor. Idpv-Ga {later IdpvGo, cSpvGa)- Aor. 
Pass. I6pv'&7]v. 

2. The following dissyllables in -^o lengthen the short characteristic- vowel 
in the Put. and Aor. Act. and Mid., and Svu also in the Perf and Plup. Act., 
but they resume the short vowel in the Perf. and Plup. Act. (except dvo), also 
in the Mid. or Pass., and in the Aor. and Put. Pass. : 

6v 0), to wrap up, Put. dvGO) Aor. Mvca Perf. SsdvKa Ssdyftai, Aor. Pass, kdt^rjv 
^ i 0), to sacrijice, " d^vGo " E-&vGa " te-^vku TE'& " " krv'&rjv 
2, 'S u, to loose, " ^uffw " hXvGa " TiE'XvKaTi.D.vnai. " " kXv'&riv 




Kemlark. When the vowel in the Put. Act. is long, and short in the Perf. 
Mid. or Pass., the Put. Perf. resumes the long vowel, both in uncontracted verbs 
and in contract pure verbs ; e. g. Avw, XElvaofiat. 

§ 95. Formation of the Aor. and Fut. Pass., and Perf. and Plup. 

Mid. or Pass, with a. 

1. Pure verbs which retain the short characteristic- vowel of the stem in form- 
ing the tenses, insert a (Comp. § 94) before the tense-ending -i9-?;v, -jiaL, etc. in 
the Aor. and Put. Pass., and in the Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass. ; this g con- 
nects the endings to the tense-stem ; e. g. 

T£7\,£-(j) k-TE7i,E-G-'d-7]V TE-TsXE-a-fXat 

T£2,E-a-'&f]aOlxai £-T£-T£/iE-a-fC7]V. 

2. Besides these verbs, several others also, which either have a long character- 
istic-vowel in the stem, or lengthen it in fonning the tenses, take the same forma- 
tion ; e. g. uKovcj, to hear, Aor. jjkov-g--&7]v, Put. aKov-a--&i]GOfJLaL, Perf. tikov-g-, Plup. ^Kov-G-Utjv; Evavu, to kindle; keTievo, to command; kv/ucj, to roU ; 
Xevo), to stone; ^vo, to scrape; Trpco), to saiv; geIco, to shake; XP'-^^ ^o anoint (§ 94) j 
^avcj, to touch, etc. 

keXevg), to command. ACTIVE. 

Pres. KE?iEv-o) Perf. ke-keXev-ku Put. 
Impf. £'KE?.£v-ov Plup. e-ke-keXev-kelv AOr, 




KEXEv-ojxaL Impf e-keTiev-o^tjv I 

Perf. S. 1. 

Ind. 2. 





P. 1. 











KE-KE/i^EV'-G-flEVOL eIgL 




KE-KE?lEV-Gd-0)GaV ( 






K£-liE?iEV-G-/J,£V0g 0) 
)r K£-K£2,£V-G-&0)V] 

Plup. S. 1. 

Ind. 2. 


£-K£-K£?i£V-G-flT]V D. E-KE-liE?[,£V-G-fl£'&OV P. 
E-KE-K£?iEV-GO £-KE-KeXeV-G-&0V 
E-KE-KeXeV'G-TO E-li£-K£?i£V-G-&r]V K 

£-K£?i£V-G-fJ.EV0C TJGaV 


KE-KE^lEV-G-^EVOg eItjV | 


KslEVGOfiat Put. Perf. KE-KE%£V-G0p.aL 

A-or. E-K£?iEV-Gajur]v. | 


Aorist 1 E-KE'kEv-G--&rfv Puture K.E'kEv-G--d-r]c 

'Ofxac. 1 

Eem. 1. Some vary between the regular formation and that with g. 
■& pavci,to break in pieces, T£-&pavGfzai and rEd-pav/nac, £-&pavG-&riv 
kXeIo), to shut, KEK?iELGfiai and Att. KEK?.riij,ac ; Aor. ekXeIg^tjv. 
Kpov Q, to strike upon, KSKpovfiat and KEKpovGiuat ; Aoi*. kKpovG^rjv. 
Rem. 2. Some contrary to the rule, do not take g, although th^y retain the 
short characteristic-vowel ; thus, e. g. 6vo), ■&vu, ?d'C), mentioned § 94, 2. 



XLm. Vocabulary, 

Al(jd-dvofiai,w. gen. or ace., dpofiog, -ov, 6, a course, «ara-7ravw, to put a stop 
to perceive, observe. running. to. 

uamg, -l6o^, ?;, a shield, divafiig, -eug, i], strength, upovco, to knock, beat. 

6eLvC)g, terribly, violently, power, might. cunpidq, -ov, 6, an earth- 

extraordinarily, -^pavu), to break, shatter, quake. 

crush. oeiio, to shake. 

01 arparcuTai Trpof roi)f TroXe/iiovg Tzopevecr&at eKE^evG'&Tjaav. 'ZTtaprTj ttots 

ixb asLafiov deivibg kaeia'&r]. 'H rdv ILepa&v dvvafiig vnb tuv 'FJJirjvav rei?- 

pavarat. 01 TroXefzioi eig rrjv uKpav KareKXeccrd-Tjdav. "Ore ol (^dp[3apoc tuv 

a(77ri6o)v Tzpog ra dopara vtto tuv 'HXXtjvuv KCKpovcrfievuv ycr&avovro, dpofxcj 

ecpevyov. '0 TVoAefiog KareTrava'&j]. 

The soldiers are ordered to march against the enemies. Our town has been 
violently shaken by an earthquake. The might of the Persians was crushed by 
the Hellenes. The enemies have been shut up in (into) the castle. The shields 
were beaten by the enemies against their spears. The war is ended, i. e. has 
been put a stop to. 

-'^ § 96. C ontr act Pure Verbs. 

1. Contract pure verbs, as has been seen § 92, are such as have 
for their chai-acteristic a, e or o, which are contracted with the mode- 
vowel following. Contraction takes place only in the Pres. and 
Impf. Act. and Mid. or Pass., because, in these two tenses only, is 
the characteristic-vowel followed by another vowel. 

2. The following are the contractions which occur here : 

a -\- E becomes 

1 d 

E -j- a 








£ -hv 

a -\- 



e -f- 

a -{- 0) 



e 4" w 

a -{- EC 



E -\- Et 

a-{- oc 



e -\- OL 

a ~r ov 



E -\- ov 

= Et 

-j- E 

= OV 

= V 


= 0) 

= V 

+ V 

= ot 

= ov 


= ov 

= 0) 

-}- (J 

= 0) 

= EC 

-h Et 

= 01 {ov in Inf.) 

= Ot 

-\- ot 

= ot 

= OV 

-\- OV 

= ov. 

3. The tenses of contract verbs, as has been seen § 93, are form- 
ed like those of uncontracted pure verbs, i. e. the short characteris- 
tic-vowel is usually lengthened, in forming the tenses, viz. 

£ into jy, e. g. qjils-co, to love, q)iX?]-a(o, ne-cpilrj-y.a, etc. 

into 0), e. g. i-ua&o-co, to let out, fuo&m-aoo, pie-i^iiad^co-y.a, etc. 

a into 7], e. g. Tifxd-03, to honor, xtjiri-Goo, TE-rifxrj-y.a, etc. 

a into «, e. g. f«-co, to 'permit, Fut. ki-6U). This lengthening 
into a occurs, when f, i or q precedes (Comp. § 26, 1) ; e. g. 

la-(x), ta-Goi; iMidia-co, to laugh, [(Fidtd-ooficu; (^mqa-oi, to catch 


a thief ^ qpco^ja-dco (but syyvu-(o, to give as a pledge^ iyyv/jam; 
poa-oo, to erg out, ^o^-ao[j,ai, like oydo?]). To these verbs be- 
long the following: 

dlod-oj, to thresh, dXou-acOj 

dnQod-Oficti, to hear, dxQod-aofJiai. 

Remark. The verbs ,t p a w, to give an oracle, xpciofiai, to use, and r it pact, 
fo bore, although a p precedes, lengthen a into rj ; e. g. xpV^^^l^^h Tp7J<fu. The 
Dxceptions to rule No. 3. will be stated in § 98. 





Paradigms op 





3 a) 


Characteristic a. 

Characteristic e. 

Characteristic o. 


S. 1. 







TLfj,{d-o))u), to honor, 







(j)tX{£-o))G), to love, 





fj,t(r&{6-o))(J, to let, 

















Ttfi(d-cd)d)-cii{v) ^ 




















P. 2. 




Tifj,{a-E)d-TO)aav or 



<l)cX{£-£) Ec-Tuaav or 








or fiiG-&{o-6)ov-vro)v 





















































Contract Verbs. 



Characteristic a. 

Characteristic e. 

Characteristic o. 















<pL%{£-£) El-ad- E 



fI.LG-&(0-6) ov-fi£-&a 


















/J,LGt3-{o-u) 6-fJ.E^OV 



fj,iG-&(6-a)) (b'Vrat 

TLfi(a-£)d-ad-o}Gav or 



(l)-iX(£-£)£c-G-&o)Gav or 



liLG-d ip-E)ov-G-d-a) 

/J.LG'&lo-£)oV-G'&CJGaV OT 



































k/j.tG-&lo-6) ov-[i£^a 











Characteristic a. 

Characteristic £. 

Characteristic o. 






P. 1. 









































/J.LG-& {0-OL)oi-rifi£V 













Ti/ii7/(TC) (pupuao 




ETLijLi]aa k<p6)pilGa 





Aorist, 1 £Tt/J,'^-&7]V £(pUpu-&7]V \ i:(j)C?i7J-&TJV \ EflL(J-&cJT3^7}V j 

Verbal adjectives : TLu.7]-r£0^, -via, -riov, <po)na-T£og, -teg, -teov, 

% 97. Hemarks on the Conjugation of Contract 


1. Verbs in -eo) with a monosyllabic stem, e. g. Tr/'^eu, to sail, ttvecj, to breathe^ 
-d^eti, to run, are contracted only in el (arising from ££i or ee), bnt in all the 
Other forms, they are uncontracted ; e. g. 

Act. Pr. Ind. ir?j£ o, 7i7i£lg, tt/^eI, ttXeo /uev, 7t7ueIt£, ttXeovgl {v). 

Subj. ttAcw, itXet} g, TrTiETj, irl i u /iev, Tr7,£ rj t e, ttXe oa i{v). 
Imp. ttXeI. Inf. 7r?iEiv. Part. -ttXe ov, tt 2, i a v g a, tt A e o v. 

Impf. Ind. £7r?t,£0V, ElZ/iEig, ETtXeC, ETTAEO flEV, £TT?.eIt£, £7i?y£0V. 

Opt. TrXioifJ.i, ttXeo i g, etc. 
Mid. Pr. Ind. 7r?^£0 /j. a c, ttXej}, 7r?:EiTac, rrXEOfiE-d-ov, ir/.EiGd^ov, etc 
Inf. 7z7.ElG-&ai. Part. ttXeo fiEv og. Impf eTrXEo /zijv. 

2. The verb Seu, to hind, is commonly contracted in all the forms, particti' 
larly in compounds ; e. g. rd dovv, rov dovvrog, dLadovfzai, KarEdovv. 

3. Several verbs deviate from the general rules of contraction ; e. g. 

(a) -as and -aei are contracted into -v and -??, instead of into -a and -a ; e. g. 





Characteristic a. 

Characteristic e. 

Characteristic o. 













(pt7i{£-0 i)oi-VTO 








filGd^ (6-01)0 1- G-&£ 










TLfirjaoiiai foipuGOfiaL 



ETLiirjGafiriv k^opuGdfirjv 



T£TL/l7fG0jJ,ai 7rE(po)puGOjuai 



1 Future, | Tijj.ri'd-fjGOfiaL (pupd'&rjGOjiai | (ptTiTj-d-riGOfiai j fiiG'&u'&rjGO^ai, 

(pikrj-Teog, -rea, -reov, fiiG^B-co-reog, -Tea, -teov. 

^( d- 6) ) (3, to live, C^r, -^, -^rov, -?jte, Inf. ^yv, Imp. CVi Impf. eCov, -j]c, 
-7], -TJTOv, -TjT'qv, -TjTE ; — TT ELv{d-u))ib, to hunger^ Inf. tteiv^v, etc. ; — 
6i7p{d-o))C), to thirst, ditp^g, etc., Inf. 6Lipyv ; — k v(d-o))(b, to scrape, 
Inf. Kvyv ; — g fi (d-u) (J, to smear, Inf. Gfiyv ; — tp ( d - w ) w, to rub, Inf. 
tpyv ; — X p{d-o)o)-fiai, to use, XPV) XPV'^^^h XPV<^'^<^f- ; so dnoxpi^fiai; 
to have enough, to abuse, uTcoxpvG'&aL ; — d tt ox pv (abridged from d-Koxpy), 
it suffices, Inf aTroxpyv, Impf. aTCExpv ', — X p { « - w ) CJ, to give an oracle, to 
prophesy, xpfiC, XPV^ Inf XPW- 
(b) -00 and -oe are contracted into -w, instead of into -ov, and -ori into -w, in- 
stead of into -01, in /5 1 7 ( 6 - w ) w, to freeze, Inf l)LyC}v and j^tyovv, Part. 
Gen. ()Ly(bvTog and ^tyovvrog, Subj. ^tyoj, Opt. ^cyc6r]v, etc. 
4. The following things are to be noted on the use of the Attic forms of the 
Opt. in -7}v, namely, in the Sing, of verbs in -£u and -6w, the form in -oitjv is 
much more in use than the common form, and in verbs in -du it is used almost 
exclusively ; but in the Dual and PL of all three, the common fonn is more in 
use ; in the third person PI., the Attic form is always the same as the common 
form ; e. g. Tifx(J)£v. 


5. The verb 7.ovu,to wash, though properly not a contract, admits contrac- 
tion in all the fomis of the Impf. Act. and of the Pres. and Impf. Mid., in the 
ending of which there is -e or -o ; e. g. e^iov instead of eXove, elovfzsv instead 
of klovofiev, Mid. Tiov/iai, (Tioet,) lovrat, etc.. Imp. Aou, Inf. lovtr&ai, Impf. 
eXovfiTjv, klov, eXovro, etc., as if from the stem AOEQ. 

Remark. On the change of the accent in contraction, see §11, 2 . 

XLIV. Vocalmlary. 
(a) Contract Verbs in -aw in the Pres. and Impf. Act. 

AyaTrdw, to love. ^a,u>, to live. ttptv, w. inf., before. 

a&avarog, -ov, immortal. ?j2,LKia, -ag, rj,,especial- Trug; how? 

a^Xiugy miserably, unfor ly youth or manhood. aLuirao), to be silent. 

tunately. ■d-al)^aleo)g, boldly, cour- avyKVKau, to move to- 

dAC/i^,-:7r,^, a point, height, ageously. gether, bring into con- 

fiill power, bloom. idea, -ag, t], an appear- fusion, confound. 

aarpaivTCi, to lighten. ance, an outward figure, av/i/xaxog, -ov, fighting 

Bpovrau, to thunder. vlkuu, to conquer, over- with ; suhst, a fellow- 

SLTpacj, to thirst, or be come. combatant, or ally. 

thirsty. dXo(pvpo/xat,i(;.acc.,to'pitj. teXevtucj, to finish, {[3iov 

dpdu, to do, act. opdu, to see. understood) to die. 

E^-aTiarao, to completely dpfcau, to rush, advance. To2./LcaG), to dare, venture, 

deceive, or mislead. irecvau, to hunger, or be prevail upon oneself. 

ipao), w. gen., to love (ar- hungry. 


JloXkamg yvcjfiijv k^aTraribaiv ideal. Mrj ae vlkcltg) Kspdog. 'Epu T^f ape- 
TTjg. Ti.o}JXaKLg vlko. Kal KCKog uvdpa ayad-ov. 01 ayad-ol epuat rtjv Kokuv. 
TLoX^x-ol av&pcjTTOL ev rrj rrjg 7}?UKt,ag aK/j-y reTievTuatv. "H ctuTva, Jj "keye aiiei- 
vova. 'AvayKJ] earl Tvavrag avd-pcorrovg re7\,evrav. No7)f bpa Kal vovg uKovei. 
Qaf)()a')ieQg, c) crpaTLuraL, bpfiujiev eTvl rovg TroXejutovg. Tlplv [xev Trecvyv, ttoTi- 
Xol k(T&iovcL, Ttpcv 6e Sitpyv, ttIvovglv. Ovk Igtl Tolg fir} dpum cv/ujuaxog rvxV' 
TLepLKkTjg rjarpaizTev, efSpovra, avveKVKa rrjv 'EXAd(5a. 'EX-d-e iravreg Traldeg 
roilg yoveag ayaircliev. Jidg av Tokjx^rjv rov (j)l7mv (SkaizreLv ; To [lev oufia 
TCoXkctKig Kal Tretvy Kal Scdj^ ■ rj de ipvxv Trwf uv ?} Siipcj/fj ?) TreivcoTj ; "^vx^? a-&d' 
varog Kal uyrjpug ^fj 6iu Tzavrog. Kpeirrov to //;; ^yv eariv rj ^■^v ad-lccog. '0?.0' 
^vpofied-a tov ev ry rrjg ?j?uKcag uKjuy reXevTuvra. 

Children love their (the) parents. Either be silent [pi.) or speak better. 
With the mind [dot.) we see and hear. Youths should be silent {imp.). "We 
will love virtue. All citizens fear (fear holds all citizens) that {(irj, w. suhj.) the 
enemies will advance against the iGwn.. It is well to love om- parents. We 
pity those who die [paH.) in the bloom of youth {rjlLKia). The soldiers ad- 
vanced courageously against the town. The army is often hungry and thirsty. 
All the citizens feared, that the enemies would nish against the town. May 
you always, boy, love your parents ! 


XLV. Vocabulary. 

(b) Contract Verbs in -ew in the Pres. and Impf. Act. 

k'&vfiEO, to be dispirited, -^elo and ti^t-Aw, to will, well to, to confer a fa- 
despair, wish, be willing. vor on. 

ufj,e%£0), w. gen., to neg- kuv, w. subj. = kcc and Tcovto, laioro, to take tron- 

lect, not to care for. the modal adverb uv, or ble, work, toil. 

uv (instead of tav), w. ical eav, even if, al- TrpocrJo/caw, to expect, pre- 

subj., if. though ; or nac and the sume. 

d7ro/5/5e6), to flow away, or particle av. j^iip, ^ittoq, 6, ij, a reed- 

from. icpareo), w. gen., to be mas- ayau, to be silent 

uaKeo), to practise, adorn. ter of, have power over, avTiXa/ifSavo), w. dot., to 

Jfw, w. gen., to want ; del, command. take in common with, 

there is need, it is ne- laleco, to talk, prate. help, assist. 

cessary, one must ; w. [LoktaTa, {superlative of cvfxrcoveci, w. dot., to work 

a£C. and inf. [idXa, very) most, es- with, help, assist. 

6vaTVX^(^i to be uufortu- pecially. reAeWjto accomplish, fulfil, 

nate. [praise, iitki, -ltoq, to, honey. vrrep, w. gen., instead or in 

kTraiveo), to approve of, fi^re — fivTe, neither — nor. behalf of, on account 

EVTvxeo), to be fortunate, ovSeizore, never. of; w. ace., above, be- 

happy. ttIso), to sail. yond. 

evxVf -VC, Vi a request, a ttoieu, to make, do ; ev ^poveo, to think ; jueya 

prayer. Troielv, w. ace., to do cppovelv, to be haughty. 

'AjVTjp TTOVTjpbg 6vgTVX£i, K.UV EVTvxy. BiOf KpuTLGTog, av ■&vfiov^ Kparyg. 2i- 
y^v /idTiTiov, rj Xa2.eiv irpeirei. "O re av Tcotijre, vofii^ere 6pav d-eov. ^i2,og 
^i2,Q (TVfiTTOVcov avTG)^ TTOvel. 01 av&pcoTTot ■d-vrjTol firj (ppovovvrav vrrep •&eovg 
'0 fiakLGTa evTvxCiv jit) jxeya ^poveiru. OvSeTzoT' a-&vfiecv rbv KUKug TrpdrTOvra 
del, TO, (Selricj 6e TzpogdoK&v del. Tw tzovovvtl -Q-ebg avllafijSdvet. AiKaioav- 
VTjv daKelre Kal epyCf) Kal \by(^. 'ATtd rfig "NeaTopog ylurrijg, ugirep fxeT^i, 6 2,6- 
yog Q;7r£/5/5ei. 'O liUKpdrrjg rov cu)fiarog ovk rjiieXei, rovg 6e dfieXovvrag oin 
ETTyvEt. Fd-d-E, 0) d-Eog, TETiOCTjg {reXoig) (lot rr)v evxw- Eii9-£ evTVXOiTe (evrw- 
Xoctjte), tj (piXoi. Qeov ■&£2,ovTog,^ kuv (Kal dv) ettI ^LTrbg TzTisoig. 

Bad men are unfortunate, even if they are fortunate. If God were willing, 
we could sail even on a reed. Whatever thou doest, believe, God sees it. 
Friends, who work mth friends, work for themselves. Practise justice in word 
and deed. The Greeks neglected neither the body nor the mind. O that ye, 
O gods, would fulfil my desire! that thou wert happy, my (0) friend! 
Priends should work with friends ! It is well to practise virtue. 

XL VI. Vocahulary. 

(c) Contract Verbs in -ow in the Pres. and Impf. Act 

Afiavpou, to darken, de- dfii?.eia, -ag, rj, careless- av&pcoTnvog, -ij, -ov, hn- 
Btroy, weaken, blunt. ness. man. 

* § 158, 7. (a). 2 ^ 161, 5 ' Genitive Absolute. 


c7ro/5/5o^, -vc, Vj a flowing ^rjTSG), to seek, strive. ops^Lg, -ewf, i], a striving 

off, a source. C^, -^^f, ^> life. after, a desii-e. 

doTioci, to outwit, trick, i?6rof, -a, -ov, godlike, opi^ocj, to make straight, 

deceive. divine. erect, raise up. 

6ov16q, to enslave, sub- Iva, in order that, that, ovte-^ovts, neither — ^nor. 

jugate. (after a principal tense dairep, rjirep, onep, who- 

k2,ev-&ep6uy to set free, to with the subj. ; after a ever, whatever. 

free. historical tense with the avv-e^-ofioLoo), to make e- 

e^KToo), to make equal. opt.). quaJ. 

^7]X6o), to strive after, imi- icoivcovta, -ag, t], commu- TvcpTiocj, to make blind, to 

tate, value, think hap- nion, intercourse. blind. 

py, admire. Ai//6f, -ov, 6, hunger. ;i;a/l£7r<jf, with difficulty. 

Td a?L7]-&ec /caA/lof, OTrep ek d-eiag Koivuviag exet rrjv a7ropf>o^v, ovre irovog Tj 
TiLfibg T] anekeia ng, ovre 6 TroXvg xpovog ufiavpol. Al ^iXiai, ra I'&r} l^rjTovci, 
GVVE^ofioLovv. Xa/l£7ruf av ralg ruv ayad-uv dpEralg k^iaoirjg [k^LGoig) rovg 
ETvaivovg. 'Evvo/j.ia ajiavpol v(3pLv. T^rfkov, u iral, Tovg Ea'&?bOvg Kat GO)(ppovag 
avSpag. 'n.oA,?>.ovg Katccog Tcparrovrag bp-&ol rvxV- H/l^iJof KaKcbv rrjv av&pu- 
mvrjv ^cdTjv ajiavpol. Al iTEpc ri a(po6pal ops^Etg rv(l>2,ovGLv Etg raXTiO^ ttjv Tpv- 
XVV. T?/v apETTjv Kal Trjv ao<fiav l^rj^Cifxev. Xpvaog egtlv 6 6ov?iCJv ■&vr]T(ov 
^psvag. 01 TvoXifitoL rb arpdrEVfia ij/iuv EdoXovv. 01 VEaviat ttjv ao(j)iav f??- 
Aoicv. 01 TioXefJiLOL £TT?iT](7la^ov, Iva rovg aixfiaTiurovg eXEV&epolev. 

The violent stri"\ing after anything makes the soul blind for everything else. 
The enemies approach, in order that they may free the prisoners. Imitate, O 
youths, noble and wise men ! It is not easy to make praise equal to the vir- 
tues of the good. We love youths who sti-ive {particip.) after wisdom. The 
enemies freed the prisoners. May %dolent desh-e not make your soul blind for 
everything else. Youths should strive after vulue. 

XLVn. Vocabulary. 

(d)ContractVerbs in-aoin the Pres. and Impf. Mid. orPass. 

'AdvvaTEO), to be unable. set my mind or heart [irixo-vaoiiaL, mdcMnor, to 

aeiKjjg, -ig, unseemly, dis- upon, desire. contrive. 

graceful. Evepyerco), w. ace, to do dfiocug, in like manner, 

ciKpodofxai, IV. gen., to hear^ well to, benefit. alike. 

listen to. ?]6ofiai, w. pass. aor. and TZEipdofiai, iv. pjass. aor., to 

d^i6cj{TivdTtvog),tot'hYak /wf., to rejoice. try. 

deserving, consider wor- 7]/u.spodp6/uog, -ov, 6, (run- ri/xdu, to esteem, honor. 

thy, desire, wish. ning thi'ough the day,) v7r6dr]/j.a,-aTog, to, (bound 

yap, for. a courier. under) a sandal, a shoe. 

EiTE — eIte, sive — sive ; idofiat, to heal. xP^^jiai, w. dot., to use ; 

whether — or. fiaKapiog, -a, -ov, blessed, utor. 

inf&vfXEO), w. gen. or inf., to happy. dcpelio), w. ace, to benefit 

'O/ioiag dfi<()ocv uKpoda'&ac Sec. "Orav udvvaryg rCi irTiOvro) ;j^o^o-i?ai, ri Sia- 

* By Crasis instead of ra d/lAa. 


depeig tov TcivijTOC ; EtJvonf 7^6yoc "kvTzriv lurat. TifitJfzevot navrer r/^ovrai 
BpoToL 01 av&pwKOL TcoTJ^d, [jLrixcvuvTat. Maicapiog, or ovaiav koI vovv exei ' 
XpvTai yap elg a* del Ka'kug. 'O aya-&bg vTvd tvuvtuv rifiuTat. VXcjttt}^ irecpQ 
Kparelv. UepcKXTJg iitb tuv 'Ad-rjvaiuv rp/aTTaro not ctijuuto. 01 i//j.epodp6fioi 
OVK kxpCJvTO viTodfifiaGLv kv ralg odoic- Ovic aeiKec, lav tlq vif ex'&piov l^aTza- 
Tarat. Eii9-e iravreg yovelg vurb tuv t£Kvuv uyaTruvro. 01 uya&ol viro ttciv- 
Tuv uyaTTctaduv. Eire vtvo (piXuv 'f&D^Eig uyaTzaa'&ai, rovg ^tZcwf evepyirei, 
eiTS VTzo Tivog Tro/leajf eiri'&v/j.elg Ttftu(7-&at, tt/v -noJav ix'ftku, elre VTvd rfjg 'E/U 
/iacJof Tzaarjg u^ioig Itt' upery d-avfia^ead-at, rf/v 'KXXuda Tretpu ev -kouIv. 

Listen to both, in like manner, judge ! It is not disgraceful if we are de- 
ceived by enemies. Kind words heal soitow. Man rejoices in being {part.) 
honored by others. We wish to be loved by our friends and honored by the 
citizens. Among {Tzapa, w. dot.) the Lacedaemonians old men were extraordi- 
narily honored. Let the good man always be loved and honored by all. The 
judge should hear both. 

XL VIII. Vocabulary. 
(e) ContractVerbsin-ew in thePres. and Irapf. Mid. or Pass. 

^AdcKeo), zv. ace, to do Irog, -eog ■= -ovg, to, a tnd. fut, after verbs of 

wrong to, injure, do in- year. care. 

justice. iaxvpog, -a, -6v, strong, "Klriaiog, -a, -ov, near ; ol 

aideofiai, w. ace, to be powerful. irTiTjalov, those near, 

ashamed before any one, KaTa-t^poveu, w. gen., to neighbors, fellow-men. 

reverence, esteem, wor- despise ; pass., /cara^/jo- TroXiopKeu, to besiege. 

ship. vio/nai, to be despised. Trpog-TroLeu, to add; mid., 

i.rcLaTECi, w. dot., to disbe- T^oidopeci, to scold, abuse. to acquu'e, claim, or 

lieve 5 pass., airLcreofiat, filaiu, to hate. make for oneself. 

to be disbelieved. 'dTzug, how ; in order that ; ^o/3eo, to frighten ; viid. 

airo-Xvaig, -ecjg, v, dehv- v). subj., after a princi- w. pass, aor., to be fright- 

erance, liberation. pal tense ; w. opt, after ened, fear. 

deofiai, w. pass. aor. and an historical tense; w. 

gen., to want, need. 

Aldov ■&e6v. Tov dya-Q-bv avdpa tzolov tralpov. ^iTiovvTEg <pL7MvvTat, fii- 
(TOvvTsg ULaovvTat. Tov laxvpbv del Trpdov^ elvat, bitug ol 7r?i7j(7iov alduvTai 
uaXkov, Tj (bo^LdVTat. Al6el(y&at 6el ^iTiovg. ' AinaTOvvTaL ol 7id7<,oi, kuv u2.7}- 
^evcjatv. 01 Uepaat V7ib tuv ''EaTJJjvuv e/iiaovvTO Kot KarecppovovvTO. 'O fir}- 
6ev ddncdv ovdevbg delTau^ vofzov. Tpoia 6eKa eTrj vrrb tuv 'EAa^vov eiroXiop- 
Kelra. Ol noXlrai e(po(3ovvTo, fir} t] TroTicg TroXtopKolTO. Aocdopovfievog (pipe ' 6 
yhp XotSopuv, eav b XoLdopovfievog firj TtpogTzoLrjTat, XoiSopelTat TiOidopQv. Mij- 
6elc (po^eia'&u d-avarov, diroXvatv KaKcJv. 

Worship (pi) God. One who loves (part.) is loved, one who hates (parr.) 
is hated. Those who do no (not) injustice (pa?t.) need no law. The king of 
the Persians was hated and despised by the Hellenes. The citizens fear, that 

* Instead of elg ravTa, elg a. ^ See § 48. ' § 158, 5. (a). 



the town will be besieged by the enemies. May you make {pi) good men your 
friends. Parents delight to be honored {part.) by their children. It is not 
disgraceful to be hated by the bad. 

XLIX. Vocabulary, 
(f) ContractVerbs in-6w in thePres. and Impf. Mid. orPass. 

AIkt], -rjg, r], strength. e^-afiavpou, afiavpou juspil^G}, to part, divide. 
yavpoo), to make proud ; strengthened by e^, (yap^, -ptcog, i], flesh. 

mid. w. pass, aor., to be page 107. raTretvou, to bring low, 

proud, pride oneself in. ^ruiiou, to punish. himible. 

Srjlou, to make known or ^i^of, -eog = -ovc, to, cus- {iTrep^^avof, -ov, haughty, 

evident, show. tom, manner, the char- proud. 

kvavTioofzaL, w. dot., ad- acter. x^^poofJ-at, to worst, sub- 

versor, to oppose, resist, uT]Te — ^^re, neither — nor. due, subjugate. 


AovXovfie&a ry capKj} Kal roZg Trud-eatv. 'Ttto r^f avayKrjc iravra (JovXov- 
TUL raxv. 'H (})t2,ia etc 'TvoT^.Xovg fiepi^oizevTf k^afiavpovTat. Toi)g (pi\ovg klev- 
d^epufiev, Toi>g 6s ex'd^povg ;\;£ipw/zei?a. M^ yavpov ao<pia,^ firjT' oKk^, iltits T'kov- 
TG). Td fi-&og fiaXLara ek tuv epyuv 6rj7iOVTat. '0 vTvepTJcpavog raTrecvoiTO. Oi 
Ka\6v earc, rrj aocpia yavpovd'&aL. 01 roZg ay&'&olg evavriovfievoi d^toi eIgl ^tj- 
u,iov<T&aL. 01 arpariuTat vtzo tuv jSapf^apuv kdoTiovvro. HavTEg KaKol ^7}- 


The immoderate are enslaved to the flesh and the passions. Be {pi.) not 
proud of your wisdom {dat.). May the haughty be brought low. It is dis- 
graceful to thwart the good. The citizens fear, that they may be subjugated by 
{vTco, w. gen.) the enemies. Cowardly (bad) soldiers are punished by the gene- 
ral. One who prides himself in {part.) his (the) wisdom {dat.) is not wise. 

§ 98. Contract Verbs which, contrary to the rule, retain the short 
Characteristic-vowel informing the Tenses. 

1. As in several unconti'acted pure verbs, the short characteristic- vowel is re- 
tained (§94) contrary to the rule in forming the tenses ; so also in several con- 
tract verbs. Most of these verbs take a cr in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, and in tho 
first Aor. Pass., and the tenses derived from both of these forms. This is indi- 
cated by the phrase. Pass, with a (§ 95). They are the following: 

(a) -aw. 
y e7i,au,to laugh, Put. yEXaaofiaL ; Aor. kyiXaaa. Pass, with a. 
k%au (usually eAauvw), to drive, Put. eTiaao (Att. e/iw, § 83), etc. 
d^Xacj, to bruise, '&Xaao, etc. Pass, with a. 
K X a 6), to breah, /cAatrw, etc. Pass, with cr. 
Xalao), to loosen, ;^;a/la(Tw, etc. Pass, with c 

> 4 161, 2. (a), {d). 2 § 161, 3. 


dafiau (usually Safxd^u), to subdue, Aor. tSufj,dcra, Pass, with a. 

irepau, to transport, to sell, Fut. Trepuccj ; Aor. kiripuaa ; Perf. TttivipaKa ; but 

irepao, to pass over (Intrans.), Fut. Trepdau; Aor. hTzepaaa. (These seven 

verbs have a liquid before the characteristic- vowel a). 
CTrau, to draw, cTzaau, etc. Pass, with c 
cxo-i-i, to hose, to open, axaao), etc. 

(b) -66). 

ax eo fiat, to heal, uKEC0[iat, ijKEad/j,T}v ; Peif. Mid. or Pass. ^Keafiai ; Aor. Pass. 


uTiio), to grind, to beat, Fut. a Aw (§ 83) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. akrjleanaL (§89). 

apKeo, to suffice, etc. Pass, with cr (also to be sufficient). 

E/ieo), to vomit, Fut. kfietyo, etc. ; Perf. Act. kfirjuEKa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, e/z^- 

[lEafiaL (§ 89). 
few, to boil, usually intrans., and ^evvv(il, usually trans. Pass, with o-. 
f eo, to sa-ape. Pass, with a. — re /lew, to accomplish, Fut. teTlu (§ 83). Pass. 

with a. 
Tpiu, to tremble. — x ^ "> ^o pour. 

Remark. The following have in some tenses the long, in others, the short 
vowel : 

alvEU, to praise, Fut. aivsaco ; Aor. yvEaa ; Perf. yvEKa ; Aor. Pass, fve&rjv , 

but Perf. Mid. or Pass. Tivrjfiai. 
alpEO), to take, Aor. Pass, ypi^rjv ; also tj ; e. g. alp^ao), yprjKa, ypr/fiai. 
yafiEO), to marry, Fut, yafiu (§ 83) ; Aor. iyrj^ia ; Perf. yEydfXTjKa ; Aor. Pass. 

Eyaiifi-&7jv {I was taken to wife). 
6 £0), to bind, dijcro), Edrjaa, k67]adfj,7]v ; but dsSsKa, didefxai, eSe^tjv ; Fut. Perf. 

dEdr/ao/xac, which takes the place of the Fut. Pass. dE-d-rjaoiiai not used by 

the Attic writers. 
KaTuEUjto call, Fut. Kalu (§ 83) ; Aor. EKalecra ; Perf. Act. KEK^TjKa ; Perf. Mid. 

or Pass. KEK?, lam called; Fut. Perf KEK?i^aofiat, I shall be called; Aor. 

Pass. EK?i7J'&7]v ; Fut. Pass. Klij'&ijaofiai ; Fut. Mid. KaXovfiat ; Aor. Mid. 


K0'& io), to desire, old Attic Fut. Tco'&Eaofiat ; Aor. sTTod-Eaa ; elsewhere iro^^ao, 
iTiO'&Tjaa ; Perf. Act. nETzo'&TjKa ; TTETro-d-rjfiai ; Aor. Pass. ETro^Ecr&Tjv. 

irov EO), lahoro, Fut. Trovijao, etc. {to work) ; 'KovEca [to he in pain) ; Perf. tcetzo- 
vriKa in both senses. 

(c) -6w. 

upoo, to plough, Fut. apoGu, Aor. ijpoaa : Perf. ]\Iid. or. Pass, doripofiai (§ 89j ; 
Aor. Pass, rjpod-rjv. 




§ 99. Para 



Characteristic a. 

Characteristic e. 

Characteristic o. 







(77r(a-w)w, to draw, 





Te/i(e-o))C), to accom- 
ere?i{£-ov)ovv \j)lish, 

ap ( 6-0) )C},to plough^ 








\ E (TTT a- a-'&TJV \ETe7iE-G--d-7JV I 7]p6'&7]V 

Verbal adjectives : cixa-a riog, -rm, -teov 

Hem. 1. On the formation of the Perf. and Aor. with c, see § 95 j and on the 
Attic reduplication in ap-rjpofj-ai, § 89, (a). — The further inflection of Ecnva-a- 
liai, £GTTa-a-fi7]v, TETEAE-a-jLtat, £T£teX£-c-/j,7]v is like that of KEKsXev-a-fiaty kKe- 
Kslev-a-fiTjv (§ 95). 

Rem. 2. On the Attic Put. {teIego) = teIu, rslElg, etc., TsT^Eaoiiat = teIov- 
fiat, teXeI, etc.), see § 83. 

Eem. 3. Two contract verbs assume o" in the Pass , although they lengthen 
the characteristic-vowel in forming the tenses, viz. xo(-}i to heap, Put. x^^^* 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. kex(^(^[io,i, Aor. Pass. hx^^'^V'^y and xP^^t to give an orade^ 
Put. XPV^'^i Perf. Mid. or Pass. K£Xprj(^H-o,L, Aor. kxpW'^V'^- — ^ pdo/iat, to me, 
Put. xpv<^ojuai, has in the Perf. kexpvp-^i-^ hut in the Aor. kxpr]o-&r}v. On the 
contrary, eAaw, alvEu, alpEu, dico and apocj, do not assume «t, although the char- 
acteristic-vowel in the Perf. IVIid. or Pass, and in the Aor. Pass., remains short. 
Comp. § 98. 

L. Vocahulary. 

Pormation of the Tenses of Contract Verbs 

Aypog, -ov, 6, ager, a field. 

ada-^fiuv, -ov, inexpe- 
rienced, ignorant. 

aKEOfiai, to heal. 

aKoTiOvd-EU, w. dot., to fol- 
low, go behind, imitate. 

dv£?iEv&£pia, -ag, tj, illihe- 
ralitas, disgraceful ava- 

aTvx£(^, to be unhappy. 

ifj'^g, -71, -ov, evident. 

kao), to let, allow, permit, 

E?iKog, -Eog = -ovg, to, ul- 
cus, a sore, an ulcer. 

larpog, -ov, 6, a physician. 

Kaipiog, -d, -ov, and Kac- 
piog, -ov, at the right 
time, opportune, fitting. 

Kapitoofiai, to enjoy the 
fruits of. 

loafiEH), to adora. 

KTaofiai; to acquire, gain ; 
perf., to possess, have. 

?coyi(^o/j,ai, to think, con- 
sider, reflect. 

Aoyiog, -a, -ov, eloquent, 

fiTjdETiOTE, w. imp. or subj 
in an imp. sense, never. 

oIkeo), to dwell, inhabit 

otKodofiEO), to build a 
house, build. 




digms , 


Characteristic a. 

Characteristic e. 

Characteristic o. 

E aTT a- a- /la L 
ecTTrd- c-fiTj v 


T ET eXe- a- [lat 
ET £T eXs-a- /j.rjv 






Future \ air a- a--d-7j a o fiai \TE?iE-(T--&ij(TOiuai j apo-&rjaofiai. 

TEXE-a-TEOQ, -ea, -eov 

UpO-TEOg, -Ea, -EOV. 

TTEVLXPoc, -a, -6v, poor. CMTxrfkoq, -rj, -6v, silent, vipoa, to elevate. 
TT/loiirecj, to be or become acpalXu, to shake, make xvpoco^ to deprive, rob, 
rich. fall, deceive. bereave. 

01 irepl rhv Aeuvidav rptaKocnoL^ -yEvvaiug /xaxofievot kTE2,evT7jaav. Ni/c^- 
aov bpyrjv tu "Xoyi^ead-ai^ /ccAwf . MaKapcog, bgrig evtvxv^^v slg tekvu. IIo/l- 
Aoi)f KaKtJg irpaTTovrag cop'&uaE tvxV- '^^u-TJiel EKEcvovg, ovg av inbuc^ tvxV- 
'Fadia Tzavra ■decj TeMaac. Mi^diTTore KpcvEcv udarjfibvag avdpac kdciy^. 'Ev 
olg av TOTVOL^ Ttg aTvxvari, rovroig Trlrjata^cov ovx r/SErat. *0 vsaviag uKoTiov- 
^Tjduru Ty cro(j>ia.^ 'O tcoltjttjq rbv Tio-yLurarov 'OSvaaia ccuTnjXoTaTov TzeTtoirj- 
KEv, 01 aya'&ol rrarpida KoajXTjaovaiv. IIo/lAa/cif Trsvixpbg uvTjp alipa udX' 
ETrXovTTjaEV. IIoXAoi KEKTri[iEvoi jLiEv TTO/l/ld ov ;^p6;vrai Se 6C avE2,EV&£pLav. 
Avaavdpog, 6 UTrapridrTjg, fiEyaXuv TLfj.cJv* fi^itod-j]. 01 7]fiEpo6p6ixoi ovk hxpv- 
aavTo vTzodrjiiaaiv^ hv ralg bdolg. 'H TroXcg ttoITluv avdpuv^ exvp^'^V' 0^' 'fl- 
Tpol Tct EXurj anECOvrai. 'H yluTTa CLyyv Kaipiav KEKTTjfiEvi] kol yipovTi koI 
V£(f) TLfirjv ^EpEL. Ovdslg ETcaLvov 7]Sovacg Eicrrjaaro. Ovte rcj Ka'kCjg dypov (pv- 
TEvaa/xEVO) d^Aov, ogrig KapTTUGEvai,, ovte tq Ka?Mg otKiav olKo6ofj,rjaafi£V(i) 67]- 
2,0V, ogng olKr/aEt. 

The good will love {ayairuo) and honor the good. Noble youths will follow 
virtue. The citizens will think the brave wan-iors deserving of great honor. 
Alexander, king of the Macedonians (6 MaKESuv, -ovog), conquered Darius 
king of the Persians. Leonidas and his 300 warriors adorned their countiy by 
their bravery. The citizens thought the brave warriors deserving of great honors. 
Eulfil {aor.) for me, Zeus, my prayer ! The soldiers have conquered the ene- 
mies. The war has robbed the town of many citizens. The enemies were con- 
quered. The brave warriors will be thought by the citizens desen^ing of great 
honors. The physicians healed the ulcer. No one will gain praise by pleasures. 
The town has been robbed of many citizens. It has all (pliir.) been well fulfilled. 

' i. e. Leonidas and his 300 waniors. ^ § 161, 3. 
M 158, 7. (7). M158, 5. (a). 


H6J 2. (a), {d> 


§ 100. 2. Imp ur e Verbs, 
Pure and Impure Stem. — Theme. 

1. Impure verbs, i. e. those whose characteristic is a consonant 
(§92), undergo several changes in the stem, a part of which take 
place in tlie formation of the tenses ; these changes in the stem are 
as follows : 

(a) There is either a strengthening consonant added ; e. g. TVTt-Z'COy 
stem TTU; y.Qa^-co, stem KPAF; 

(b) or the stem-vowel is lengthened ; e. g. q)evy-cOj stem 0Tr; 
XrjS--cD, stem AAQ; zriK-oo, stem TAK; 

(c) or there is a change of the stem-vowel in the tenses ; this 
change may be called variation, and the vowel subject to the change, 
the variable vowel ; e. g. xXetzt-co, i-y.XuTz-TjVf yJ-aXoqi-a ; Comp. 
'English. Ji7/,Jle2v,Jlown, — sing, sang, sung. 

2. In verbs, whose stem is thus changed in the formation of the 
tenses, the two different stems must be distinguished, viz. the origi- 
nal, simple one, and the full, strengthened one ; the former is called 
the pure, the latter the impure, stem. The Pres. and Impf. of these 
verbs contain the impure stem, the secondary tenses (when such are 
formed), and especially the second Aor., the pure stem; but the 
other tenses either the pure or impure ; e. g. 

Pres. rvTi-r-u, to strike, Aor. II. Pass. e-TV7t-7]v Put. rvipo) (rvTr-au) 
?i.ecTr-o), to leave, Aor. II. Act. £-?A'n-ov /leii/'a) [TiecTT-ao)) 

3. For every form of a verb which cannot be derived from the 
Pres. tense in use, another Pres. is assumed, mostly for the mere 
purpose of formation ; this may be called the Theme (d-sfxa), and is 
printed in capitals, so as to distinguish it from the form of the Pres. 
in actual use ; thus, e. g. q)8vyco is the Pres. form in use, (PTF^ is 
the assumed Pres. form, or the Theme, in order to construct the se- 
cond Aor., 8-q)vy-ov. 

§101. Strengthening of the Stem. 

1. The strengthening of the stem by consonants consists in mere- 
ly strengthening the simple charactei'istic consonant of the stem by 
means of another consonant ; e. g. 

TVTCTO), to striJce, Aor. II. Pnss. k- tvtz-tjv 
raTTo, to arranije, " " k-ruy-7]v 

Kpd^cj, to crij out, " Act. e- Kpay-ov . 

2. Yet the stem, strengthened in this way, is found only in the 


Pres. and Impf. ; in the other tenses the strengthening letters are 
omitted and the simple stem appears ; e. g. 

Prcs. TVTTTCJ Impf. Itvktov Aor. II. Pass. krvTZT^v Put. rv'^pu (rv-aoj). 

Remark. The cliaracteristic of the pure stem, e. g. tt in TTn-i2, is called tlie 
pure characteristic ; that of the impure stem, e. g. ttt in rvTrr-o), the impure 

3. The short stem-vowel of many verbs is lengthened in the Pres 

and Impf. ; this short vowel reappears in the second Aor., and in 

the Fut. of liquid verbs. Thus ; 

d is changed into v in mute verbs, c. g. { e-Xd-&-ov ) 7.r]-&o) 

d " ai " liquid " " (0dv-cj) (palvu 

e " et " " " ^ " (0i^ep-6J) (p^eipo 

I " £i " mute " ■" {£-?[, I TT-ov) Xelttu 



i " " and liquid verbs. 


{ £-T ptf3-7jv) rptiSo) 



y 11 (( il ti (( 


( k- (p pvy-rjv) (ppvyu 



ev " mute verbs. 


\s.-^vy-ov) (jiEvyo). 

§102. Change or Variation of the Stem-vowel, 

1. The change or variation of the stem-vowel, § 100, 1. (c), oc 
curs only in the Secondary tenses, except in a few first Perfects. 

2. Most mute, as well as liquid, verbs, with a monosyllabic stem 
and with s as a stem-vowel, take~ the variable vowel, namely, short 
a in the second Aor. instead of £ ; e. g. 

rpETT-u, to turn, Aor. II. Act. e-rpdir-ov 
rpe^-u, to nourish, " Pass, e - r p a (j) - 7jv 

ffreX'?^.-o), to send, " " e-aruX-Tjv 

(pd-elp-td, to destroy, " " k-(p'& ap-r]v. 

But not polysyllables ; e. g. ayyD^'ku, to announce, Aor. II. Pass. ip/yD^rjv. 

Rem. 1. This change of the stem-vowel does not occur in the second Aor 
Pass, of some verbs of tliis class (the second Aor, Act. not being used), because 
the second Aor. Pass, cannot be mistaken for the Impf, see § 103, Eem. 2 ; e. g 
i3 /I £ 7r w, to see, Impf, £-j3?ie7T-ov, second Aor. Pass. e-(3?\,£'rr-7]v. , 

3. Liquid verbs with monosyllabic stems and with the stem-vowel 
s, take the variable d, not only in the second Aor., but also in the 
first Perf. and first Plup. Act. and the Perf. and Plup. Mid. or 
Pass, and the first Aor. Pass. ; e. g. 

(7T£A2,o), to send, Put. orel-w Perf e-aral-Ka e-araTi-fiai Aor. £-aTu?^'drjv. 
But not polysyllables ; e. g. 7jyy£?uKa, rjyyi/.-d-rjv from ayye/JM. Comp. No, 2. 

4. Those mute verbs, which have £ in the final stem-syllable of 
the Pres., take the variable o in the second Perf. ; but those which 
have u in the final stem-syllable, take oi ; liquid-verbs, which have 
e or £t in this syllable, take o ; e. g. 


rpe(f>u, to nourish, Terpo^a depu, to flay ^ dsSopa 

?ieL'TTO), to leave, \i\oma aTceipu, to sow, eonopa. 

5. The following take the variable o, in the first Perf., contrary 
to the rule in No. 1. 

KXeTZTCi, to steal, ^rst Perf. KeKlo^a, but Perf. Mid. or Tass. KEKlefifiai (/cc- 

Klafifiai very rai'c and only poetic), 
/leyw, to collect, first Perf ^vv elloxa, h^eiloXa; but Perf Mid. or Pass. 

TrejLtTTtj, to send, first Perf tt err o fi(p a; but Perf Mid. or Pass. TreTcefifzat. 
rpeTvu, to turn, first Peif. r e r p a (t) a, (in form like the second Perf of rpeijxo, to 


6. The following mute verbs with a monosyllabic stem and with 

the stem-vowel s, like liquid verbs (No. 3), take the variable a in 

the Perf. Mid. or Pass. ; still the a is not found in the first Aor. 

Pass., as is the case in liquid verbs ; e. g. 

arpe^o), to turn, Perf Mid. or Pass, earpafifxai, but first Aor. Pass, tarpec^t'&riv 
rpeiTO), to turn, " r er p a /i ij.a i-, " " erpeip'&rjv 

Tpi(j»o, to nourish, " r ad- pa [Mjiai " " e'&pE(p-&j}v. 

§103. H 6771 arks on the Secondary Tenses. 
The Secondary tenses differ from the Primary, partly in wanting 
the tense-characteristic, and consequently in appending the personal- 
endings, -ov, -6^j]v, -Tjv, -tjaofiai, -a and -atv, to the pure character- 
istic of the verb ; e. g. second Aor. 'i-Xin-ov, but first Aor. i-Traidev- 
a-a ; partly in being formed throughout from the unchanged pure 
verb-stem, e. g. Ieltzo} s-X i n-ov, qjavyca t-cp v y-ov ; and partly in 
having the variable vowel, e. g. OTQ^cpm, i-(jtQoiq)-7]v, atQaq)-ri60}iai ; 
but l-arqiqs-'&'riv. 

Kem. 1. The second Perf does not always retain the short stem-TOwel, but it 
either lengthens it in many verbs, viz. a into rj, and after p and vowels into a ; 

eg- , 

Kpa^o), to cry out. second Aor. e-Kpay-ov second Perf Ks-KpCiy-a 

(ppiaau, to shudder, stem : <l>PJK(i) " Tie-^plK-a 

■&a?v?iO), to bloom. Put. d-dl-u <* re--d-i]7<.-a ; 

go, '!TS(l>i]va, ID.rj-d-a from $AN-w, AAG-o) ; or it retains the long vowel or diph- 
thong of the Pres. ; e. g. irecpevya from <p£vyo), but second Aor. Act. e^vyov, ri- 
rrjKO. from -rjKCj, but second Aor. Pass. kruKyjv. 

Pem. 2. Those verbs whose second Aor. Act. would not be distinguished fi-om 
the Impf , at least, only by the Cjuantily of tlie stem-vowel, have no second Aor. 
Act. and Mid., but only the second Aor. Pass., because this has a different end- 
ing from the Impf ; e. g. 

■ypacpu Impf Eypu(j)ov Aor. II. Act. wanting Aor. II. Pass. eyp*<l>rjv. 

§§ 104, 105.] MUTE VERBS. — CHARACTERISTIC. 117 

A. Mute Verbs. 

§104. Intro duction 
Mute verbs are divided, like mute letters, into three classes ; in 
each of these classes, verbs with a pure characteristic in the Pres. 
and Impf. are distinguished from those with an impure characteris- 
tic (§ 100, 2). 

1. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Pi-mute (^, tt, (p pure char- 
acteristic ; nr impure characteristic) ; e. g. 

(a) pure characteristic, TtsfiTZ-co, to send, iQi^-co, to rub, yQdq)-co, 
to write ; 

(b) impure characteristic, tv7ZT-(x), to strike, (pure characteristic tt, 
pure stem TTJJ), ^Xu7ir-(o, to injure, (^, BAAB), qitzz-cOj 
to hurl, (qi, 'PI0). 

2. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Kappa-mute (x, y, 'j^ pure 
characteristic ; ca or Attic tt, impure characteristic) ; e. g. 

(a) pure characteristic, tzXsk-o), to weave, ciy-co, to lead, revjr-co, to 
prepare ; 

(b) impure characteristic, cpQia6-(o, Att. qjQLtt-a, to shudder, (pure 
characteristic x, pure stem 0PIK), rdaa-co, Att. tdtt-a, to 
arrange, (y, TAiT), ^ijaa-co, Att, ^tJtt-co, to cough, (j^, BHK). 

3. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Tau-mute (r, d, '& pure char- 
acteristic ; ^ impure characteristic) ; e. g. 

(a) pure characteristic, di'VT-03, to complete, ad-oo, to sing, neid'-tOj 
to persuade ; 

(b) impure characteristic, q)Qd^-(o, to sag, (pure characteristic d, 
pure stem (1)PA/1). 

§ 105. Remarks on the Characteristic, 

1. Some verbs in -crcrw, -ttcj, have a Tau-mnte — not a Kappa-mute — ^for 
the pure characteristic : dp fiorro) (dp/io^o)), to Jit, Put. -ogu ; — e p eauu, to 
row, Tut. -iaoj ; — tt da a co, to scatter, Fut. -dca ; — tt Xdaaco, to form., Fut. -duu ; 
-■^n Tcaac), to pound, Fut. -lacj. 

The verb v daau, to press together, varies between the two formations, Put. 
vd^o), etc., Perf. !Mid. or Pass, vevaafiai, verbal adjective vaarog. 

2. The following verbs in -C^, which for the most part express a call or sound, 
have for their pure characteristic not a Tau but a Kappa-mute, usually y, viz, 
ald^u, to groan. Put. cm^w ; a?, a/, d f w, to shout ; Kot^o), to squeak, to grunt 
(like a swine) ; Kpd^cj, to scream ; k pu^u, to caiv ; fiaari^u, to whip ; bdd- 
^u, tohite; olfzu^cj, to lament, 'Fnt. ot/x(o^o/iiai; oXo^v^u, to howl ; ^vcrrd- 
Cw, to drag to and fro ; ard^o) and (jraXd^u, to trickle; arevd^o), to sigh; 



arrj pi^u, to make firm; ar i^u, to prick; ov pt^u, to whistle; (7(j)a^cj {Att 
ff^drri)), to kill; cT(j>vCi.>, to throb; rp i^o), to chirp {reTplya) ; (p2.v^Uj to bubble. 

3. The following yerbs in -^w rary between tlie two modes of formation: 
BaaTa^u, to bear, Fut. -aao}, etc., Aor. ejSaarax'&rjv; — vvara^u, to nod, to 
sleep, Fnt. -aao) and -dfw ; — Ttai^o, to spoii, Fut. 'Tzai^ovfiaL {§ I. 6, 3) and itai- 
^o/xai, Aor. EizaLca, Perf. Mid. or Pass. TriiraLaiiai. 

4. The following verbs in -^w have for a pur#charaeteristi(, 77 : /c/la^w, 
to sound, to clang, Perf. Kz-Kkayy-a, put. Klay^u, Aor. £A;?ia7fa ; — TrXdC", to 
cause to wander. Put. 7r/ld7^w, etc., Aor. Pass. e-iT?Myx^Jjv ; — aaT.Tzil^co, to blow 
a trumpet, Put. -iy^a. 

§ 106. Formation of the- Tenses of Mute Verbs, 
Mute verbs form the Fut. and the first Aor. Act. and IMid. with 
the tense-characteristic o", and the first Perf. and first Plup. Act. 
with the aspirated endings -a and -elv, when the characteristic is a 
Pi or Kappa-mute ; but with the endings -x«, -Y-etv, when it is a Tau- 
mute. The Tau-mute, however, is omitted before '/, ; and before ^ 
and t in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, is changed into 6 ; but this 6 is 
omitted before a of the personal-endings ; e. g. TZEi'O-a), to persuadcy 
7ZS7Tei6fiai, -Gtai ; (fgd^oj, to speak, Tzeqjgaa^ai., -arai ; still, the se- 
cond Pers. is ninEi-aca. The vowels a, i, v in the verbs which 
have a Tau-mute as a characteristic, are short before endings with 
the tense-characteristic o and jt {-'/-a, -'asiv) ; e. g. g)Qd^co, cpQaaw, 
scpQaca, TTsqjQctxa ; Tzldaaco, to form, 7i'koi6(x) ; 'po^i^co, to think, ivo- 
uiaa ; zXv^(o, to wash, y>Xv6co, etc. 

Rem. 1. On the changes which the Mutes undergo by the addition of the end- 
ings beginning with u, ■&, fi or r, and before the aspirated endings -a, -elv, and 
also on the lengthening of e into et, before o of verbs in -evSu or -iv&cj, e. g. 
aiTEvd-u, to make a libation, Put. {uTzevd-Gc:)) aireiau, see § 8. 

Rem. 2. When p. precedes a Pi -mute,- which serves as a characteristic, e. g. 
in TrepTT-o), the p is rejected in the Perf JNIid. or Pass, before endings beginning 
with p ; thus Tre/zTr-w, to send, Tre-Tz Ep' (instead of Tte-Tre/iTT-paL, TTe-7T£fj.p-/j.aL), 
KafiTTT-o), to bend, Ks-Kafz-/ (instead of, Ki-Ka/nfi-fiai). So also 
when two }''s stand before //, one of them is omitted ; e. g. afiyy-u, to bind, 
E-a(j>Ly-iiaL (instead of £-G(btyy-naL). 

Rem. 3. Verbs whose characteristic is a Tau-mute, do not fonn the second 
Aor., in the Common Language. 

Rem. 4. Endings beginning with c-& drop the c after a mute, and the mnto 
is changed into an aspirate on account of the 1^ following ; e. g. KeKpixpd-aL in- 
stead of KEKpwp'&ai, ttettIex^^'- instead of izE'a'kE^d-aL. 

Rem. 5. The third person PI. Perf. and Plup. Md. or Pass., which, in pure 
verbs, properly ends in -vrai and -vto, in impure verbs both mute and liquid, 
cannot have these endings, on account of the accumulation of so many conso- 
nants. Hence this person is usually expressed by a periphrasis consisting of 


§ 107.J MUTE VERBS. 

the plural of the Perf. Part., and the third person PI. Pros, and Impf. of elvat, to 
he; sometimes however the v is dropped, and its place supplied by an a, which ia 
aspirated after a Kappa and Pi-mute, but after a Tau-mute is unaspkated • 
e. g. *^ ' 

rpili-(o, to rvb, Te-Tpi[i-ixaL tMrd Pers. PI. reTpt<j>aTac^ (instead of rerpc^vTac) 

-., . , Plup. £TeTpi(j)UTO 

^AeK-cj, to twist, ive-TTley-iiai thu-d Pers. -pi.TreTTlix^^Tai (instead of TzeTrlenvraL) 
ZZ'-f ^^'''^^^^^' ^':^^y-H-^'' " reraxarai (instead of rerayvrai) 

wr ; ^""^^T' ^-^'^f^'^^-/^^^ " eoKevadarai (instead oUaKevadvrai) 
X<^pc^-o>, to separate, Kc-xc^pca-uac - Kexcopc6aTai{mstesid of Kex^p^dwat). 


Paradigms of Mute Verbs. 

A. Verbs, whose Characteristic is a Pi-mute 
(ft ^, qp). 

(a) Pure Characteristic, (3, tt , ^ (Put. -fu). 
rpi/3-w, to rub. 



Aor. I. 


Ind. rp.'/3_-« SnhjrrpttS.o Imp. rp.>e Inf. rptiS-ecv Part. rp//3-6;v 
Ind. E-Tpcf3-ov Opt. TptfS-oifzt ^ ^ 

ln&.{rejTpil3-&)rE-Tpicp.a Subj. re-rpf-^-w Imp. not used Inf. re- 

Tpi(t)-£vac Part, re-rpccp-o)^ 
Ind. (£-r£-rp!/3-«'i;) £-re-rpi>-e^x; Opt re-rpt^p-omc 
Ind. { CO Opt. rphh a ific Inf. rpcfecv -p^rt. rpifcov 
ind. e^rpcf a Snhj. rpc^c Opt. rphpatfcc Imp. rpcfov Jxi rpl^ai 



Ind. Tpl(3^^il^[-^^, Tpti3-o/,ac Imp. rptB-ov Inf rpf/^ai' 
Part, rpc^-ojievog t- 1^ u.v 

Ind e-TpL(3-6fi7jv Opt. Tpifj- oinyv 


re-Tptfi-jievog, -tj, ov 


TE-Tpifl-jUEVOg d 

S. 1. 






Aor. I. 

F. Pf. 






3. T£-TpL<p--&OV 
P. 1- TE-TpL;U-p.E-&a 

2. TE-TpL(p-d-E 

3- I TE-rpifi-tjiivot elai.{v) 
or TE-rpid-uTai. 

S. 1. 







or T£-rpL6--&(jv 

E-TE-Tptp..,,rjv D .£-r£-rp.>-;.fa^oj; PT^I^^Iwrii^^^ 

£-.£-, piTT-ro E-rE.-pL(p.^j]v TE-Tpiu-uhoLhaav. 

r£-Tptp.p.£VOg £L7]V • I r 

rpifaaifac Part. rptipapEvog 
Ind. TE-rpifouac Oit TE-rpapoiprjv Inf TE-rplijEa^ac Part re-roc- 



[§ 108, 


Ind. {e-rpW-^V'^) e-rpi(p-d-7]v 

Subj. rpicji-'d-a) Opt rpt<p-Td-eiT]v Inf. 

Inf. Tpcip-d-TJaea-d-ai Part. 


Aor. I. 
Put. I. 

Tpi(p--&7}vac Imp. rpt(j)--&TjTC Part. rpL<j)-'&ei^ 
Ind. TpL(p--&r]aoiiaL Opt. Tpi(p-'&Tjaolji7]v Tnf -m/ 

Ind. e-Tptl3-7jv Subj. rpl^-ib Opt. rplfS-eirjv Imp. Tpt[3-7]'&L 

rplj3-7/vai Part. rpl(i-Eig 
Ind. rpl(3-7jao/ Opt. TpL[3-Tj(7oi/j.7]v Inf. rplfS-Tjaety&ai Part rpZ/? 

Verbal adjective: {rptfj-Tog) rptTi-rog, -??, -6i% rpcTr-rsog, -ea, -eov. 

§108. (b) Impure Characteristic , nt in Pres, and 
Impf. {Fut. -\p(o). 


to cut. 











Perf. I. 

(KE-KOTT-d) KE-KO^-a 

KE-KOju-fzai,, like T£-Tptfj,fiat 

Plup. I. 


E-KE-KofifiTjv, like k-TE-rpiiiinjv 

Perf. n. 

KE-K07i-a (Hom.) 

Plup. n. 


A.or. I. £-k6(1)--&7jv 


{kOTT-CTO}) KOlpO) 


Put. I. KO(l)--&'fj(xofiai 

Aor. I. 



Aor. n. E-KOTT-TJV 

Put. Pf. 


Put. II. KOTT-TjaOfiat 

Verbal adjectire : /co7r-rof, 

-7], -ov, KOn-TEog, -via, -teov. | 

Inflection of the Perf. IVIid. or Pass. | 

KafiTr-r-u to hend {fce.Ka/u-fiai 

for ic£KajUfi-/ § 106, Eem. 2). | 


S. 1. 









. KEKaailE'&OV 






KEKCfljlEVOg, -Tj, -OV 







KEKa/XflEVOg 0) 





KEKafl/J.£VOC El(jt{v) 

KEKdfi(})-&o)aav or KEKafi^d-uv] 

Verbal adjective : Ka/nrrog 

, -i], -6v, KafJLTVTEOg, -TEU, -TEOV. 

Alcjv, -uvog, b, aevum, du- 
ration of time, time, 

a,?i£t(pG), to anoint 

ava-rpETtUf to turn up, 
overturn, destroy. 

BioTog, -OV, h, life, liveli- 
hood, food. 

LI. Vocabulary. 

(ivGaod-Ev [fr. 6 (3v&6g, the 
deep), from the depth, 
or the bottom. 

■yvfivog, -7j, -6v, naked. 

i^-a2,ec<j>o), to "wipe or rub 
off, obliterate. 

'&d7TT(j), to buiy. 

/caAuTTTw, to conceal. 

KdfiTTTO), to bend. 

Kara-XELTrG), to leave be- 
hind, desert 

KEXpVf^^'^og, (perf. part, of 
Xpao/j-ai, Ktor,) wanting, 
w;. gen. 

kMtttg), to steal. 

KOTZTu, to cut, strike. 

§ 109.] 



Kpvirro), to liide, conceal. 

fiiXog, -eog = -ovg, ro, a 
song, a melody. 

fivxdTog, -Tj, -ov, inmost, 

vavfiaxia, -ag, ?;, a sea- 

-eur, 7/, order, a 

TrpEafSEVTTJg^ -ov, 6, an am- raf/.r. 

bassador, pl.ol Trpccr/Seif . rank. 
Trpo-lEiTtu, to forsake, de- rptf^o), to rub. Iphy. 

sert. Tp6~atov, -ov, to, a tro- 

/6l7rra;, to throw, throw out. (paivu, to show; mid. to 
GKl't]p6g,-d,-uv, dry, rough, appear-. 

hard. ^iJovor, -ou, 6, envy. 

Trepi-rpETTO), to turn round, cruv-i^aTrrcj, to bury to- (pup, -cjpor, 6, a thief, 
overturn. gether with. X^P^^"? to dance. 

'O TTttif r^v ETTiaroXriv kyEypu(pEL. 01 'koXeiiiol 7rpe(j(3eig elg ttjv tcoThv errefi- 
rpav. Olvoc KaV- ra KSKpvfXfiEva (paivEi PvGa6-&£v. Tidv vipog hv ^vtjt^ yEvec 
TTEptETpETpEv^ 7j xpovog, T] (pd-Qvog. Tdg rtJv airovSaiuv <pi7uag ovd' uv 6 irdg aldv 
£^a?i,Ei'\pEt£v. 'Lo^oK?i7fg fXEvd rrjv ev ^d}Mfilvi vavfiax^av TZEpl rpoiracov yvfivbg 
dXrjXcfifiEvog^ EXopevGEv. Mvpfi^jKEg yfig jiiyxdrovg olKOvg TrpoXEloLiroTEg spxov- 
rac (3l6tov kexpvP-^'^ol. IloX?MKig bpyrj uv&pojTTUv vovv k^EKd/iVipEV. Tc5 'Ettc- 
fj,eLvcjv6ov acjfiaTt avvE^atpe ttjv dvvauiv rcjv QrfPaiiJv 6 Kacpog. Tr/g dperiig 
rbv 7c7u)VT0v ov dtapt.ELipdfiE'&a ToXg xpijfiaatv. EvptmSrig ev 'MaKEdovta Tsd-air- 
rai. QEbg rolg dv&punrocg to {ieaTigv KEKd'kvcpEv. 01 AaKEdacfiovcoc sTpdipijcav 
iv GK?\,7]polg TJ'&EGiv. 'AKovGog ica?t,bv fj,£?\,og TEp<pd-£i.ijg uv. ''Prjfia irapd Kaiobv 
6l(l>-&£V dvETpEipE TToAAa/cif jSiov. 01 (jiibpeg Tjfilv tu. xPVfiO,T(^ KEK^ocpaaiv.* 01 
7ro?i£/J,iot Tfjv TcbTiLV uvaT£Tp6(pa(7Lv.'^ OZ arpartuTat Tag rd^Etg /careAiTrov.® 

The letter is ({. e. has been) vmtten by the boy. Ambassadors were sent {aor.) 
by enemies into the town. Wine often discovers what the man has concealed 
(part, sing.) in his heart. With the body of Epaminondas the power of the The- 
bans was buried [aor. 2). The future has been concealed by God from men. 
The Lacedaemonians brought up {aor.) their children in rough manners. A 
beautiful song delights {aor.) us. Many treasures have been stolen by the 
thieves. The enemies destroyed {a<yr.) (overtm-ned) the town. By the soldiers 
the ranks were deserted. 

§109. B. Verhs, whose Characteristic is a Kappa- 
mute (7, X, x), 

(a) Pure Characteristic, 7, /c, v. (b) Impure Characteristic in the Pres. and 
Impif., aa, Att. tt, rarer C- 


, to weave. Fut, -^6>. 

Tuaau, Att. TUT 

TU. to arrange. 






F. Pf 


{TrTiEK-acj) ttTieEcj 













{Tdy-Gcj) Tato 








Even. ^ The Aor. expresses a custom. 



M102, 5. ^§101,3. 



[§ 109. 


Aor. L 

{k-TTXsK-^Tjv) k-TcUx--&riv 

[E-rdy--&rjv) k-rdx-'&nv 

Fut. I. 




h-irlaK-Tiv and k-Tilea-Tjv 





Verbal adjective : TvleKTog, -57, -ov ; izAeK-reor, -rea, -reov ; raKTog, raKTsog. 

Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

T&acTo, to arrange, and a(ptyyu{^ 106, Rem. 2), to bind. 

Ind. S. 1. 



Imperative. | 

































reray/Lievoi el(yt{v) 

E(J(j)tyfZEVOl El(7i{v) 



or TeraxiiraL 

or Tsrdx'&cjv 

or Ea(l>tyx'&cjv 

Inf. TBTax'&ai kocpiyx&CLi Part. Teray/ievog ea<pcyfievog. \ 

LII. Vocabulary. 

'Afiapria, -ag, 7], an of- iJeAyw, to charm, soften, Trapa-TrTid^o, to lead from 

fence, a fault. soothe. the right way, mislead. 

av-eXncarog, -ov, unex- Kara-rrXriTro), to strike ttevtjtevo), to be poor. 

pected. down, astonish, alarm. TrEpi-dyto, to lead round. 

avopvTTU, to dig up again. KaTa-(p?i£yo), to bum down, ttXeko, to knit, weave. 
aTro-KTjpvTTO), to cause to or totally consume. (jw-rdrru, to order, ar- 

be proclaimed, disin- KloTVLfiog, -tj, -ov, thievish, range systematically. 

herit. L^^^ss. stolen. acptyyco, to squeeze, or 

acr&evEia, -ag, rj, weak- /c/iwi/;, -uirog, 6, a thief. draw together. 

aarsyog, -ov, without a Kpa^o) (§ 103, Rem. 1), to Tapdrro), to throw into 

roof, houseless. cry, cry out. confusion, distm-b, ren- 

acppuv, -ov, foolish, brain- Xtav, very, violently, over- der uneasy. 

less. [range. much. rapaxv, -vc, V, confusion, 

Sia-rdaao), to order, ar- fi,£Ta?.2,drTG), to change. disturbance. 

6ix6[iv-d-og, -ov, double- ^svog, -ov, 6, a stranger, rdaaa, to arrange, order. 

speaking, false. a guest. [out. rvn^og, -ov, 6, a tomb. 

Ev-TCKTog, -ov, well-or- bpiyu, to stretch the hand ^vXarTO/nat, w. ace, to 

rcapa-d-fjKri, -?]g, tj, deposi- guard oneself from, be 
turn, that which is laid on one's guard against, 
down by any one. take care. 

llo2,?i,dKig TJTTLog fiv-&og koI ucppova dvSpa e-&e7\,^ev. M^ tv/i(3ov re^afifitvov 
avopv^rig.^ kl (ppEvcJv rapaxal 'rrapETrXay^av Kal (jo<p6v. O T?i,ovTog 'KoXkaKi.g 
'KEpiriyayEv'^ Eig ua-Q-EVEiav. QE/XLaroKlia, rbv 'k.-&r]valov, 6 Trarrjp dTZEKrjpv^t 
did rag hv ry ve6tt]tl dfiaprlag. Qsog Travra kv rfj (pvaEC apiara StaTETaxEV. 
RTmvtov excov g7)v x^~^P^ TrevTjTEVovacv opE^ov. 'Edv EXf^/J-ev xpVl^<^'^o-i ^^ofiEV^ 

^TTLog, -ov, and rjinog, -a, 
-ov, mild. 

M153, Rem. 2. ^ ggg ^ 89, Rem. ^ £;^w has the rough b -eathing in the Fut 




^lXov^. 01 TToXi/iiioL elg ttjv v:67uv 7r£<p£vya(jcv. "^evov aiy^v Kpelrroi , ^ /cc- 
Kpayivat. 'EXiri^e rifiuv^ rovg joveag Trpa^eiv KoXiog. Alav (pLAcJv'^ oeanrbv 
oix ^^£1-^ ^ilov. "Q.v 6 rpoTTOC ecrriv evruKTog, tovtoic koI 6 (Slog ovvreTaKTac. 
Oi noTiejj.LOL eSitJx'O-rjcrav. UoXXa fiev uveXTriara TrparTerac, TroPuAa 6'e TreVpa/c- 
rac, TToXTia de 7rpax'&V(^£TaL. 'El Trolifiuv kol Trpay/xaTuv fpovri^etr, 6 ^log cov 
rapax'^TJoerai. Ile(pvXa^o roig av&puTvovg, ol y^Mrrav dtxo/xv&ov Ixoioiv. 
'Aarsyov elg oIkov de^ac. ^opcJv juij de^y Klomfiyjv uv6pCjv Tzapad^KTjv • afzfo- 
repot, K/i€)7ceg, koI b Se^ufievog koX 6 KXiibag. Uovov [leraX/Mx^evTog,^ ol ttovol 
y7\.VK.Elg. *H noXtg vTrb tCjv iroTiefiiQv KareipTiiyij . 01 ftupfSapot KaraTclayevreg 

The barbarians, pursued by the Hellenes, fled into the town. Their charac- 
ter is well-ordered, who have also tlieir life well-ordered. The enemies burnt 
down {aor.) the town. The barbarians alarmed the citizens. If thou ti-oublest 
thyself about war and exploits, tliou wilt render thy life uneasy. Many and 
splendid exploits have been achieved (Trparrw) by the Greeks. I will be on my 
guard against men who have a double-speaking tongue. The women, alarmed 
by the enemies, cried out. 

§110. C. Verbs, whose Characteristic is a Tau- 

niute (d, r, S^). 

(a) Pure Characteristic, d, r, ■&. (b) Impure Characteristic in the Pres. and 
Impf., C) rarer aa. — Put. -co. 










to deceive, 

to lie. 

to say. 

to think. 















Plup. • 














Aor. I. 






£-ip£ ' 



Aor. I. 

(k-ljjevd-'&TJv) k-'\pEVG--&7]V 



Put. I. 



Verbal adjective : {iljev6-Teog) tbeva-TEog, -rea, -reov ; cppa 

G-TEOg, -T£a, -TEOV. 

Inflection of Perf. Mid. or Pass. | 

Iiid. S. 1. 

eip ever- fiat. 










D. 1. 







pEVG-fiEvog, -rj, -ov 




P. 1. 






E-ll'EVG-flEVOg d). 


eipeva-fxevoi elGi{v) 

EibEV-G'd'Coaav or kipEV-a 


^ § 176, 1. 

^ Gen. absolute. 


LIII. Vocabulary. 

'Afiapravu, to err, be mis- juereTrecTaj afterwards. to trust to, rely npon. 

taken, commit a fault. bl^Sog, -ov, 6, riches, pros- ttA?//^, -ijc, V, a blow, a 
ApTca^o), to plunder. perity. wound. 

av-&ig, again. [thirst. oTrd^u, to let follow, be- ^lyo^, -€0^=-ovg, to, cold. 

dtipoc, -£0f = -ovg, TO, stow. GKsdd^cj, to scatter^ dissi- 

eyKUfiiov, -ov, to, eulogy, dpi^o, to fix, appoint. pate. 

encomium. iravo), to cause to cease 5 (nravi^G), to be in want 

^Ti, still, besides. rivd TLvog, to free a (JTpecpcj, to turn. 

ev(j)po(xvvTj, -7]g, i], mirth. person from anything ; avv-apij.6^0), to tit togeth- 
icpTjfSog, -ov, 6, a youth. mid. to cease, w. part. er, adjust, arrange. 

9]S?], already. Tre^i^^o, 2^7. ace, to persuade ; 6pd^cj, to tell, express, 

fia?i,aKi^G), to soften, ren- j)erf. 2, Tre7roL-&a, w. dot., pronounce. 

der effeminate. 

Tlavaov fie, w (f>i2,e, ttovuv, aKedaaov 6e fispifcvac, crrps^ov d' aii'&ig elg EV<ppo- 
avvag. lizaviovGiv^ ol Tolg XPW'^'^'-''^ "-u xp^'^'^^'-- M.Ld-piddT7]g 'Aaiav rjpTzaKev. 
Kbytaai irpb epyov. 01 -d-eol Tolg ■&v7]Totg oTi^ov uTzaaav. 'O '&ebg uiravTa 
cvvfjpiioKEV. "H-y av KCKug SiKaarig, as d^ebg jxeThreLTa diKucrei. Toiig cfvvETOvg 
aV Ttg TTELGELE TCiXiOTa EV TlEJLdV.^ 'Ev Tolg ApdicovTog vofioig jiua UTVaaLV 6pc(7- 
TO Tolg dfiaprdvovGL ^Tjfcia, ■QdvuTog. TDiovtu TrETtof&dg^ udtKa ju?) TTEipcJ ttoleiv. 
'Tttep CEavTov [irj (ppdayg h/KUfj-La. OL tuv 'Ea?i,'^vo)v E(pT]j3oL El'&ca'&rjaav^ (pe- 
pELv Tiif^ov TE Kal diipog koc ^lyog, etc de 7rX7]ydg Kol Tzovovg dXTiovg. Ei ttoA^- 
^(jv* ^povTuIg,^ 6 jiiog uov Tapax'&voETai.. 01 'A'&TjvacoL del -d-av/zaad-rjcrovTaL. 
llXovTu^ 7roX?iol fjdr] hfj.aTiaKia'&rjaav. 

Cares are dissipated through [did, w. ace.) thee. He will be in want who does 
not use his money. Success is bestoAved on mortals by the gods. Everything 
is arranged by God. The sensible can [dv, w. opt.) quickly be persuaded [aor. 
1 pass.). Draco fixed {aor.) for all offenders one punishment, death. "Wealth 
had already rendered {aor.) all effeminate. We shall always admire the Athe- 
nians. The Athenians accustomed their youths to bear all hardships. Socrates 
was admired for {eTvi, ic. dat.) his wisdom. It is not well to rely upon riches. 
The song has dissipated the cares. 

B. Liquid Verbs. 

§111. Formation of the Tenses. 
1. Liquid verbs, i. e. verbs whose characteristic is one of the li- 
quids 1, IX, V, Qy form the Fut. Act. and Mid. and the first Aor. Act. 
an-d Mid. without the tense-characteristic o, but the Perf. Act. with 
the tense-characteristic x; e. g. 

a^a/lAfj (stem 2<I>AA), Fut. c6aA-Cj, first Aor. E-a^^rj7^-a, Pcrf e-a(pa7.-Ka. 
Hem. 1. The future-endings of liquid verbs, viz. -Co and -oviiai (arising from 

M 83. 2 § 176, 1. - 3 On the Augment, see § 87, 3. 

M158, 6. 1, (b). ^§161,3. 


-eo-«, -ecofiai), are inflected like the Pros. Act. and Mjd. of contracts in -eu ; 
e. g. (pil-C), <pL7i-ovfiai. The Fut. Perf. is usuallj wanting in liquid verbs. 

2. The Present tense of these verbs — with the exception of a few 
whose stem-vowel is e — is strengthened, either by doubling the 
characteristic 1, or by inserting the liquid v after the characteri.stic, 
or by either lengthening the short stem-vowel, as is the case with all 
verbs in -ivm, vvco, vqco, or by changing it into a diphthong ; e. g. 
G(puX-X-(o, TSfi-v-03, '/.gtv-co, ufxvv-03, 'AZEiv-(o, cpaiv-(Oj (stems ^^hAA., 
TEM, KPIN{t), AMrN{v), KTEN, QjAN) ; but ^/i^-oa, 'pi^-m 
with a pure stem. 

3. All the tenses are formed from the pure stem, yet the vowel 
in the final syllable of the stem in the first Aor. Act. and IMid., is 
lengthened; e. g. 6(pdXX-w {ZfVAA), Fut. oq)dX-do, second 
Aor. Pass. i-aq)dX-?]v, first Perf. Act. 'i-ocpa7.-y,u, first Aor. Act. 
£ - a q) t] X - a, first Aor. Mid. l-aoprp^-diiriv. 

4. Liquid verbs are divided into four classes, according as the 
stem-vowel of the Fut. is «, e, i or v before the ending -co. In the 
first Aor. Act. and IVIid., d is lengthened into ly, e into ei, t into i, 
V into V. Thus : 

1. Class with a in the Future. 

Pres. FuL Aor. 

Kafiv-cj, to labor, Kafi -ovjxai wantino' 

TeKfiaip-o), to place a limit, r e k jidp-u k-TEKfirjp-a 

^acv-o), to show, (pav -d e-^riv-a. 

n. Class with e in the Future. 

fiev-(o, to remain, fiev -cj e-fieiv-a 

ayypJ\.-ti, to announce, ayy £%-(j ijyyetPi^a 

TEfh-o), to cut, refi-o) wanting 

vi/i-G), to divide, v e /n-u e-vsLfi-a 

Ifieip-cj, to desire, IjiEp-u luetfXL. 

m. Class with I in the Future. 

Ti7i?.-U, to pIucJc, Tl?L-ij E-TlX-a 

Kptv-u, to separate, k plv-u e-Kplv-a. 

IV. Class with v in the Future. 
avp-c), to draw, av p-cb B-cvp-a 

afivv-o), to defend. ufiiiv-o) ij/nvv-a. 

Eem. 2. The following verbs in -aivu of the first class, take a in the Aor. in- 
stead of V, namely, hxvaivo, to make anaciated, {laxvava, hxvdvai), KEp6alvu, 
to gain, (eKEpdavd, KEpduvat), KOi?MLvw, to Iwllow out, {eKoilava, Koi?.dvai), ?,ev- 
Kaivu, to whiten, opyaivo, to enrage, TTETracvo), to ripen ; also all verbs in -paivu, 
e. g. TVEfMtvu, to accomplish, Fut. irspavC), Aor. knepava, Inf. liepdvat (except 
Terpuivo), to bore, ETsrpTjva, TErprivai), and all in -Laivco, e. g. -ntaivcj, to maJcefcU, 
iiriava, mdvat (except fzcaivu, to stain, /icJjvat, rarely ficdvai). 


126 ' LIQUID VERBS. [§ 112. 

5. The first Perf. Act. of verbs with the characteristic r, ac- 
cording to § 8, 4, would end in -j-aol, e. g. fisfiiay-xa (from [iiaivca 
instead of fis-fiiav-'Au), nscpayxa (from q)cdvco), TtaQCo^vyxa (from 
Tiaooj^vvco, to excite). But this form is found only ameng later wri- 
ters. The best writers endeavor to avoid it, sometimes by drop- 
ping the V, e. g. (from nEqdai'i'Co), or also, as in areivcoj 
by using the form of the second Perf., e. g. sxtova, in the sense of 
the first Perf., or, as in the case of verbs in -sVco, by not forming 
any Perf, or, as e. g. in fisvco, by forming it from a new theme, as 
[iSfjLsvtjAa (from MENE^). 

6. The three following verbs drop the characteristic y, not only 
in the Perf. and Plup. Act., but also in the Perf. and Plup. Mid. 
or Pass, and in the first Aor. Pass. : 

Kpivo, to separate, 




kMvo), to bend, 




TtT^vvu, to wash, 




7. On the formation of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, the following 
things should be noted : 

(a) When o-d' follows a liquid, the g is omitted (§ 106, Rem. 4) ; 
e. g. TJyysXd-ai (instead of ■^yysX-c&ai), nscpdvd'ai. 

(b) Verbs in -aivco and -vvm, usually drop the v before the end- 
ings beginning with ^, and insert a to strengthen the syllable, e. g. 
qiaiv-coj 7zsq)a-G-fiai, ne-qjd-a-fiE&a; but some verbs of this kind 
assimilate the v to the following fi, e. g. TzaQo^vvoa, to excite, Ttaqco- 
^vfifiai; alayyv-co, to shame, yaxvf^f^f^cLi, Inf. '^c/vv&ai. The Perf. 
of jeivoa is rszdfiai. 

8. In the second Perf., which, however, is formed only by a^few 

verbs, the short stem- vow el before the ending -a, is lengthened, as 
in the first Aor. Act., except in verbs with s in the Fut., which take 
the variable o, § 102, 4 ; e. g. qjaiv-co, first Aor. s-q)T]v-a, second 
Perf. 7is-q)7]'P-a ; but GnaiQ-a, Fut. GTzeg-oj, second Perf. 'i-OTtoq-a. 

§112. Paradigms of Liquid Verbs. 

uyyEXXo^ to announce.- 



Ind. dyyE7J}.-(ji Subj. ayyelXo) Imp. uyyeTike Inf. ayyE?JXeLV 

Part. ayyE7J}Mv 
Ind. iiyyEX}\,-ov Opt. ayye7JMLiii 

Peif. I. 

Plup. I. 
Perf. n. 

Ind. 7iyyE7i-Ka Subj. TjyyEAnu Imp. not in use Inf. riyyelKEvai 

Part. 7jyyE?iK0)g 
Ind. ijyyEA-KELv Opt. ?]yyE?i-KOL/j.c 

E-cpd-oo-a, perdidi, from (p^Eip-cj, perdo ; Plup. II. E-(p-&6p-eiv 



Fut. Ind. 









Inf. ayyE7iElv 

Opt. ayytXoinL or 


Part uyyEluv, 

-ovaa, -ovv 

Aor. L 
Aor. n. 

Ind. T}yyEt\-a Subj. uyyEi'/M Opt. (lyyE'Ckaiiu Inip. ayyEiKov 

Inf. ayyEikai Part. ayyEi\aq 
Ind. i]yyE'K-ov Subj. ayyi/M Opt. ayyEkoiiii Imp. uyye7\.e 

Inf. ayyeAeii' Part. ayytAcjv, -ovaa, -6v. 



Ind. dyyeXK-oiiai Subj. uyyE'A7iU)[iaL Imp. ayykTJMV Inf. ay- 

7eA/l£cn9-ai Part. ayyE7Ji6[iEvog 
Ind. rjyyEXk-biiriv Opt. ayyEXkoiiiriv 

Pf Ind. 








. 2. 










■7]yyE7^-jievoL Ei(ji{v) 





7]yy£7i'&cjaav or 7]yyEX--&o)v'\ 



TjyyE'A-ixEVog w 

Pip. Ind. i 7)yy£2,-fxrjv, -co, -to, -[i£-&ov, -ttov, -d-riv, -fi£d-a, -■&£, TjyyElfxsvoi rjaav 

Fut. Ind. 




ayyE7\.-rf or -eI 








Opt. ayyEl\.-ol[i7iv 



Aor. I. 

Aor. rr. 

Ind. ^yy£il-a[iriv Subj. ayyEL7^-o)[j,at Opt. ayyEiX-aifirjv Imp. 

ayyEi7^-ai Inf. ayy£i7\,-ac'd-ai Part. ayyEiX-aiiEvoq 
Ind. 7jyyE7.-6[i7]v Subj. ayy£7\,-cjiiai Opt. ayyE/i-oi^Tjv Imp. 

uyy£7i-ov Inf. ayyETi-Ea-d-ai Part. ayy£7\.-biiEvog. 


Aor. I. 

Fut. I. 

Aor. n. 

Fut. n. 

Ind. i]yy£\--&Tjv Subj. uyyE7^-'d-iJ) Opt. ayyETi^-d-Elrjv Imp. ay- 
y£X--&r]Ti Inf uyy£7.--&7]vaL Part. uyy£7.--&£ig 

Ind. ayyE7i--&T]aoiiai Opt. ayy£7^--&r)aoiH7]v Inf. ayyE7^--&fia£a- 
■&aL Part. ayy£7,--d-7-ia6ii£vog 

Ind. rjyyEX-Tjv Subj. uyy£7\.-Co Opt. uyyEA-Etriv Imp. ayyEk-ri'^i 
Inf. ayyE7.-f)vaL Part. a-^jEl-Eig 

Ind. ayy£l-7jG0[xaL, etc., like the first Fut. Pass. 

Verbal adjective : uyy£7^-T£og, -rea, -reov. 



[§ 113. 

§113. Shorter Paradigms , arrang ed according to 
the Stem-vow el of the Future. 

(a) with, a in the Future, c^a^^/lo, to deceive; (j>aiv c) , to show. 

Mid. to a J) pear. 















Pcrf. I. 





Plup. I. 





Perf. n. 

TTE-cprjv-a, I appear, 

Plup. n. 

e-7T£-(i>f]v-£iv, I appeared, 


(T(pd7i.-cj, eif, el 


(jjuv-tj <^dv-ovfiaL 

Aor. L 



E-drfv-a e-<})T]V-dfi7jv. 


Aor. I. 


E-(pdv--d-r/v, I appeared, 

Put. I. 



Aor. II. 


E-(puv-7]v, I appeared, 

Fut. n. 


ddv-r/aofiac, I loill appear. 

Verbal adjective : G(pal-Teo^, -rm, -reov, (pav-reog. 

Inflection of the Perf. Md. or Pass, of 

r (j>atv-c), to shoiv^ ^rjpaiv-u, to dry, and reiv-u, to stretch. 

Ind. S.l. 

































Tce-ipaa-nevoL ei(n{v) 

£-^?]pafi-fisvot eIgI(v) 


Imp. S. 2. 
















P. 2. 





7:£.(pdv--d-cdGav or 

E-^Tjpdv-'&tocrav or 

TE-rd-G'&uGav oi 















§114. (b) with e in the Future, 'ifieip-o (Ion. and Poet.), 
to desire, and ore/l/lw, to send. 















Perf. I 





Plup. I. 





Perf. II. 

£-(j)-dop-a fr. (pd^£ip-o),I have perished, 

Plup. II. 

£-(p^6p-£iv, I had perished, 




aT£7u-U) GT£7.-0Vfiat 

Aor. I. 



£-GTei7i-a £-aT£t7.-u/j,7]v. 


Aor. I. 


£-(jTu /,.-■& 7]v Aor. II. £-aTu7^-7)v 

Put. I. 


Gra7.-'&r](jOjiaL Put. II. Gral-rjaofiaL 

Verbal adjective : Ifiep-ro^ 

, -r/, -6v, lii£p-r£og, -rka, -teov, CTa7.-T6g, araX-reog. 1 

Remark. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, is like vyyel-iiai. \ 

§ 115. (c) with I and v in the Puture. 

(a) riA/l-6j, to pluck, crvpu, to draw, /io7a'v-u, to defile. 






















Aor. I. 







A. I P. 




F. L P. 




Aor. n. and Put. II. P. k-Gvp-rjv, avp-rjaoiiaL 

Verbal adjective : nT^-Tog, Tt7i,-T£og, avp-rog, avp-rhg, 

/j.vXvv-r6g, fiv7^vv-T£0C- 

Rem. 1. The inflection of the Perf Mid. or Pass. 

TE-TtTi-fiai, GE-avp-uai, 

is like Tjyye'k-iiai, and fxe-fioTiva-fiat like Tvi-cpaa-fia 

,, and -^Gxyfi-fxat, from 

aiaxvv-o), to shame, like £-^rjpa/,. 

(j8) kMv-co, to bend, irAvv-u, to wash, with v dropped (§ 111, 6). 





Aor. I. 










Aor. I. 



Put. I. Kll-'&'^GO/ 

Put. II. Kllv-rjGoiiai 



Verbal adjective : K?u-T6g, -rj, -6v, KXi-TEog, -via, -riov, - 

Rem. 2. The inflection of the Perf Mid. or Pass. 
TrTiv-jiaL is like r£, and corresponds with that of pu 

7i?.v-T6g, 7r?iv-T£og. 
K£-K?u-/ and Tre- 
re verbs. 



[§ 115. 

*AyyE2,2,ti, to announce. 

advvarog, -ov, impossible. 

ufivvu, to keep off, repel ; 
mid., to revenge oneself. 

aTTO-KTeivu, to kill. 

aTTO-ore/lAcj, to send, de- 

ac6)[iaTog, -ov, bodiless, 

av^riGig, -euc, V) increase. 

yva, -7]g, tj, a field. 

6vcx^po-ivu, w. dat, to be 
displeased with. 

kK-(j)aiv(o, to show forth, 
make known, express. 

ll-o/ceAAw, to drive (pro- 
perly a ship) away from 
the right course, mis- 

LIV. Vocahulary. 

ETret, when, since. 

Ifzeipci), to desire. 

Ka-d-alpo), to purify, clear. 

KUfivo), to labor, be weary. 

Kepdaivo), to gain, get ad- 

kXIvg), to bend. [secret. 

KpvTTTog, -7), -6v, concealed, 

fj,ev(j}, to remain. 

fZETa-i3aX2.u, to alter, 

fZLalvo), to pollute. 

vavayog, -ov, jiaufragus, 

viKT}, -T]g, 7), victory. 

voeo), to think. 

^rjpaivu, to diy. 

olKTslpo), w. ace, to pity. 

TrapaSo^og, unexpectedly. 

Tcediov, -ov, to, a plain. 

TTETraivo), to make ripe, 

TTEpc-aTelXo), to clothe, 

itMvg), to wash. 

cTTEipo), to sow. 

GTETiKci, to send. 

Gvpo), to di-aw. 

telvcj), to stretch. 

T£/c/j,aipo), to limit. 

TE/ivo), to cut, lay waste. 

ri/uAw, to pull, pluck. 

(pd-ELpcd, to lay waste, de- 

XCLivo) scnAxo-OKO), to yawn j 
perf. 2, KEXVva, to gape, 
wait with open mouth, 

Kplvac ^iXovg ov ^ddiov. 'H ado'KeaxiCi -KoTJi.ovg rjdr] dcEcP'&eipEV. 'O rr^^ovrog 
'Ko7JiaKir E^o)KEi?iE TOP KEKTri/j,evov Eig erepov rj-d-og. 'O ayy£2,og ETcriyyELXe r^v 
vIktjv. 01 TtoTiEULOL TTjv x^P^'^ dLE(^-&ELpav. ^avayovg OLKTEipov, etteI TrTiovg 
kanv adrjlog. "Hv aizoK-TELvrig ex'&pov gov, x^^P^ jiiavElg. ^TCEpcJ yvag • 6 61 
&ebg av^rjGtv irapE^si. Tu KpvTtra [ir] EK^fjvtjg (piXov. ^vglv Tzovrjpav fisra^a- 
2.ecv ov ^ddtov. 'H tvxv TToHaKig rovg fisya t^povovvrag Trapado^ug eg^tjT^ev. 
01 TlipGai TioXXdg vavg Etg 'EA/la(5a cnrEGraTiKEGav. Qeov (Tev vorjGat, ;^;a/le7r6j», 
fpaGai ^E, advvarov • to yap uGUfiaTOV GcojiaTi arjiirjvai, advvaTOv. Trjv ipvxv'^ 
KaXolg voTJuaGi ttepigteiXov. 'O KrjTiog KaTiolg ^oSotg te-&7]%ev} Ti KEXV^ag, u: 
Tral ; 01 7^o7\,e[ilol to, Trsdia dcacpd-EpovGcv. 01 GocptGTat ek Trjg G0<piag TcoXXd. 
kKepduvav. ''E.Ka'&rjpE QrjaEvg tuv KUKOvpyuv t^v bdov T7)v Elg 'A.'&rjvag ek Tpoi- 
^Tjvog. Ka2,6v egtl ttjv bpyrjv iTETrdvat. M^ dvgxEpdvyg Tolg dyad^olg. 

The way to Athens from Troezen was cleared of evil-doers by Theseus. By 
the Persians many ships had been sent to Hellas. The boys gaped. Already 
many haughty persons had been greatly shaken [aor. 2 pass.) by fortune. By 
prating many have already been ruined. The victory was announced by the 
messenger. The country was laid waste (aor.) by the enemies. The good 
(man) will pity the poor. The good will choose the good for friends (ace). 
Thou hast derived great gain (hast gained many things) from wisdom. One 
friend (a friend) Avill not make known the secrets of another (of a friend). The 
citizens sowed (aor.) the fields, but the enemies laid them waste (aor.). Vico 

will soon^ show itself. 
2 pass.). 

The fields will soon be laid waste by the enemies {fut. 

» tet9'T]?m has a present signification. 





k'&li]T7]g, -ov, 6, a wrest- 

alpo), to raise. 

al(7xvvo), to shame; mid.iv. 
pass, aor., be ashamed. 

aTzo-<paivo3, to show ; mid., 
show of oneself, ex- 
press, declare. 

ftaaKaivo), fascmo, to be- 

dLa-aTZSLpc), dissemino, to 
scatter, spread. 

kfiirrvo), to spit into or on. 

kv-reXku, -Ojuat, to com- 
mission, order, enjoin 

i]rra, -tjc, ?/, a defeat. 

LV. Vocabulary, 

KOLvuc, -f/, -6u, common, 
public, general. 

fiaapdv [sc. oSov), far, at 
a distance. 

dfuXeo), xo. dat., to asso- 
ciate or have inter- 
course with. 

bpuGt^, -eag, rj, sight. 

ov-Tvore, not once, never. 

TvaiSiov, -ov, TO [diminu- 
tive of iracg), a little 

Ttapa-reivo), to stretch out. 

Tzapo^dvo), to encourage. 

irepaiva, to complete, ac- 

TilrjTTU), to strike, wound. 

7ro2,topKia, -ac, ij, a siege. 

GTcov6a^(j, to be in ear- 
nest, zealous, active. 

aradiov, -ov, to, the length 
of one hundred and 
twenty-five paces, a sta- 
dium, a race course. 

ravpor, -ov, 6, a bull. 

ra-xa, quickly, soon. 

reAo^, -eog = -ovg, to, an 
end; dm re/louf, through- 
out, continually, to the 

Ti'&Tjvr], -7JC, V, a nurse. 

To^evjia, -aToc, to, an ar- 

01 aTpaTicoTai vnb tov aTpaTTjyov elg ttjv jiaxriv Ttapcj^vv&Tjaav. ^iXnnrog 
ev Ty TzoXiopKig. T?jg M.s'd-covTjg elg tov ocpd-aTifibv TzXrjyelg To^evfzaTL Scecp'S-apij^ 
T^v opaacv. ^0(j)tag 6 KapTzog ovtzots ^d-aprjaerai. Alaxvv&ecTjv dv, el (paveiTjv 
liaTiXov (ppovTt^eLv TTjg ejuavTov So^Tjg, rj ttjq KOivrjg auTrjpiag. 'M.lXg>v, 6 e/c Kpo- 
TQVog a'&\7jT'f]g, Tavpov apafievog efeps 6ta tov CTadiov /leaov. 'Elg ttjv itoTiiv 
6i£(77rapTo 6 Xoyog, Toijg TroXe/xtovg vLKTT&Tivat. 01 TvoliTai Tovg TtoXefiiovg Trepl 
TTjg TjTTrig ufj.vvovvTat. Ei airovda^eTe, irdvTa tuxcc Tcepav&^creTai. "EvfSoia 
{laKphv TzapaTeTaTttL. Kaica spya elg Tslog e^e^avrj.^ 'O GTpaTrjybg Toig CTpa- 
TiuTaig eveTeVkaTO eirc Toi)g rroXefitovg opfiTJaac. At TL'&TJvai kfiTZTvovat Tolg irat- 
diotg, dig [xtj PaGKav&uaLV. 01 tcoTleixlol SieaTrdprjaav. '07i6(j)vpat Toi)g TrevTjTog. 
*0 KpiTrjg TTjV yvd)/j,7]v ciTre^TJvaTO. 'Aya'&olg avd-pdiroig 6/j.t2,uv liukiaT' av ev- 

The general encouraged (aor.) the soldiers to the battle. Battles will never 
destroy the fruit of wisdom. The enemies have spread the report, that our ar- 
my has been conquered. The citizens revenged themselves on the enemies for 
the defeat. If you are zealous, you will accomplish everything quickly. The 
scattered enemies appeared (phip. 2) again. If thou hast intercourse {part^ 
with good men, thou wilt be much delighted. The good citizen will never ap- 
pear (as such), who cares (part.) more for his own reputation than for the gene- 
ral welfare. If thcu hast had pity {aor. mid. part.) on the unfortunate, thou also 
wilt be pitied in misfortune (being unfortunate). All tlie citizens were rejoiced 
by the victoiy. The town has been destroyed by the enemies. 


' The Aor. here denotes a custom. 


§ 116. Special Peculiarities in the Formation of 
single Verbs, hath Pure and Impure. 

1. The Future of very many Active verbs is in the IMiddle form ; 
6. g. av-ovin, to hear, Fut. axovaojAai, I shall hear, Aor. rjHOvaa, I 
heard; aTzavzaco, to meet, Fut. aTtavTriaofxai, I shall meet^ Aor. 
dnrivtriaa ; anoXavfn, to enjoy, Fut. anoXavaoiiai, Aor. aTtsXavaa, 
etc. Comp. § 144, c. 

2. The two following verbs in -dco or -atco, have av* in the Fut. 
and Aor. : 

Kaio), Att. Kucj (without contraction), fo burn, Fut. Kavau ; Aor. eKavaa; 
Perf. KEKavKa ; Perf. IVIid. or Pass. KEKavfiai ; Aor, Pass. eKav-&7]v ; Fut 
Pass. Kav&?] ; verbal adjective, Kavareog, Kavarog, Kavrog ; 

KXaiu, Att. Klaii (without contraction), to weep. See No. 3. 

3. The five following verbs in -ko, viz. S^ia, vsco, nXico, Tivsm and 
QSG), have ev* in the Fut. and Aor. Besides the common Fut. in 
-aofiai, the first four have also one in -6ov[A,ai. This circumflexed 
Fut. is called the Doric Future. Besides the four above-named, 
the verbs ylaiod, Tzai'Qcx), TtiTZTca and (psvyo), have the same Fut. form. 

'&ea}, to run, Fut. -Qevaofiai or ^evaovfj,ai,. 

VEO), to swim, Fut. vevaofiat or vevaovfiaL, No. 3 ; Aor. evevoa. 

TT/le w, to sail, Fut. irXevao/Liai, usually TrXevaoviiat ; Aor. E-nlevaa ; Perf. Tce- 

TvlevKa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. •KaTrXevafzat ; Aor. Pass. £'K2,eva-&i]v ; verbal 

adjective, TrAef oreo^. 
vrvec), to blow, to br&zthe, Fut. TzvevGOfiaL or Trvevaov/iaL ; Aor. e-Kvevaa ; Aor. 

Pass. eTvvEvu'&Tjv. 
piu, to flow, Fut. j!)evaofj.aL ; Aor. e/^^svaa ; instead of these forms the Attics 

use, Fut. i^vfjaofiat ; Aor. e^^vrjv, and Perf. ep^vtjku. 
X^(^, to pour out, differs from the preceding, Fut. x^" '■> Aor. exea ; Perf. ks- 

XVKa ; Fut. Mid, x^ofiai ; Aor. Mid. kxea/nTjv ; Perf. Mid, or Pass. KEXvfiat ; 

Aor. Pass. sxv'd^V'^- 
K2,aio), Att. KXdo) (without contraction), to tveep, Fut. Klavaovfiac and Klav- 

aofiai ; Aor. EKTiavaa ; verbal adjective, K^^avariog and KXavurog. Comp. 

§ 125, 14. 
^Evycd, to flee, Fut. (pEv^ovjuat and (pEv^o/uat ; Aor. E(l>v-yov ; Perf TCEfavya. 
Trai^u, to sport, 'Fut. Tcai^ ecnd. irac^o/xai ; Aor. cTraiaa ; Perf Mid. or 

Pass. TCETzaiGfLai.. Comp. § 105, 3. 
TTiTTTo, toyaZ^ (stem IIET), Fut. 7ret7oi5«ai. See § 123. . 

^ The V in the Fut. of these verbs, is occasioned by the reappearance of the 
Digamma (F), softened into the vowel v. The Digamma would regularly stand 
in the Pres. before the personal-ending -w, but is omitted where it would come 
between two vowels. But it can appear in the Fut., as it there stands before the 
consonant c. — Tr 


LVI. Vocabulary. 

'Xfia, at the same time. nvpo^j -ov, ^>, wax. nrepov, -ov, to, a wing. 

avapird^o), to seize, catch KXaicj, to weep, mourn arpaTLu, -ur, r), an army. 

up quickly. for, deplore. cvyx^-f^i to pour together, 

cLKavTuu, to meet. /co^Trof, -ov, 6, a bosom, a confundo ; confuse, con- 

(fKoT^avci, to enjoy. gulf. found, disturb. 

avpiov, to-raon'ow. vvv, nunc, now. a(paipa, -ar, tj, a ball. 

eK-veu, enato, to swim out. ottXov, -ov, to, a weapon, t/^ku, to melt anything ; 
kK-7r2,eo}, to sail out. neXayoc, -eog = -ovg, to, mid. w. 2 aor. and 2 fat. 

ifimiTTC}, to fall into; w. the sea. pass., to melt {intrans.). 

dot. or eig and ace. Tvept^^ecj, to flow round ; Ttfiupia, -ag, ij, punish- 

hvavTLog, -a, -ov, opposite. to fall down or away. ment. 

ijyeofiac, duco, to lead, con- iriaTig, -sug, rj, belief, X'^^^^ x^^'^^C, V, the earth, 

sider. trust, confidence. the ground, the soil. 

KUTa-KaiUf to burn down, nvecj, to breathe, blow. 

'H arpaTta avptov kfinTievaeTat {sKTrlevaelTat). 'Avefiog Bo^jpug IvavTiog Ty 
arparca evrvEvaev. 'Ey Ty vavfiaxia Ty ev /c6/l7rtj Kpiaaicj ol UeXoTTovvijaioi av- 
6pag T(bv 'A'&7]vaio)v cnreKTeLvav, oaoi fii) k^evevcav avTuv. "OTav ol 'no7Jfj.toi 
T^ TToXei,^ 7c2,7](jcaau(7cv, ol GTpaTiuTai dvapTruaavTeg tu bivTia dsvaovTat Trpdg 
Tag TTvXag. Ilo/iXoIg kcI ao(polg dvdpuGt^ Keic'kavaTat, rdv&pcj-mva, Tifiupiav 
7jyovfj.evoLg elvat tov fStov. Tig ovk uv K?iavae/.E tov (piXov utvxv > O^' Tro/Hrat 
f/Xmaav Tovg Tvolefiiovg (pev^eiu'&ai. 01 TralSeg <7(palpav irai^ovvTai,. liCOKpd' 
Tfjg TvolTiaKig eTtaiaev u[ia aTvovdd^cjv. 'LvyKexvKS tvv ttjv niaTiv 6 Ka-&' rjfiag 
8iog.^ 01 iTo2,e/iioi rag ruv 'E/lA^vwv Ta^sig Gvvix^av. 01 vouol 6ta tov ttoXe- 
uov avyKexv[iEVOi elaiv. "iKapog, 6 tov AaiSciXov vlog, TCKEVTog tov KT/pov Kal 
T&v TTvepuv TrepLJ^^EVTOv, Eig TO TTslayog evettltctev. 01 ttoTieiilol tj/v tc67uv 
KavEKavaav. Al ev Avdia "EapdELg vtto tcjv ''E.Xkrjvuv KaTSKavd-Tjoav. 

The army sailed away. The north wind will blow against the army. The 
soldiers hoped to swim {inf.fut.) through the river. The soldiers were going to 
run to the gates {inf.fut). You wall mourn for the unfortimate. The enemies 
will flee. The children were playing at ball. If thou hast intercourse with 
children [part, having intercourse with children), thou wilt play. The enemies 
will disturb the ranks of the soldiers. Pour {aor.) O boy, the water on {Eig) the 
ground ! The wax will melt, and the wings will fall away. The town is burnt 
down by the enemies. The citizens expected that the enemies would bum 
down the town {ace. w. inf.). 

4. The following pure verbs, and impure ones, but wliicli by as- 
suming an £ as their characteristic, are analogous to pure verbs, form 
the Perf. Subj. and Plup. Opt. Mid. or Pass, without the aid of aa 
auxiliary verb : 

KTa-o/j-ai, to obtain, Perf. KEHTrjuai, I possess, Subj. KEKTUfiai, -y, -rJTat ; 

Plup. EKEKTfjflTlV, I pOSSeSSedy Opt. KEKTyiJ,TJV, KEKTyO, KEKTyTO OX KeKT(JfnjV, 
-(1)0, 'UTO. 

* § 161, 2. (i,), (5). 2 Dat. instead of viro with Gen. ^ 6 ku^' ijfiag (3cog, onr age. 


134 SYNCOPE AND METATHESIS. — VERBS IN -ca. [§§ 117 — 119. 

fiifiv^GKu (MNAG), to remind. See § 122, 12. 

KaXeu, to name, Perf. KeK/irj/iai, lam named; Plup. kKEKkijiiTjVy Opt. kbkXi^- 
tn}v, -rjo, -yro. 

§ 117. Syncope and 3fetafhesis. 

1. In certain forms, some few verbs omit the stem- vowel, which 
stands between two consonants. This omission of the vowel is call- 
ed Syncope. Thus, iysiQca, to awaken, Aor. regularly ^yeiQa ; first 
Perf. syTJysQxa ; second Perf. iygyyoga, I awake ; second Plup. 
ly QTiy 6 geiv, I awoke ; Aor. Mid. ^y go fir]y, I aivoke 7Tsto{A.atf 
iojli/, Fut. TZTjjaofiai; Aor. iTtrofirjv, TZZEGd-aL. 

2. Metathesis is the transposition of a vowel and a liquid. Thus • 
(3d2,?iO), to threw, Put. /5aAw ; Aor. ei3d?.ov ; BAA, Perf. f^ e [^Tii] Ka; Perf 

]\Iid. or Pass. I3ej3?i,i]fiat; Aor. Pass, e (i 1 tj ■& t] v . 

da/iau, usually da/xa^o), to tame, Put. daiiaao) ; Aor. kdafiacra ; AMA, Perf. 6 e S- 
fLT] Ka; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 6 s6 fit] fiat; Aor. Pass. k6[M7]-&7]v, kdafiTjv, 
Kalao), to call, Perf. Keii7i,r} na (§ 98, Pern.). — On Kufivcj, see § 119. 

<7Ke7i2.u, uKe?Jo), to malce dry, Perf ea kai] aa; Put. a a 7^,7] a o [i at. 

§118. Verbs in -o:i with the Stem of the Present 


It has been already seen (§ 101), that the Present tense of many 
verbs is strengthened ; but this strengthening remains only in the 
Pres. and Lnpf. Besides the modes of strengthening mentioned in 
§ 101, by r and cr and by lengthening the stem-vowel, there are 
Still others which will be specified in the following list. 

Eemajrk. All the forms assumed for the puii^ose of constructing the tenses 
in use, ai-e indicated by capitals (^ 100, 3). — The abbreviation. Mid., denotes 
that the verb forms the' Put. and Aor. middle. — D. M. (i. e. Deponent 
Mid.) and D. P. (Deponent Pass.) signify that a verb wants the active form; 
such a verb is called deponent middle, when its Aor. has a middle form, and deponent 
passive, when its Aoi'. has a passive form. — The /li in parenthesis shows that the 
form standing before it, is analogous to tlie conjugation in -fci., which will be 
treated more at Ijirge l)Clo^y. 

§ 119. I. Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres. and 

Impf. by inserting v before the ending. 

Preliminary Pebiakk. Bcn^w has lengthened the stem-vowel a into ai ; 
h'Xavvu, a into av ; dvvu and tzlvu, v and I into v and l. 

1. ^aivco, to go, {BA-), Fut. §7J(T0fiai,; Perf. ^s^rjHa; second 
Aor. E^i^v {ill, §142); Pass, in compounds, e. g. TzaQa^s^aficu^ 
Aor. TTUQs^ad'rjv. 


2. iXavvco, to drive, Fut. iXuGco, Att. iXca, -ag, -a, Inf. iJ.av, § 83 ; 
Aor. ^Xdaa ; Perf. iXyldxa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. iXp.u{ ; Inf. 
iX7]Xd<j^ai ; Aor. Pass. i^Xad-i^v. — On a in the tense-formation, see 
§ 98, (a).— Mid. 

3. mvo), to drink, Fut. TTiofiai ; Aor. miov, Inf. tiieZv, Part, mcoy, 
Imp. md^i (fit, § 142), poet, tzis; (110-) Perf. TitTtcaHa; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. Ttmoiiai ; Aor. Pass. iTiod-rjv. 

4. zt^ca, ^0 expiate, to satisfy, Fut. zt (7ca ; Aor. fVrcra ; Perf. Act. 
reTi>ia; Perf. Mid. or Pass. tEnaixai; Aor. Pass. iriGd-r^v; Mid. 
tivoiiai, to avenge oneself, to punish, rtaofiai, iiladfxr^v. 

5. g)d-uvco, to anticipate, Fut. qjd-TJGOfxai, more rarely cpd-daco; 
first Aor. icpd-daa. ; second Aor. iqj&fjv and iqi&df^Tjv (jjli, § 142) ; 
Perf. 8q)d-dxa. 

Here belong also three verbs, whose pure stem ends with a con- 
sonant : 

ddxvoj, to hite, Aor. eddxav; Fut. d^^ofiai; Perf. Act. didijx^i 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, bidriyiiai ; Aor. Pass. id^x^7]v. 

ndfivco, lahdro, to exert oneself, to weary oneself, to he weary, Aor, 
sadfiov; Fut. xafiovfAai; Perf. yJy.pj'Aa (§ 117, 2). 

tifivco, to cut, Fut. rs^oo ; Aor. hsfiov ; Perf. titfirjy.a ; Perf, 
Mid. or Pass. z87[X7][A,ai ; Aor. Pass. itiA^d-Tjv ; Fut. Perf. tszfii^ao 
fiai. — Mid. 

§ 120. n. Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres. and 
Impf iy inserting the syllable re before the ending. 

1. ^v-vs-co, to stop up, Jill up, Fut. ^vaco ; Aor. e^vaa ; Perf. 
Mid. or Pass, ^s^vafiai; Aor. Pass. i§v<jd7]v (§ 95). 

2. d(pix-vs-ofiai, to come, Fut. d(^i^ofiai; Aor. dq)iy.6fii]v; Inf. 
dcpiTiBGd^ai; Perf. dq)iyfiai; Inf. aqjix^c^t; Plup. dq)iyfi7]v, dqiiKto, 

3. V7tiGX-vs-0fJiai, to promise, Aor. vTTEax-ofiijv, Imip. vtzogxov ; but 
vTtoGiriaoiiai ; Perf. VTisax^fiai. So diATtic/voviiai or diAniyoiiai, to 
put on, to wear, (from d[/.7TS)(^(o, to put round, Fut. a,a-gD£|<JO ; Aor. 
riiima%ov, dfiTtiGxeiv) ; Fut. diicpi^oiiai ; Aor. r^jtmaiofJiriv and i/ft- 
7Tsax6iJi7]v (§ 91, 1). 

LVII. Vocabulary. 

A/cpof, -d, -ov highest, at arral, once. [exclude, ye (enclitic), a sti'engthen 

the point ; ro uKpov, ccTreTiavvo), to drive away, ingparticle, atleast,certe 

the top, the point. airo-rivo), to compensate, 6a/cvcj, to bite. 

kfiTTiaxvovfcat or afj-rrexo- pay ; Tntc?., to punish, eK-[3atvcj, to "wralk or go 

jf/oti, to put on, wear. avenge oneself. out, turn out, wa^o 



[§ 120. 

kK-Tvivu, to drink out, or ^oitaXov, -ov, to, a club. 

up. [out. cvfiftaivo, to go with; 

k^-eXavvcoy expdlo, to drive avu^alvei, it happens, 

evdatftovEO), to be happy, occurs. 

or fortunate. avfiirtvo), to drink with. 

e<pLKV£Ofiai, w. gen., to ar- rakapog, -ov, 6, a little 

rive at, attain to, reach. basket. 

l/iariov, -ov, to, a robe, a ftvco, to expiate, pay. 

gannent. toc (enclitic), a strength- 

^ei^iiw, to drink yuei^v (un- ening particle, certain- 

mixed wine) ; hence to 
be drunk. 

VTJjua, -GTog, TO, spinning 
thread, yam. 

"TToXvTiXeta, -ag, tj, costli- 
ness, splendor, sump- 

one is anticipated; gen- 
erally it may be ti'ans- 
lated by an adverb, as 
before, or sooner than^ 
and the part, may be 
expressed by the finite ' 
verb, as ol Tvo^lTai tovq 
TTo/ie/xiovQ k(p-&aaav elg 
TTjv TKokw (jyvyovTeg, 
"the citizens anticipa- 
ted the enemies in hav- 
ing fled into the city ;" 
that is, " the citizens 
fled into the city soon- , 
er than the enemies." 

ly, indeed. 

(p^dvo), to come before, an- 
ticipate, w. the ace. of the 

< person who is anticipa- 
ted, and the part, of the 
verb which expresses (popeo, to carry, 
the action in which any 

To?f (TTpaTiuTaig kv Ty CTpaTLa TTO^JXa Kaaa GVVE^e(37]KEL. 1,0(poig ofiiTutJv 
Kot avTog EK^rjaij ao^og. AvKOvpyog 7ro?iVT£?iEcav k^ijXaaE Trjg 'LitapTTjg. Ilep- 
aC)v ovdEig cfKEXifkaTai vojuS^ tljiuv^ kol apx^ov.^ TIoAZoi avfimovTEg arra^ yiy- 
vovTat <pL?i,oi. 'O fiE'&vciv 6ov\6g egtl tov TreiruKEvai. Ovk EKTciofiaL tov olvov 
'O olvog i)Tzb rwv OTpaTtoTuv e^etto'&tj. Tovg KUKovpyovg ol -d^Eol aTTOTcaatVTO. 
01 TToTiiTat. Tovg Trolefj-covg £(j)'&aaav slg ttjv -koKlv (pvyovTeg. Kvuv^ drj^ETat Tbv 
SaKovTa. '0 Xayug* VTrb tov Kvvbg eStjx'^V' Oii/c av jxr] Ka/idv £vdaifj.ovoiijg. 
01 KEKfzrjKoTEg CTpaTLUTat avETvavaavTO. 'Attik^ VTvb tuv Ilepcrwv £Tfi7j-&rj. 
'O 'Hpa/c/l^f TO ^OTxakov, o E(j>6pEi, avTbg ete/iev ek l^Ejumg. 'O Td?,apog v^fxaTog 
jSijSvaTai. 01 TvpiajSEcg Elg ttjv 'koKiv (i^lkovto. Ov toc y' E<j)i^Ei tcov UKpov 
avev Tcovov. 'O (pi2.og vniuxsTo fzoc a(^L^Ea-&at,. 

The enemies will proceed into our country. 
of the town by the citizens. The law will exclude (drive away) no citizen from 
honor and offices of command. Lycurgus has driven sumptuousness out oi 
Sparta. The wine has been drunk up by the soldiers. The laws will punish 
evil-doers. The citizens will flee into the town sooner than the enemies. The 
dog has bitten the hare. The hare is (i. e. has been) bitten by the dog. If you 
will work {part.), you mil be happy. The enemies have laid waste the land. 
The country is (i. e. has been) laid waste by enemies. The enemies will lay 
waste the land. The woman filled (aor.) the basket with yarn. The father is 
come. The friend will promise me, to come (yi/f.) to-morrow. The boy has 
promised the teacher to learn diligently. The women vsill put on beautiful 

Ai yvvaiKeg rifntEcxovTO KokcL 

The enemies were driven out 

^ ^ 161, 3. 


§ 47, 6. 



§121. III. Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres. and 
Impf. by inserting the syllable av, more rarely aiv, before the 

(a) dv or acv is inserted witliout any change. 
All verbs of this kind form their tenses from a three-fold stem, 
<7iz. the Pres. and Impf. from the strengthened stem, the second 
Aor. from the pure stem, the Fut. and Perf. from a third stem, con- 
sisting of a pure stem and an annexed e, which is changed in the 
inflection into ?]. — The a in the ending -uvco is short. 

1. aia-d^-dv-oiA-ai, to perceive, Aor. ria'i>-6(xr^v, aiod^so&ai ; Perf. 
rJG'&yuai; Fut. aiad-ijoofxaf,. 

2. afiagtdvco, to miss, Aor. ^jfj^aQtov ; Fut. d^aQtij60{A,ai ; Perf. 
^jmQTTjxa, ; Perf. Pass. rjiAaQtiji^ai. 

3. dnsy&dvo^ai, to be hated or odious, Aor. dm^x^ofx^v; Fut. 
X7zsx^i]()0fiat ; Perf. dnijx&rinai, I am. hated. 

4. av^dvoo (and av^oj), to cause to increase, to increase, Fut. «v- 
^7/(7(0 ; Aor. 7]v^r]Ga ; Perf. r^v^'}]y,a ; Mid. and Pass, to grow, Perf. 
^^T^fiac; Fut. av^i]6opiai', Aor. 7jv^i^d-i]v. 

5. ^Xaardvco, to sprout, spring, Aor. i^laazov ; Fut. piaazr^aoo ; 
Perf. ipXdaTtjy.a and §sp.dGT7]xa (§ 88, 2). 

6. BaQd-dfco, to sleep, Aor. edaQd-ov; Fut. daQd^j^aofiai; Perf. 

7. oXiG-d-dvco, to slip, to glide, Aor. oohad-ov; Fut. oXiGd-yaa); 
Perf. coXi6'&i]iia. 

8. oGcpQaivofiai, to smell, Aor. (^acpQonTjv ; Fut. oaopqriaoiiai. 

9. 6q}Xi6xdvco, to be liable to a fine, to incur punishment, to owe, — 
he double strengthening icy. and «^ is to be noted — Aor. cogj/loy ; 
Fut. ocfKri6(xi ; Perf. (aqjXijya ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ^cpXri^ai. 

h) av is inserted before the Tense-ending, and v is insert 

ed before the Characteristic-consonant of the 

Pure Stem. 

The short vowel in the middle of the pure stem, is changed into 
I long one, in inflection. The v before a Pi-mute is changed into 
I, before a Kappa-mute, into y. 

10. S-iyydvco, to touch. Aor. s&'iyov ; Fut. d-l^otim. 

11. Xayidvco, to obtain by lot, to acquire, Aor. eXaxov; Fut. X^- 
io(iai ; Perf. eiXtjx^^ ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, eilt^yfiai (§ 88, 4) ; Aor. 

P^s. iXi^X^V^' 

-H2. Xufi^dvoj, to take, Aor. sXa^ov, Imp. Xa§E; Fut. Xfj\po^ai; 


Perf. £i)j]Cpa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. Eilf]^^iai (§ 88, 4) ; Aor. Mid. 
ila^6fi7]v; Aor. Pass. Elrjcp&riv. 

13. lav&dvco, (seldom ly&co), to he concealed, Aor. 'iXad-ov ; Fut. 
iL/Jdco; Perf. lilrj&a, I am concealed, Md. to forget, Fut. X'^ao[j,ai; 
Perf. Ulijaiiai; Aor. ilad-oarjv. 

14. iiavd-uva, to learn, Aor. sfxa-Oov ; Fut. ^ad-i^aofiai ; Perf. jtt«- 
[idd^}]xa. — The a remains short, and the Fut. and Perf. are formed 
from the stem MAOE, according to No. a. 

15. Tzvv&dvoiiai, to inquire, to ash, to learn hy ashing, Aor. litv- 
'&6fii]v ; Perf. ninvaiicii, ninvaai, etc. ; Fut. 7tEV(jO[xai ; verbal ad- 
jective, TtEvaxog, Tzevatiog. 

VL -16. rvyxdv(x), to hit, to happe^i, to obtain (with Gen.), Aor. hv^ovy 
"^■"^^t. lEv^oiiai (TETX-) ; Perf. rgr^xa (TTXE- according to 
^ No. a). 

LVIII. Vocabulary. 

*K.yy£7ua, -ac, v, a mes- ^Ig, bis, twice. Kara-Sap'&avo), to fall a- 

sage, news. doneu, to think, appear, sleep, sleep, 

aye, age ! come now. seem. Ivypog, -a, -6v, sad. 

dva-OTpe(pcj. to turn round t?i,rrofj.aL, to hope. oiziau, behind, back. 

{trans, and intrans.). e^-afiaprdvo), afiapravo) Tcpoa-TiKuv^-rjKovaa^-rjKW^ 

avi9-£//ov, -ou, TO, a flower, strengthened by k^. fitting, becoming. 

a blossom. (§121,2). ttoj (encHtic), yet. 

3ov?\.EVjj.a, -arog, to, ad- hirapKeo), w. dat., to help. cv/iKpopa, -ag, ^, an event, 

vice, a decision, a reso- sTrtf^Gvlrj, -rjg, ?], a plot. especially a misfortune. 

lution. kTii-opKEO), to swear false- xp'^^'-'^'^i -ov, to [diminur 

Bpaxvg, -ela, -v, short. ly : w. ace, to any one. tive ofxpi^^^og), gold. 

■yevvalog, -a, -ov, of noble evepyeaia, -ag, i), a favor, cjg, as ; o)g TaxiCTa, as 

birth, noble, brave. beneficence. soon as. 

Sevpo, hither. KupLrjTiQg, -ov, 6, tj, a camel. 

Arjaeiv did. Te?Mvg /nj) Sokslto) 6 irovTjpog. Kspdog TTovrjphv iiri ?i,a(3ecv 
^ovTiov tcotL AiKaia dpdaag av/iuuxov tev^tj -d-Eov.^ TpdfiuaTa fia^eZv 
SeZ Kal /LLwd- ov T a vovv exelv. Aaj3e rrpovotav tov TrpogrjKovTog ^lov. Se- 
voig ETzapKuv"^ tcov Iguv t ev ^tj TtOTE. '0 l3aGi7i£vg T7]g Tvpbg eavrbv kTZL^ov^r/g^ 
OVK ya-d^ETO. 01 Uepaac TOig "'EXk-qaiv* airi^X'^ ovt o. ^i?UTnTog avrdi 
a.iTE(paivETO dth xpt-'(^iov ud7Jiov, fj did tCjv 07r7i,uv Tjv^TjKEvat ttjv idiav j3aai' 
7.ELav. O/' GTpariLJrai /Spaxvv xpovov k gt i 6 a pd- ov. '^g o) a (p p ovt o Ta- 
Xi-CiTa Tuv Ka/j,TpMv^ ollTTTcot, dirlao) uvE(jTpE(pov. M.?j d-tyrj g TOV Kvvog.^ "Ays 
6cvpo, iva TTV-&ri T?jg ?.vypdg dyyE7uag.'^ Qeov EiriopKuv fii) Sokel 1e17]-& Evau 
'Apxvc TETVXV K-^^^ ^cri^i TavTTjg u^cog. KaTibv, fiTjSev Ecg (i)i7i,ovg d[iapT elv. 
MaKapiog, ogrig etvx^ yEvvalov ^l7mv. Mai9-e (Itipsiv ttjv avfi(j)opdv. Oi}- 
ieig ttu ^evoi^ k^aTzaTfjaag u&avdTovg £7i,a-d- ev. 'Att' kad-Tiuv Ead-lu fia-d-TJaij. 

M158, 3. (b). 2^176,1. M158, 5. (b). 

* § 161, 2. (cj. "> § 158, 5. (a). ^ § 158, 3. (b). 


Kal KaKOQ -KoUMKiq Tifirig Kot do^rjg tXaxev. Tlapa tuv ■&euv ito?J:u it ape l- 
?, 7j ij) a fi e V dcjpa. Ov le%r]-& ev, bgrig udtKa epya TrpuTTei. Ei ^edv uvno tiq 
eXKerai 2,a'& eiv, &/jiapTavei. Alg k^a/uapreiv ravTov^ ovk uvdphg Go<pov. 
'Ef aya&Tjq x^^'^'^^ l^XaaT t^ Koka avOE/ia, Ik 6' op^cjv cppevuv ftov7.ev[ia-r 
i(y&?.d. Tyg evEpyeaiag ovttote A tj a o /x a t. 

The king will not perceive the plots against him. If thou drinkest (drink- 
ing), talk not much (pi.) ; for thou wilt err. What man has not once erred? 
The bad (man) is hated by the good. Philip increased (aor.) his royal au- 
thority more by money than by arms. From a correct understanding will al- 
ways spring (/31ccr-av6j) excellent resolutions. I have slept only a short time. 
I will not touch the dog. Pericles has acquired great fame. The bad will 
never acquire true fame. We shall take precaution for a becoming life {gen.). 
The town was taken (aor.) by the enemy. The ungrateful (person) has for- 
gotten the favor The boy has studied literature well. Hast thou heard the 
sad news 1 

§ 122. ly. Verhs, ivhose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres, and 
Impf. hy amiexing the tivo consonants ay, or the syllable io'a. 

Z'A is annexed, when the stem-characteristic is a vowel, and iay,y 
when it is a consonant. Most verbs, whose pure stem ends with a 
consonant, form the Future, etc. according to the analogy of pure 
verbs, e. g. evQ-iaxa (from 'ETPE-). Some of these verbs, in the 
Pres. and Impf., take a reduplication also, which consists in re- 
peating the first consonant of the stem with i. 

1. aX-iGy.-0{iai, to he taJcen, to he conquered, Impf. '^XioxoiJirjv; 
(AAO-) Fut. dXcDGOfiai ; second Aor. jjlcov, and sdlcov (fii, § 142, 
9), I was taken ; Perf. 7]7.(oy.a, and idXcoxa, I have heen taken (Aug., 
§ 87, 6). The Act. is supplied by aiQaTv (§ 126, 1), signifying, to 
take captive, to conquer. 

2. avdXioxco, to spend, to consume, Impf. avrpuaxov; Fut. uvd- 
Xmaco; Aor. dv^Xcoaa and dvdXcoaa, y.arrjvdXojGa ; Perf. dvi^Xcoxa 
and dvdXcoya ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. drijXco^ai and dvaXm^jiai ; Aor. 
Pass. dvd7,c6d'i]v. 

3. dQsoxco, to please, Fut. dgtaco ; Aor. iJQSoa ; Perf Mid. or 
Pass. TiQsoiiai ; Aor. Pass. ^QEO-&t]v. — Md. 

4. yr^qdayco or yr^qdco, to grow old, Fut. ytiQaaofica ; Aor. iy/jQa- 
ca; Inf. yT^Qaaai; Perf. ysyrJQaya. 

5. yiyvomy.03, to know, (FA'O-) Fut. yvcoooiua ; second Aor. iy- 
vmv {ill, § 142) ; Perf fyvaya ; Perf Mid. or Pass, 'iyvmaimi (§ 95) ; 
verbal adjective, yvcocxog, yvojaieog. 

- ^ 60, Hem. 2 On the Sing, verb, see p. 27. 


6. didQaa-Aco, to run away (usually compounded, e. g. dnod., 
iud.f diad.), Fut. dgaGO^ai.; Perf. dadQdxa; second Aor. idqclp 

7., to find, second Aor. evQov; Imp. evqs; (ETPE-) 
Fut. evQijaoj ; Perf. evQijy.a ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 8VQ7][A,ai ; Aor. 
Pass. EVQid-Tiv, Aor. JMid. evqojatjv; verbal adjective, evQ&Tog. 

8. ijBdoy.cQ, to come to one's strength, to come to the state of man- 
hood, Aor. 7]^}](ja (r^^dco, to he young, but dvri^da, to become young 

9. ^, commonly, to die, (0v^A^-) Aor. dni&d- 
vov ; Fut. dno&avoviiai ; Perf. ri&vriy.a, etc. ; Fut. Perf. rE&vri^oo 
old Att., and 7e&vjj^oi^ai, I shall he dead. 

10., to propitiate, Fut. iXu(JO{^ai; Aor. iXdadfif^v. 

11. fiijivijaxco, to remind, (JSINA-) Fut. fi'Pi'jaco; Aor. sfxri^aa; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. ixsi.ivj]f.iai, I rememher, I am mindful (Redup., 
§ 88, Rem. 1), Subj. li^ivmfiai, -^, -ijzai (§116, 4), Imp. fieixvrjao; 
Plup. lixE^rrifi7p>, I rememhered. Opt. iiEiivrnnjv, -yo, -yro, or fie^vc^- 
urjv, -cpo, -cpTO (§ 116, 4) ; Fut. Perf. fiefifj^aoixai, I shall he mindful y 
Aor. i[A,'p^6'&7]v, I rememhered; Fut. finp^ijaofiui, I shall rememher, 

12. Tzda'/co (arising from ndd'oyo, by transferring the aspiration 
of the '& to y), to experience a sensation, to suffer, Aor. eTrd&ov; 
(TIENQ-) Fut. TtEioo^ai (§ 8, 7) ; Perf. TZEnovd^a. Verbal adjective, 

13. TiiTTtaxco, to give to drink, Fut. stkjco ; Aor. 'imaa. 

14. 7Ti7TQd(j'A0-), to Sell (Fut. and Aor. in the Common language 
expressed by aTHodwffo^ai, dnEdon^ii*) ; Perf. ninqdya ; Perf. JMid. 
or Pass. 7TS7TQd[xai (Inf. TTETTQaG'&ai) ; Aor. ETtQd&riv ; Fut. Perf. 
^ETrgdaofiai in the sense of the simple Fut. TZQa-O' (not used). 

15. GTEQiayco (seldom gteqsco), to deprive of, Fut. gteq^gg) ; Aor. 
ioT8Qi]Ga ; Perf. EGzsQijya ; Mid. and Pass. GZEQiay.ofiui, ajEQOvixai, 
Fut. arEQiqGOiJLai ; Perf. egzeqjjiiui ; Aor. iGZEQi]d-r^v. 

16., to wound, Fut. z^joao-co ; Aor. izQcoGa; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. ThQOJfiai; Aor. izQa&r^v; Fut. zQco&ijGOiJLai and r()a)(7o- 

17. q)dGHco, to think, to say, to affirm, assert (Ind. not used), Impf. 
icpaGy.ov ; Fut. g);/cra) ; Aor. EqjtjGa. 

18. /«(7>fco, to gape, {XAA'-) Aor. E^avov ; Fut. xdvovuai ; Perf. 
xs'xTjva, Island open. 

Remark. AiSaaKu, to teach, retains the a in forming the tenses : Fut. dLdd^u , 
Aor. kdcSa^a ; Perf. dedldaKa ; Aor. Pass, ediddx^v'^- — Mid. 


'*' LIX. Vocabulary. 

AADTTOfj-ov, "without trou- hTzavatpepu, to bring back, iroKatog, -a, -6v, old, aged, 

ble, free from son-ow. ^e/w'o, to refer, impute. of old time. 

&fiv7]/j.ovE0), w. gen., to be evyev7jc, -ef , well-born, of naaxo, to feel, suffer ; 

forgetful of. high birth, noble. with ev, receive a favor, 

deKug, -dSog, ij, a decad, [lolpa, -ac , rj, a share, a be well treated, 

the number ten. lot, fate. nev^ec), to grieve, moum 

E^-evpi(jKO), to find out. fj-opatf^oc, -ov, fated. for. 

'OMyovg ev pj] a e Lg uvdpag iraipovg niGToig hv ;^;(z/le7ro?f Trpuyfiauiv. Ud- 
aiv dvd-puTcoLg fi6paifj.6v earcv utt od- av elv. ILevd-ov/xev Toi)g re'&VTjKorag, 
'HcJewf rCiv Ttakaiuv Trpd^euv^ fie fiv r]v r at ol dv&puTzoc. Ovk dv ev po ig 
dvd-puTvov iravra^ 6/\,(3c6TaTov. '^H KaXibg ^yv,^ 7) Ka%ug r ed-vi] Ksvat 6 ei- 
yevrig jSovTierai. 'El Setvd 6t' ijuerepav KaKorrjra tz e'K 6v& ar e, firj tl* -^eolg 
TovTuv fiolpav eTiava(j)epeTe. Td d}^Xa kol Tz67i,ejjLog kol fierajdoTirj Tvxvg dv d- 
Tiua ev -^ rj rexvij 6e au^erai. Hdvr' earcv k^ ev pelv, edv [vq tov novov 
(pevyri Tig. Ei rig jtj pdaag ^yv evx^Tai, u^tog ecm yrjpdaKeLv no7\,%dg elg erdv 
SeKadag. M e /zv tj ao, ore ■&v7]Tbg iTrdpxecg. Tvxy Texvrjv ev prj Kag, ov 
rexvQ Tvxv^- Ovk ean j3iov evpelv dXvizov ovSevi,.^ 'Axdptarog, ogrig ev 
TTa'&dv dfivT] /novel. AcKatov ev npdrTovra /x e /i v ?} a ■& a i rdv drvx^^v. 

The town has been taken by the enemies. The citizens expected, that the 
town would be taken by the enemies. By the war {dot.) the whole wealth of 
the tovm has been consumed. Seek to please [aor.) the good. The fame of 
virtue wiU never grow old. The bad (man) will never perceive the beauty of 
virtue. The slaves have run away in the night. They say that {ace. w. inf.) 
letters were invented {inf. aor.) by the Phoenicians. The brave warriors vdll 
wiUingly die for their country. To mortals it is not permitted {ovk. earc, w. dat.) 
to say. This I will not suffer. The prisoners were sold {aor.) by tlie enemies. 
The soldiers robbed {aor.) the citizens of their property. Many soldiers were 
wounded in the battle. Alexander was instructed {aor.) by Aristotle. 

§ 123. V. Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres. and 
Impf. by prefixing the Reduplication. 

This reduplication consists in repeating the first consonant of the 
stem with i. To this class belong : 

r'^ yiyvoiiai (instead of yiysvoixai), to become, (FEN-) Aov. ey8v6i,irjv; 
, Fut. yEvrj(jO(Aa(, ; Perf. ysY8vt]fjia[, I have become, or ysyova with a 
present signification, lam. 

mTTzca (instead o£ m.TZS'Zco), to fall, Im-p. TziTtTe ; (JIET-) Yut.TZE- 
oovfiai (§116, 3) ; Aor. eTreoov ; Perf. TzsTTtmxa with irregular 
vowel of variation. 

REjrAEK. Several verbs of class IV, § 122, belong here, as yiyvcoaKu. 

' § 158, 5. (b). 2 in eveiy respect. ^ § 97, 3. (a). ^ urj rt, in no respect 
The Aor. denotes a custom. ^ ov k eart — ov6 evi,no one can. See § 177, 6 


§ 124. VI. Verbs, to whose Pure Stem e is added in the Pres. and 


1. yafxeco, to marry (of the man), Perf. yeyafiri'Aa, but Fut. ydua 
(§ 83) ; Aor. syTj^ia, ytj^ai ; Mid. yafiovfA^ai (with the Dat.), io marry 
(of the woman, nuho), Fut. yafjioufiai (§ 83) ; Aor. eyr]ixd[i7]v ; Pass. 
to he wedded, Aor. iya[xi^&r]v, etc. 

2. yfi&iw, usually Perf. yiyrjd'a (also prose), to rejoice, Fut. yri- 
■8-1] a (o. 

3. do>csa), to seem, videor, to think, Fut. do^co ; Aor. sdo^a ; Perf. 
l^ass. dedoyfiai, visus sum; Aor. Pass. Idoy&riv. 

4. ^aQTVQsco, to witness, Fut. fiaQtvQrjaa), etc. ^ut ^aQtvQOfiaif 
Dep. Mid. to call to witness. 

5. ^vQ8(o, to shave, Mid. ^vQo^iai ; Aor. i^vgafjiT^v, but Perf. i^v- 

6. cod-sco, to push, Impf. imd-ovv ; Fut. cocco and Md-r^aco ; Aor. 
B03Ga, (5aai; Perf. eaaai Perf. Mid. or Pass, scocfiai; Aor. Pass. 
ficocT^j/y (Aug. § 87, 4).— Mid. 

LX. Vocabulary. 

'A7r6)i?e«, to push, or drive efzmTTTG), to fall on or into ctv/u-'klttto}, to fall with ; 

away. something, to meet "wath. crvfirrLTTreL, it happens. 

UT7J, -7JC, 7j, infatuation, evdoKifj-Sii), to be or become avfc-cpspcj, to cany with, 

and consequent unhap- celebrated. conduce, to be of use. 

piness, evil. Ttpo-voeio, to think or con- (rvv-Sta-rpifSo), to spend 

elc-u-&Eu, to push, or drive sider beforehand. time with, to live with. 

in. TTUTzors, ever. (povog, -ov, 6, mui'der. 

JIoHatcLg £/c KaKOv kcd-Tibv kyiveTo, kol kukov h^ uyad-ov. Xelpa TveaovTo 
opE^ov. 'O ayaTciJv kcvSvvov efXTzeaelTat avru. 01 dv&puTtot Ttpog aperrjv ye~ 
yovaoLV. M^ [lot yivoLd-^ a jSovXo/nai, liTQC a ovficpipec. Mr/ anevde 7r?iovTElVj 
fi^ rax^ rrivijg yevrj. IIo/iAd/cif 6 evdoKC/j.£lv Ttecpcofievog, ov Ttpovo-^aag, slg jue- 
yakT]v Kal ;^;ayl£7r^v (Ittjv CTreaev. "Orav utvxeIv <tol cvfiTrectri n, 'Evptmdov 
fMvrjcr&rjTL • Ovk eariv, ogrig rravT' uvr/p evdaifiovel. Mevedj/fiog rrpog rov epo)- 
rrjaavTa, el yijfiac 6 OTrovdalog, ITie^ev ■ 'Eyw yeya[XTjKa, 'H rav ^tkov "^vyaTr/p, 
kvvarrjv 7i[iipav yeya/UTjuevT], rid-vrjKev. 'A,i;i/l/lewf' -dv/ubg eyeyr/'&ei, <p6vov 
'k-XO-iuv bpCiVTog. 'E^ofe rw GrparriyC^ km rovg iroTiEiilovg crrparEvaaG'&at. 
HtUKpaTTjg eXe^ev • 'T7rd iravruv /laprvpr/aeTai fioL, otl kycj rjdiKTjaa filv ovdeva 
nuTVOTE av&pcoTTOv, ovSe x^'^P^^ eTToirjaa, fSElriovg Se ttoleZv ETTEipufnjv ccec rovg 
kuol awdtarptSovrag. ATj/ioGd-ivrjg e^vparo ttjv KEcpa/LT/v. 0/ GToarLUTac Ecg 
TTjv Tzo/uv Eh;£(j)(7d-r]oav. 01 arparLuraL aiTEioaavTO rovg 7ro?^Ejj.iovg. 

If thou actest so (so acting), thou wilt soon become poor. The soldiers have 
fallen upon the enemies {e/xTTLTTTo, y; dat). The daughter of my friend ^iHj 

* The p'eneral determined. ^ § 35, Rem. 4. 


marry the son of my brother. The citizens will rejoice, if they hear (hearing) 
the defeat (gen.) of the enemies. It is detennined (per/, pass, ofdontu) that [ace. 
w. inf.) the soldiers march against the enemies. All will bear testimony to 
thee, that thou hast conferred many favors on the state The slaves have had 
their heads shaved. The enemies drove the soldiers into the town. 

§ 125. Verhs, whose Stem is Pure in the Pres. and Impf., hut which 
in the other Tenses assume a Stem with the Characteristic e. 
The e is lengthened into v in inflection. Exceptions : ux^o/iat and /j,axo/xat.. 

1. dXs^o), to ward off, Fut. dlE^tj^co ; Mid. to ward off from one- 
self^ to defend^ Fut. dXei^oofiac (from JlAEK-) ; Aor. rike^aiiriv. 

2. a^^oiiai, to he vexed, displeased, Fut. dyfyiooiJiai ; Aor. ri'jr&io- 
■&riv ; Fut. d^'&EG'&ijaoi^cu having the same signification as d^d-eGOixai. 

3. ^6oxo3, to feed, Fut. ^oox7]6co ; Aor. e^oGXTjcja ; Mid. to feed 

4. ^ovlo[A.a(, to wish, (second Pers. §ovXei, § 82, 2), Fut. ^ovXij- 
60[A,ai; Tevf, ^e^ovl7]fiai; Aor. i^ovXi^&j]v and rj^ovX. (Aug. §85, 
Rem. I). 

5. dsco, to ivant, to need, usually Impers. dd, it is wanting, it is 
necessary, Subj. dtij, Part. 8eov, Inf. delv ; Impf. 'idti, Opt. deoi ; 
Fut. beriGei', Aor. id£}]G8(v) ; Mid. 8iofiai, to need, Fut. dE^Goiiai-, 
Aor. iderj'&Tjv. 

6. id-eXco and S-eXco, to vjill, Impf. yd-eXov and 'i&aXov ; Fut. l-d-e- 
X^GCO and S-eXi^gg} ; Aor. ii&t'XrjGa and id^tXriGd ; Perf. only '^ds'Xr^xa. 

7. EiXco, to press, to shut up, Fut. tiX^Gco ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, ei- 
X7]fjiai; Aor. Pass. EiXrjd^riv. 

8. 'EIPOM^I, Aor. riQOfir^v, I inquired, EQEG'&ai, iqcoiiai, eqol- 
U7]v, EQOv, EQoiiEvog ', Fut. iQ7jGo[iai. The other tenses are supplied 
by igcozav. 

9. 8QQC0, to go forth, Fut. iQorjGco ; Aor. tjooriGa. 

10. Evdco, commonly xa'&evdoj, to sleep, Fut. xa'&Evdi^Gw (Aug., 

11. 8/01, to^ have, to hold, Impf. f?/oi'/(§ 87, 3) ; Aor. 8<S'/ov, Inf. 
HX8TV, Imp. ?^4% naouGitg Qai, § 142). Subj. G'/^cp, -rig, TiaqdGyfUy 
nuQccGpjg, etc., Opt.-^o///i' (ui), Part, sy^ojv; Fut. e'^co and gx^god; 
Perf. tayjjxu ; Aor. Mid. 8Gy6ijr^v, Subj. g'/co^iui, Opt. G'/offiifV, Imp. 
Gyov, TiaoaGyov, Inf. GyjG&ai, naoaGyjGd-ai, Part. GyG(.tETog ; Fut. 
GyfiGotmi ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, hyijfuu ; Aor. Pass. EGyJ&rjv ; ver- 
bal adjective, Exzog and GyeTcg. 

12. npoj, to boil, to cook-, Fut. iifii^Gco; verbal adjective, icp-d-og or 
sxprirog, ixpr^rtog. 


13. xadl^cx), to seat, make to sit, Impf. iy.dd-i^ov, old Attic, xa^T- 
^ov ; Fut. y>ad-ic6 (§ 83) ; Aor. ixd&iGa, old Attic, 'Aad-Taa ; Perf. 
y.e)(dd^^y.a; Mid. I seat myself, Fut. yad^i^i^aoi^ai; Aor. ixa&iadfiijv, 
I seated for myself, I caused to sit. But ya&sXofiai, I seat myself 
I sit, Impf. iy.aS-e^oixTiv ; Fut. xad-edovfiai (Aug. § 91, 3). 

14. yXaico, to weep, Att. 'Aldco without contraction, Fut. y>Xavao- 
uai and y.Xavaovfiai (§116, 3), rarer xlai^Gco ov yXai^ao^; Aor. 
ialavaa ; Perf. yJy.Xavi^ai and yiyJ^avciiai ; verbal adjective, ykava- 
tog and y,XavT6g, yXavaisog. — Mid. 

15. [idxof^ai, to fight, Fut. iia'^ov^iai (instesid of fia'/860[A,aL) ; Aor. 
ifiax£Gd^i]v ; Perf. [isf^dxt^fiai ; verbal adjective, [laxeteog and fia- 

16. fisXXco, to intend, to he about to do, hence to delay, Impf. e^fA- 
Xov and ij^sXXov ; Fut. iieXXr^aoj ; Aor. iji^XXTjaa (Aug., § 85, Rem.). 

17. [isXei fioi, it is a care, anxiety^ interest to me, curae mihi est 
(rarely personal fisXco), Fut. {xeX'^asi; Aor. s^sX7](ye(v) ; Perf. fA,efA.e- 
X7jy.s{v) ; Mid. iiiXoiiai, commonly EmiAsXoiica (and sTtifieXovfiai) ; 
Fut. ininsXTJGOi^ai (sometimes i7Tii.iEhjd-)]aofiai) ; Aor. iTZEixeXj^d^r^v. 

18. fii'i^co, to suck, Fut. ^v^r^Gco, etc. 

19. o^ca, ^0 s??ieZ?, Fut. o^^coj ; Aor. co^/^crcj; Perf. odcoda with 
the meaning of the Pres. (Att. Redup., § 89). 

20. o'loiiai and o7f^«t, ifo think, second Pers. o'ih (§ 82, 2), Impf. 
cpofirjv and (^[^ijv; Fut. OLTJGo^ai,; Aor. o^rjdrjv, oli^'&jjvat (Aug., 

21. oixofiai, to depart, to go, to have gone, ahii, Impf. cpxofi7]v, I 
luent away ; Fut. oiX'^^GOfiaL ; Perf. ^xW^h '^^ ^^^ Common lan- 
guage only in composition, e. g. 7TaQcpx7]^ca. 

22. 6q)eiXo3, to owe, to be under obligation, deheo, Fut. 6q)EiXri6o:} ; 
Aor. coq)eiXi](ja; second Aor. mqjsXov, -eg, -8(v) (first and second 
Pers. PI. not used) in forms expressing ivish, utinam. 

23. 7Zszo(,, to fiy, Fut. TTtriGoiiai ; Aor. sTrrofiijv, ntiad'ai (rarer 
ETttriv and E7irdiA.r^v, ^a, § 142, 2) ; Perf. nenozTniai, — Syncope, 

24. ;fa4>co, to rejoice, Fut. yaiQriao3\ Aor. sxdQrjv (fit, § 142, 8) ; 
Perf. y.8xdQr^y>cc, I have rejoiced, and y,sxdQ}]fA-ai, lam rejoiced. 

Remaek:. With these verbs several liquid verbs may be classed ; still, these 
form the Fut. and the Aor. regularly ; e. g. fievo, to remain, Perf. fiefievrjKa, reg- 
ular in the other tenses ; vi/xu, to divide, to distribute., Fut. veuC) and ve/novfiai ; 
Aor. tveijia ; Perf. vevefirjKa ; Aor. Pass, evefirj'&rjv (rarer evefii-d-Tjv) ; Per£ 
Mid. or Pass. vei>efC7]fxai. — Mid. 


LXI. Vocabulary. 

kfijipoala, -Of, i], the food r^Jeicf , -a, -ov, fit, re- /iecrrof , -^, -ov, w. gen., fulL 

of the gods. quisite ; ra k-mTrifeta, fivpov, -ov, to, scented 

Iva-Trerofiai, to fly up, or provisions. salve, perfumery, 

away. Ipurau, to ask. ve/iu, to divide, distribute. 

iveTpo), to boil up. fj/u-^eog, -ov, 6, a demi- opvtc, -id-oc;, 6, ij, a bird. 

SaaiXsLog, -ov and ^aai- god. opog, -cog = -owf, t6; a 

leLog, -a, -ov, royal, ■&p6vog, -ov, 6, a seat, a mountain, 

regal. throne. nuTrirog, -ov, 6, a grand- 

5ia-fiivcj, to remain. Ka'koKaya-&La, -ar, ?/, rec- father. 

H,]f, in a quest ion, whether. titude, virtue. Tr/lTyv, except, besides. 

^.?\,£jX(^ii-o examine,search, Tiela, -ag, i], booty, plun- Tpiizovg, -odog, 6, three- 
blame, convict. der. [part. footed, a tripod. 

'•TziTTfdeLog, -ov and etti- fiepog, -eog = -ovg, to, a 

Oi aTpaTicoTat Tovg Tco7ie(iLOvg a7iE^7]C0VTat. M^ ax^^ea'&rjTe VTzep cjv' i][j.ap- 
rdvBTe kXeyxofievoc. 'O tcol[it]V alycbv ttjv aye7.riv kv Tolg bpeat jSotTK^aei. 01 
jTpaTMTac IttI Toijg 7TO?\,e/icovg GTpaTevea'&ai ej^ov7Ji-&7]aav. Tolg cfTpaTiUTatg^ 
b' T^ 7ro?.e/j,ca yfj tuv iiriTTjOeiiov^ derjGei. TL'AovaLog koTLv ovx o TroAAa kektij- 
levog, uXX! b {iLKpibv Serjcrofievog. 'O lIo?i,v6£VK7ig ov6e -d^Eog 7J'&£?.7](jE fiovog, dA- 
\a iiuXkov riiii'&Eog avv rw dcJe/l^w yEviad-ac. 01 jSapfSapoc, vtto tuv 'E/u/I^vcjv 
hcjx'^^'^'^^^y ^k Tov TTO-afLOV el2.r]-&r]aav. 'Epo-u tov rraTepa, eI t^v kmaTo'Arjv 
yeypacpEv. Ov TrpiTTEt tov aTparrjybv tv Kcvdvvotg Ka'd-evdrjoat. OvdEig uv&pci- 
K(j>v 7j^to)d-Tj TOtg ■d-Eolg* 6/ii?ieIv, ttXtjv ogol fiETEaxriiiaat KO/O^ovg • YiE7s.o-\^ yap 
rovTov EVEKa ufj.j3poatag^ (j-etegxe aal Tavvfj,7}67jg nal iiK7^oi Ttvig. MrideLa Al- 
Tova avETprjaaaa viov Trotijaac XsysTai. Ka-&iovfj,Ev as, o aTparriye, elg tov -d^po- 
Dov TOV l3a<7i/i,£Cov. 'O fBaciXEvg ettl tov d-povov Ka-&L0]CETaL. 01 "'E/J.rivEg hv 
Ea/iafilvL ■&appa7\.£ug kfiaxEoavTO. Kvpog vttc Mavduvrjg Trjg [iTj-pbg £pu)^7;3£cg, 

U (Soi'XoLTO [X£V£LV TZapu, TCJ TT-UTTTTC}^ OVK EfCE7i,7.'rj(7£V, a7i.7\,U TttXV eXe^EV, OTt flE 

'JEiv (3ov7.ocTO. Tolg uya'&olg^ Tf/g apeTrjg"^ [ieTlvoel. XpTjoTol veot ov fivpuv 
y^'^aovatv,^ LTJm KoKoKaya-^lag. 0/ a-pa-iCirai o'lTj-d-ivTEg Tovg Tro/^EUiovg urzo- 
pvyELv (PxovTO. 'H ipvxv uvarrTOfiEvr} olxv^^'^o.' v^Q-rvaTog kol d^'rjpug. 01 Ka- 
iovpyot i2£yu?.7jv ^r/utav 0)(pcl7.7iaav.^ 'H (' ''g (n-a7rL.~6r7}Tac. 01 Tro/urae. dei- 
'jug EKExapTiKEoav ettl ry viKy. 01 -d-ypEV-ai naav r.;V vvicTa kv rolg cpECL 6ce' 
%£fiEV7]ii£(jav. Trig 7i£Lag fiepog vtco t€)v arparcuru/v tu aTpavriyC) £V£jlc7j-&7/ [evE' 
uetQ-tj). TplTToSeg rjaav Kpeuv^^ jiegtol vEVEfiTj/iivuv. 

The soldiers courageously kept off {aor. viid.) the enemies. Many herdsmen 
tended {ao7\} the herds of goats on the mountains. The father vnU wish to de- 
part to-morrow. A good general takes care, that (that not, oTvug, firj, ic. ind.fid.) 
the soldiers may not want provisions. The good will not wish to go about ^ith 
the bad. I will ask the father, whether he has written the letter. If thou art 
weary {being weary, pe^'f. part.)., thoTi wilt sleep comfortably [ijdtcor). Those 
who are held by evil desires are all slaves. Cowardly soldiere wdU not take 
part in dangers, ^son, ha\Tlng been boiled by Medea, is said to have become 

* i. e. vTvlp TovTov, a. ^ the soldiers will need. ^ § 158, 5. (a). 
^U61, 2. (a), (c). ^§158, 3. (b). M 161, 5. M 158, 6. 1, (b). 

• o^Ecv Tcvog, to smell of something. ^ owed, had to suffer. ^° § 39, Eem. 



young again. The soldiers set then- general upon the regal thi'one. Good 
warriors will fight courageously for their countiy. I will not delay, but quickly 
ask. The laws will care for the general welfare (gen.). The flowers smell 
iperf.) beautifully. The youths smelt of perfume. The citizens will not think,- 
that {ace. w. inf.) the enemies have already fled. I will go. The evil-doers will 
have to suffer (will owe) a great punishment. The bird will fly away. I shall 
rejoice to be honored (being honored) by the good. The soldiers have given 
the general a share of the booty. 

§ 126. Verbs, whose Tenses are formed from different Roots, and 
which are classed together only in respect to Signification. 

1. aiQ8(X), to take, to capture, e. g. a city, Fut. aiQi^aco ; Perf. tjqi]- 
xa; Aor. (from 'E^) elXov, slsTv; Aor. Pass. ijQs&rjv; Fut. Pass. 
aiQsd-TJaoiiai (§ 98, Rem.) ; ]Mid. to choose, Fut. aiQi^60(iaL ; Aor. 
stX6iJ,r]v ; verbal adjective, aiQerog, -za'og. — Aug., § 87, 3. 

2. sQXOuai, to go, to come (the remaining modes and participials 
are borrowed from slfii [§ 137] ; thus €qxo{^c(^i, ico, 'ixti, iivai, lav) ; 
Impf. riQioiiriv, commonly ^eiv or r^a, Opt. '101^11 ; Fut. eTiii, I shall 
go (i'^co, / shall come) ; — (^EAETQ-) Perf. iX^lij&a ; Aor. fjXd^ov, 
iX'&m, sl'&oifA.iy iX&s, '^'}<'&eiv, aX'&cov ; verbal adjective, iXevarsov. 

3. ia&ico, to eat, Impf. ojad-iov; Fut. sdofxai; Perf. id7]doxa; 
{^AF-) Aor. aqjayov, (faydv ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. idi'jdEG^ai ; 
Aor. Pass, rjdsa&tjv ; verbal adjective, ideatog. 

4. oqaco, to see, Impf. sojqcov ; Perf. icoQccxa (Aug., § 87, 6) ; 
Cl^-) Aor. eldov, i'doj, idoifn, Ids, IdeTv, i8c6v. On the second Perf. 
old a, I know, see § 143. (OU-) Fut. oxpo^iai (second Pers. o\pei, 
§ 82, 2) ; Mid. or Pass, ogmf/^ai ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. icoQdf-iai or 
cofifiai, coxpai, etc. ; Inf. ojqjd-at ; Aor. Mid. eldofATjy, idso&ai, i^Jdv-, 
(and with the meaning ecce, idov), as a simple, only poetic ; Aor. 
Pass. coqj&T]v, 6q)&rjvai ; Fut. 6q)^i^G0[A,ai ; verbal adjective, oqarog 
and ontog. 

5. tqiyj^, to run, {/JPEM-) Fut. dgafjiovfjiai ; Aor. sSgaixov ; 
Perf. dedQci^tjy.a ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. dedQafj-i^fiai. 

6. q)SQm, to bear, (0I-) Fut. otcjco ; — (EFK-) Aor. ijreyKOV (rarer 
Q]vsy-Aa), Opt. hiyy.oijii, 'Eie{v), etc. (rarer -aijii, etc.) ; Inf. iveyxsiVj 
Part, hsyxcov, Imp. avsy-AE, -eVco, etc. ; (ENEK-) Perf. ivii]voia ; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, ivi^veyfiai, -y^ai, -yy.tai or ivi^ventai ; Aor. Mid. 
ijvsyxufiTjv, Evsyxai, -aad-ai, -dfisrog ; Aor. Pass. r^vEx&tjP ; Fut. ivsx- 
-d^i^aofiai ; verbal adjective, oiarog, oiazEog. — Mid. 

7. g)9^jMt (§ 135, 8), to say, Impf. 'i^tViV with the meaning of tho 
Aor., also cpdvai and cpdg ; (EU-) first Aor. elna, Elnagj eiTiats, 


Imp. EiTzov, eiTtaro), Inf. elTzai ; second Aor. tlnov, tiTtoi, t'moiiii, elns 
(compound TTQoemt), elnelv, dncav. From the Epic Prcs. t'lQM, come 
Fut. fQoS', Perf. tiQr^xa; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 8t'()t][; Fut. Perf. 
etQi^aofiai. From 'FE- Aor. Pass, tnqiq&riv, Qt^d^r^vui, Qijd^clg ; Fut. 
Pass. Qiid^JiGo^aiy verbal adjective, Qt(T6g, ()i]7tog. — Mid. only in 
compounds, Fut. aneQov^ai and first Aor. d7zei7zua-&aif to deny^ to 
des'pair, like dnemsTv. 

LXII. Vocabulary, 

'AyavaKTeo), to be dis- e^-ecirecv, to speak or say rrapa-rpexf^, w. ace, to run 

pleased, or indignant. out, utter. [ly, by, or past. 

uva-icpu^cj, to cry out. £/^/5w/z£vwf, strongly, firm- irapa-ipepcj, to carry bj or 

iiTpenicj^, exactly, surely. EVjSovlog, -ov, one who past. 

Ppadvg, -ela, -v, slow. consults well, clever, Tzepag, -arog, to, the end, 

■y?Mv^, Attic yAav^, -Kog, sagacious. a limit. 

i/, an owl. Xvirio), to disti'ess. [dious. TrepL-opuio, to overlook, 

detdo), to fear; pe^'f. Se- jj-aKpog, -a, -6v, long, te- neglect. 

(hiKa Jms a present mean- /ititto), not yet. Trpo-ipxo/^ai, to go before. 

ing. bpyL^oiJ.aL {to. pass, aor.), irTaipu, to sneeze. 

dufxa, -arog, to, a house. to be angry. ^EVfj.a, -cltoq, to, a stream. 

kvvTcvLov, -ov, TO, a dream. napaiiaTa'd-fjKrj, -7]g, ■//, a a(p6dpa, very, "violently, 

a vision. thing deposited, apledge. very much. 

Kal [3pa6vr evjSovXog e i /i e' tqxvv uvSpa 6i6ko)v. 01 'A-d-TjvaloL QefitcTTO- 
K7Ja CTpaTrjybv £i7\,ovTO h tC> UepacKC) tto'Ae/j.u. 'Odvaaevg dg "Acdov [leya 
6cjfia ^ /I i9- £ V. "Hv av jiolpav sT^t} g, TavTr/v (pipe Kal fir} ayavuKTEi. Avttov- 
(ie'&\ av TTTupT) Tig' av eiitr) KaKug, opyi^ofie'&a- av I6y Tcg evvttvlov, c(p66pa 
^ojdov/j.e'&a ' av ylai)^ avaKpayy, deSoiKa/iev. M/) Tiiareve Taxtora, Tzplv arpe- 
Kiug Tzepag 6-ip e i. MeTptug (f> ay e. Ovde elg "Ofirjpov el prj k e /laKpov. 'Og- 
Ttg Xoyovg, cjg TzapaKaTa-d-rjKTjv, ?ial3dv k. ^eItv ev, adiKog egtlv, f/ uyav uKpaTrjg. 
M.ri TOVTO I3?.iijjrig, el vetoTepog 2,eyo), aXX' el (ppovovvTuv Tovg /.oyovg o-vSpuv 
e pu). Uiv&ec fieTptog Toi)g arrod-avovTag (ptXovg • ov yap TE-&vrjKaaLv, a/Cka ti]v 
nvTijV b6ov, riv rruatv eTi'&elv egt' avdyarj, tc p o eXi]'Av-6- aa lv. ^evovg 
7riv7]Tag fir) irap ad p dfiy g 16 uv. TLoTa/iog Tig Kal ^evfia jSiatov eaTiv 6 
alcjv ■ ufia Te yap ox^t^tj Kal ir ap evTjv e kt a i Kal o/Jm TrapacpepeTac, to de' 
evex'^^cr^Tac. 'Ev ey Ke Xvtttjv Kal (3?ia(37]v ep^ufievug. ^iXov 6i' opy^i 
hv KaKolg [irj tt e p itSij g. M^ttw fieyav elirri g, irplv TelevTrjaavT' Idy g. 

The enemies have taken the town. Themistocles was chosen general by the 
Athenians. Come, {aor.) O friend, and see (aor.) the unhappy man. If thou 
art hungry (being hungiy), thou wilt eat with relish (ijSiug). The boy has 
eaten. The provisions are {i. e. have been) eaten. I have seen tlie unhappy 
(man). The enemies were seen {aor.). If thou seest thy poor friends {part 
CMi:), thou wilt not mn past them. The boy has run very fast. The grief was 
borne {aor.) by the father with firmness. What has leen said to thee by thy 
friend ? 

* the Aor. is translated by is accustomed. insteail of aAXo de. 

148 VERBS IN -fXl. — CONJUGATION. — DI flSION [§§ 127, 128. 

Verbs in -/^f . 
§ 127. Conjugation of Verbs in '[ai. 

1. The principal peculiarity of verbs in -/^t is, that, m the Pres. 
and Impf., and also in the second Aor. Act. and Mid. of several 
verbs, they take personal- endings different from those in -co, and 
have no mode-vowel in the Ind. of these tenses. The formation of 
all the other tenses of these verbs is like that of verbs in -co, with a 
few exceptions. 

2. Several verbs in -{ai, which have a monosyllabic stem, in the 
Pres. and Impf. take a reduplication (§ 123), which consists in re- 
peating the first consonant of the stem with i, when the stem begins 
with a simple consonant or with a mute and liquid ; but, when the 
stem begins with gt, tzt, or with an aspirated vowel, i with the rough 
Breathing is placed before the stem. There are only a few verbs 
of this kind ; e. g. 

AO- 6i-6o)-jUC, to give, XPA- Ki-xpv-f^f-i to lend, 

2TA- L-GT7]-p.L^ to place, 'E- l-rj-fiL, to send. 

§ 128. Division of Verbs in -ixi. 
Verbs in -fii are divided into two principal classes : 
I. Such as annex the personal-ending to the stem-vowel. The 
stem of verbs of this class ends, 

(a) in a, 

e. g. i-aTi]-iii, to station, Stem 2TA- 

(b) " e, 

" Ti-^7]-fM, to place, " GE- 

(c) " 0, 

" 6i-6u-juc, to give, " AO- 

(d) - c, 

" elfit, to go, " 'I- 

(e) " (T, 

" d/M, instead of ^a//t, to be, " 'E2-. 

II. Such as annex to their stems the syllable vvv or vv, and then 
append to this syllable the personal-endings. The stem of ve^t»*tJi 
this class ends, 

A. In one of the four vowels, a, s, i, o, and assumes I'vv, 

(a) in a, e. g. anEda-vvv-fii., to scatter, Stem 2KEAA- 

(b) " f, " Kop£-vvv-fii,to satisfg, " KOPE- 

(c) " I, only TL-vvv-fiL, to atone, " TI- 

(d) " 0, e. g. arpu-vvv-juc, to spread out, " 2TP0-. 

B. In a consonant, and assumes vv. 

(a) in a mute, e. g. SEiK-vv-fxc, to show. Stem AEIK- 

(b) " liquid, " uii-vv-ju,i, to swear, " '0M-. 

Remark. Of this second class, only the verb ajSi-vvv-fiL, to quench^ from tha 
stem 2BE-, forms a second Aor., viz. lajiiiv. 

§§ 129, 130.] VERBS IN -^l. — MODE-VOWLLS. — ENDINGS. 149 

§129. Mode-vowels. 
1. The Ind. Pres., Impf. and second Aor. do not take the mode- 
vowel, and he ice the personal-endings are annexed to the verb- 
stem ; e. g. 

I- ar a- fxev 
I- G T a- fie'&a 

e-rt- "d- E- jLiev 

k -~ L-'& £ -fi£-&a 

£- 6 0- jU£V 

£-6 6- fi£-&a. 

2. The Subj. has the mode-vowels co and rj, like verbs in -co, but 
these vowels coalesce with the characteristic-vowel ; hence the fol- 
lowing deviations from the verbs in -co^ in respect to contraction, are 
to be noted, namely, 

arj and uij coalesce into v an4 y (not, as in contracts in -aa>, into a and ^), 
6y coalesces into w (not, as in contracts in -ow, into oc) ; e. g. 

l-ara-o) = I-gtu l-GTa-rig = l-aryg l-GTa-rj-rat = l-GTrj-Tat 

GTa-G) = GTU GTCl-yg = GT-^g 

TL--d-£-td = TL--&ii) TL--&£-7ig = TL--&7Jg Tl--&£-U-jLiai = Tl--&U)-fiai, 

dt-66-0) = 6t-6co dL-66-rig = dt-dug dt-do-r/ = 6l-6C). 

Rem. 1. This form of the Subj. of LGTTjfit and TL-&rjiiL is like the Subj. of the 
two Aorists Pass, of all verbs ; e. g. rv^d-u, -yg, -y, etc., rvTv-u, -yg, -y, from 
TUTT-rw, GTa-d-C), -rjg, -y, from Igt7}[il. 

Hem. 2. The Subj. of verbs in -v[jll is like that of verbs in -vu ; e. g. SeiKvvu, 
-vTjg, etc. 

3. The Impf. and second Aor. Opt. have the mode-vowel t, which 
is annexed to the characteristic-vowel, and with it forms a diph- 
thong ; e. g. 

Opt. Impf. A. l-GTa-i-7]v = l-arai-rjv Aor. 11. A. Grat-rjv Impf. M. c-Grai-fiijv 

TL--&£-L-r]V = Tt--&£l-T]V ■&£i-7]V T L--& EL- flTJV 

di-do-L-Tjv = 6i-8oi-r]v doL-Tjv 6i-6oi-(xT]v. 

Rem. 3. The form of the Opt. of verbs in -e {Ti-&7]fj.i) is hke the Opt. of the 
Aorists Pass, of all verbs ; e. g. Gra--&£C-7]v, rvip-'&ei-rjv, tvtt-el-tjv. 

Rem. 4. The Impf. Opt. of verbs in 'Vfiif like the Subj. Pres., folic ws the 
form in -o ; e. g. 6£iKvvot/j,c. 

§ 130. Personal -en dings, 
1. The personal-endings of the Act. are the following : 
(a) Indicative Present, 

Sing. 1. 


Dual 2. 



l-GT7J-^ L 


Plur. 1. 




[-vGi{v)] (properly 




[l-ara-vrt l-aTa-vai{v ]] 



[§ 130. 

The ending of the tliird Pers. PI. -v(yi{v) is changed into -aat{v), and then is 
contracted wiili the preceding stem-YOwel of the verb. Still, the Attic dialect 
admits contraction only in the stems ending in a, thus: 

from l-ara-vGi is formed l-ardai {l-(7Ta-acn) 

" TL-'&e-vGi " TL-d-Elac Att. ri-'&e-aai 

" 6i-6o-vaL " 6i-6ovGi " 6c.-66-dac 

" detK-vv-v(7t " decK-vvaL " deLK-vv-dau 

(b) The personal-endings of the Pres. and second Aor. Subj. do 
not differ from those of verbs in -co. 

(c) The following are endings of the Impf. and second Aor. Ind. 

Impf. l-GTTj-v h-TL--Q-ri-v 

l-GTrj-g E-ri-'d-jj-g 

l-arr] h-rL--&r] 

Aor. n. e-arrj-TOv £--&e-TOV 

k-aT'r]-T7]i k-'&e-rrjv 

e-GTrj-jiEV e--&E-/u.ev 

E-arrj-re E--&E-TE 

E-GTjj-aav £--&£-aav. 

So the Ind. of the two Aorists Pass, of all verbs is like the second Aor. eottiv ; 

e. g. £TV7r-7iv, £-aTa--&7]v, -7]g, -rj, -tjtov, -^rrjv, -yjuEv, -tjte, -Tjaav. 

(d) The personal-endings of the Opt. Impf. and second Aor., 
except in the first Pers. Sing., differ from those of the Opt. of the 
historical tenses of verbs in -co, only in being preceded hj tj; e. g. 

aTat-7]v l-aTai-rjv ■&£l-7]v TL-d-el-Tjv Sot-r/v 6i-Soc.-i]v. 
Rem. 1. In the Dual and PI. Impf. Opt., the v is commonly rejected, and the 
ending of the third Pers. PI. -Tjaav is regularly shortened into -£v ; e. g. 

Sing. 1. 






Dual 2. 




Plur. 1. 






TL'&EL-riaav = tl'&eIev 


ScSoi-rjGav = StdotEv. 

The same holds of the Opt. Pass. Aorists of all verbs ; e. g. rv^'&ECTjfiev, rv- 
■jTeiTjuev = TV(p-d-ElfZ£v, TVTiECfiEv (wholly like ti'&ecijv). — On the contrary, in the 
Opt. second Aor. Act. of Igttj/lic, TC'&7]fic, didufiL, the shortened forms are very 
rare, except the third Pers. Plural. 

(e) The endings of the Pres. and second Aor. Imp. are : 
































or l-GXaVTUV 



Rem. 2. The second Pers. Sing. Pres. Imp. rejects the ending -i9«, and as a 
compensation Icngtliens the short characteristic-vowel, namely, a into rj, e into 
EL, o into ov, V into v, 

i'aTa--&i becomes l-gttj Ti--&£--&L becomes TL-Set 

di-do-d-L " Sl.6ov SEiic.vv-d-t " Selkvo. 

The ending -1? in the Pres. is retained only in a very few verbs. In ihe 

§ 131.] VERBS IN -fit. — FORMATION OF THE TENSES. 151 

second Aor. d f tl-^tjiu, iTjfu and 6idoj/ii, the ending -i?i is softened into -c, thna 
i?e d-i becomes ■&eg, ^-T?i = eg, 66--&C = 66g ; but in the second Aor. of iuTrifit, 
the ending •■&i is retained, thus crrj-'&i, also in the two Aorists Pass, of aU verbs ; 
e. g. TVTTTi-'&L, iratdEvd-i^rL (instead of iraidsv'&'ii-^c, § 8, Rem. 8). In compounds 
of GT7J-&L, the ending -if&L is often shortened into -a ; e. g. TrapaaTd, unooTUy 
np6(3a, Karafid. 

(f ) The ending of the Pres. and second Aor. Inf. is -vdi. This 
ending is appended in the Pres. to the short characteristic-vowel ; 
but in the second Aor., to the lengthened vowel, a being lengthen- 
ed into ?/, £ into ««, o into ov, thus, 

Pres. l-ara-vai Tc--&e-vaL 6t-66-vai. ^siK-vv-vat 

Second Aor. crrj-vai ■&el-vat 6ovvat. 

The Inf. of Pass. Aorists of all verbs is like arrival ; e. g. rvKri vai, {3ov?iev- 

(g) The endings of the Pres. and second Aor. participle are -yrff, 

'Vraa, -vt, which are joined to the characteristic-vowel according to 

the common rule, thus, 

l-ard-vrg = l-arug, l-ardaa, l-arav arag, GTUGa, aruv 

TL-'&e-vrq = Tc--&sig, -ecaa, -iv -Qsig, ■&elca, i9-£v 

6i-66-VTg = 6t-6ovg, 'ovaa, -6v Sovg, -ovaa,.-6v 
dsuc-vv-vrg = deiK-vvg, -vaa, -vv. 

The participles of the two Pass. Aorists of all verbs are like the Part rii?eif 
or '&etg ; e. g. Tvir-eig, -elaa, -iv, f3ov?isv&-etg, -ecaa, -sv. 

2. The personal-endings of the Mid. are like those of verbs in 
-co, except that in the second Pers. Sing. Pres. and Impf. Ind., and 
in the Imp., the personal-endings retain their full form, -cat and -go, 
almost throughout ; see the Paradigms. 

Rem. 3. The Sing. Impf. Act. of Ti-d-rjfu and diduuc is generally formed from 
TIGEfl and AIAOG with the common contractions. In verbs in -iifii, the col- 
lateral forms in -^w are usual for the entire Pres. and Impf., and exclusively 
in the Pres. Subj. and Impf. Opt. ; e. g. EvduKvvu, bfivvo), av/xfiiyvvu, together 
with kv6eiKvvfj.c, ofivvfic, cvfifii-yvv/.u. 

Formation opthe Tenses. 
§ 131. I. First Class of Verbs in -fii. 

1. In forming the tenses of the entire Act., as well as of the Fut. 
and first Aor. Mid., the short characteristic-vowel is lengthened, 
namely, a into ?], e into 7] and (in the Perf. Act. of Tid-r]fii and irjfii) 
into ei, and o into co ; but in the remaining tenses of the Mid., and 
throughout the Pass., the short characteristic-vowel is retained, with 
the exception of the Perf. and Plup. Mid. and Pass, of tidi][xi and 



ijjfiij where the ei of the Perf. Act. {ri&ei'Aa, rsd-sifxccij u'Aa, aiiiai), 
is retained. 

2. The first Aor. Act, and Mid. of rid-rjfxi, i7]^i and 5/5co/«, has x 
for the characteristic of the tense, not cr, thus : 

e-d-Tj-K-a, 7j-K.-a, £-6u-K-a. 

The forms of the first Aor. Act. ed-ijza, ?Jxa and edcoy.a, are, how- 
ever, used only in the Ind., and, for the most part, only in the Sing. ; 
in the other Numbers, as well as in the other Modes and Participials, 
the forms of the second Aor. are regularly used. Also the forms of 
the second Aor. Mid. of 7:i&7]fii, ir^fii and didmiii, are used instead 
of the first Aor. — On the contrary, the Sing, forms of the second 
Aor. Ind. Act. of ti'&7]{a,i., lt]^i and didcofiij namely, e&t^v, rjv, sdoov, 
are not in use. 

3. The verb tonjiiL forms the first Aor. Act. and Mid., like verbs 
in -co, with the tense-characteristic d ; e. g. a-aztj-G-a, i-GTi]-G-dpi7]v. 
The second Aor. Mid. lazdiiriv is not used. This tense is formed, 
however, by some other verbs ; e. g. i7TTdpLi]v, inqidiiriv. 

Rem. 1. The second Aor. Pass, and the second Fut. Pass, are wanting in these 
verbs, also the Tut. Perf., except in laTTjfxif the Put. Perf. of which is tarij^a 
(old Att.) and icTTj^o/iat. 

§ 133. Paradigms of 


ST A- to place. 

0E- to put. 

AO- to give. 

L'EYK- to sTuno. 

S. 1 

D. 1 

P. 1 











( fromcG-d-aai ) and rL--d-£l<7c ( v) 




2indi 6 L-6ovciL[v\ 





S. 1. 





D. 1. 







P. 1. 



















And SecKvt-u, -eig, etc., especially d£tKvvovai{v). Also Impf. kdeUvvov, 

§§ 132, 133.] VERBS IN -|^L — TENSES AND PARADIGMS. 


Eem. 2. On the meaning of the verb 'i.aTi]jiL, the following things are to be 
noted : the Pres., Impf , Fut. and first Aor. Act. have a transitive meaning, to 
place ; on the contrary, the second Aor., the Peif. and Plup. Act., and the FuL 
Perf , have a reflexive or intransitive meaning, to place one's self, to stand, namely, 
tarrjVj I placed mi/self, or / stood, iarrfKa, I have placed myself, I stand, sto, Lottj- 
KEtv, stabam, iaTTj^u, kaTTj^ofiat, stabo (utpeaTf/^u, I shall withdraw). The Mid. 
denotes either to place for one^s self to stand, consistere, or to let one's self be pla.ced, 
i. e. to be placed. 

§ 132. II. Second Class of Verbs in -{.il. 
There is no difficulty in forming the tenses of verbs of the second 
class (§ 128). All the tenses are -formed from the stem, after the re- 
jection of the ending -vvuiii or -vviii. Verbs in -o, which in the 
Pres. have lengthened the o into co, retain the oo through all the 
tenses ; e. g. arQM-vvv-fii, ^c6-vvv-ia,i, qco-vi'v-[j,i, )^(a-yvv-fii, Fut. argco- 
(7C0, etc. — But verbs, whose stem ends in a liquid, take, in forming 
some of the tenses, a Theme ending in a vowel ; e. g. oii-vv-{iij Aor. 
odfi-o-oa, from "OMO^. The second Aor. and the second Fut. 
Pass, occur only in a few verbs ; e. g. t,evy-vv-ni, second Aor. Pass. 
i^vyrjv ; second Fut. Pass, ^vyijaouat. 

Verbs in -[ii 


2TA- to place. 

eE- to put. 

AO- to give. 

AEIK- to show. 


TL--&e-GaL and TL-d-ri 














































I'GTu-vrai ♦ 



-vec, 've{v), and the 

. Particip''e usually 

Seikvv-uv, 'Ovaa, -o 

p, § 130, Rem. 3. 












IT A- to place. 

GE- to put. 

AO- to give. 

AEIK- to show. 



^ ^ 

S. 2. 





{irom. l<JT(X-&i,) 

(from Tc-&e'&i) 

(from dcdc&t) 

(from dECKvv'^c) 






















P. 2. 











et l-CJTaVTUV 

et TL--&eVTOV 

et 6i-66vro)v 

et Selk-vvvtuv 







G. avTog 


G. ovTog 

dEiK-vvg, voa, vv 
G. vvTog 

S. 1. 

















D. 1. 














P. 1. 

















S. 1. 

















D. 1. 











P. 1. 












S. 1. 

e-GT7]-V, I 


{£-do)-v) r A.I. 


E-GT7]-g [stood, 

(£--&r]-g) ^used 

(£-So)-g) < used 




U--&V) Cfoi'it 

(E-dcj) ^ for it 


D. 1. 



E-GT7] -TOV 





k-GTI] -T7]V 




P. 1. 

E-GTJ] -[lev 





k-GT J] -re 





E-GTT/ -GaV 



S. 1. 













D. 1. 










P. 1. 












^ See § 130, Eem. 1. 

^ The compounds, e. g. ott 


idu, have the same accentuation 


the sim 

pies, e. g. dit 7 J 

TCJGt, kK'&^TOV, 


§ 133.] 




2TA- to place. 

GE- to put. 

AO- to give. 

AEIK- to show. 

i-GTa-Go and 


l-GTa-G-d-uGav and 



l-GTu-fievog, 7], 0'. 

l-GTu-Go andi-oTw 













(k-GTa-fxrjv does 
not occur, but 

{GTu-jLtat does not 
occur, but TTplu- 
pai, -y, -Tjrai, 


TL--&E-GO and 




Ti--&e-G^o)Gav and 



Tl-'&E-/J.eVOg, 7], ov 

E-Tt-'&E-fl.TJV [d-OV 

E-TL-'&E-GO and E-TC- 

















E-d^ov {from. E'&EGo) 


£-■&£- flE-d-QV 









di-6o-Go and 

dc-do-Gd-uGav and 


dt-66-fj,Evo^, Tj, ov 

E-Sc-66-fj.7]v [Sou 

e-6l-6o-go and k-di- 

















£-6ov (from EdoGo) 



















and Selk-vv-g^uv 


6EiK-vv-/j,£vog, 7, 













^ On the accentuation in ETTCGrato, etc., see § 134, 1. * See § 134, 2. 
* Also in composition, Evd-u/iai, -y, -TJTai, etc., a'KO'&Qfiai, -^, -^rai, etc, IkSC)' 
uaif -9, -cJTai, etc., anod<i'iat, •€>, -urai, etc. 













'2TA- to place. 

GE- to put. 

AO- to give. 

AEIK- to show. 



s " <» 
2; <=^ 

S. 1. 












D. 1. 











P. 1. 













dog (66^1 f 

S. 2. 

ari] -i9-i^ 

-aig {■&£^if 


















P. 2. 

GTTj -re 





GT7} -TiOGaV 

and GTavTuv 

and -Bevtuv 

and 66vTCJv 






GTug, uGa, av 

■d-ELg, ELGa, EV 



Gen. d-EVTog 

Gen. SovTog 






Aorist I. 

e-GT7]Ga, I 





Instead of these forms, the second 

Aor. is used in the Dual and PI. 

Ind. and in the other Modes and 

Participials, $ 131, 2. 


e-GTrj-Ka,'* sto 

rE-'& £ c -K.a 

Se- 6 0) -aa 



k-GT7]-Keiv and 

E-TE- ■& £ i-KEtV 

E-Se- 6 6) -KELV 


Fut. Perf 






Aorist I. 1 e-(jTa--&r]v 

1 E-TE--&r}V° j E-do-'&TJV 

1 e-SeIx-'&tjv 1 

^ See § 130, Rem. 1. ^Jn 

composition, TrapaGTijd-i, nap 

dard ; o.'kogtti'&i, 

aTTOG-a, § 130, Rem. 2. ^ 

In composition, TVEpi^Eg, £v&e(, 

- ; aTTodog, EKdog ; 

Tvepi^E-e, ekSots, § 84, Re] 

m. 2. * See § 134, 3. ^ ete^j 

]v and TE'&'fiGOfiaL 

§ 134. Remarks on tJie Paradigms. 

1. The verbs 6 vv a fiat, to be able, ETrtGra/Liai, to know, Kpifxa/uai, to 
hang, and TrpiaG-d-ai, to buy, have a different accentuation from iGrafiai, in the 
Pres. Subj. and Impf. Opt., namely, Subj. Svvuuai, kmGTUfxai, -77, -rjrai, -ijg'&ov 
-Tjo^E, -uvrai ; Opt. dvvaif^Tjv, kinaTaifj.Tjv, -ato, -ai.TO, -accd-ov, -aca^e, -aivTO ; 
BO also bvaifirjv, -ato, -atro (§135). 

2. The forms of the Opt. Impf and second Aor, Mid. with -01, viz. Ti-&oi/njVf 
"^oifiTjv, are more common than those with -el, nz. Ti-&Eifirjv, -eIo, -elro, etc, 
^eifiTiv, -elo, -elro, etc. In compounds the accent remains as in simples, thus, 




2TA- to place. 

eE- to put. 

AO- to give. 

A E IK- to shffw. 

occur, but Trptai- 
[irjv, -aio, 'ttCTO, 













{ard-GO or crcj 
does not occur, 
but Trpia-ao or 


-^ov (-d-eGoy 



-d-e-G-^ciGav and 

60V ((Jocro)^ 


66-G-&(jGav and 

{ard-a-d-ai) Trpiaa. 



{GTd-/Li€Vog) Tzpia- 

■&£-fievog, -7], -ov 

66-iiEvog, -7], -ov 







Instead of these forms 
is used by the Attic w 


, the second Aor. Mid. 
riters, $ 131, 2. 



TE--&£ L -fiat 




k-TE- ■& ei -fiTjv 








1 Fut. I. 1 GTd--&r]coiiaL \ re-d-rjao/Liac^ | do-d-rjaofiat | detx-'& 

instead of t&e^-rjv and ^e&fjaoiiaL (§ 8, 10). ^ See § 134, 2. ''' In composi- 
tion, Kard-d-ov, dTz6-&ov ; Trspidov, ccTTodov ; KaTa^ea-&e, TrepcSoa^e ; ev&ecr&e, 
TTpodoo'&e ; but hv&ov, elc^ov ; vrpoSov, hdov (§ 84, Rem. 2). 

h^olfiTjv {kvd-MfiTjv), ev&oio (kv&elo). etc. The same is true of compounds of 
SoijUTjv, e. g. 6La6oifji7)v, dtadolo, etc. 

3. The Perf. and Plup. iGTijKa, karfiKELv (not elGT^Keiv), form the Dual ani 
PI. immediately from the stem, viz. Perf. e-cra-Tov, S-Gra-fiev, e-Gra-re, t-GTo- 
gl{v) ; Plup. ^-GTCL-Tov, -aTTjv, ^-ara-fj-EV, i-GTa-re, S-Gva-Gav ; instead of iiGTij' 
KEvai, kGTuvai is regularly used. The Part, is ioTug, •tboa, -6g, Gen. -cirof, 
-UG7}g, also EGTTjKug, -via, -6g, Gen. -orog, -viag. • 

4. The forms of the Impf. hr'f&ovv, -sig, -el, kdiSow, -ovg, -ov, are constructed 
according to the conjugation in -io and -oco. The other forms, kri'&rjv, -ijc, '^, 
kdiduv, -ug, -u, are not used (^ 130, Rem. 3). 


158 VERBS IN -fU. [§ 134. 

LXIII. Vocabulary. 
'krip, -ipog, 6, ?j, the air. revolt ; mid., to go or establish, appoint, to 

2vtaTTj/^L, to set up, raise, stand apart. render, to make, 

awaken ; mid., to raise 6uaT7]^t, to place apart, ?ujuvti, -rjg, rj, a marsh, a 
oneself, stand up, rise separate, sever. pond, a lake. 

up. evtaT7]fiL, to put into ; ?iOi/j,6g, -ov, 6, a plague, a 

uvTL-Tdrru, to set oppo- p^rf., to be present. pestilence, 

site ; mid., to set oneself E^-opd^6o),to make straight, ve^elT}, -tjq, tj, a cloud, a 
against, oppose. erect, set up, restore. net for birds. 

airo-uTrdo), to draw away. ?)vioxoc, -ov, 6, a rein- TtapicTTTj/LiL, to place be- 
dTTo-o-rpe^w, to turn away. holder, guide. side, to help. 

avog, -7], -ov, Attic avog, ■Qvaia, -ag, fj, a sacrifice, •tt^, where? whither? 

-ov, dry, thii'sty. carrjixc, to place, make to 7ro/ie/z£w, w. dot., to carry 

atpiarrjiiL, to put away, stand. on war. 

ttim ofi", cause to re- Ka-&c(JT7jfj.i, to lay down, nolvcpilia, -ag, rj, a mul- 
volt ; 2 aor.j to fall away, titude of friends. 

'H Tzo'kv^L7[.ia duarrjai Koi dTToana koI d'KOcrpi(peL. Ei ng d-vaiav Tcpog<pepidV 
Evvovv vofii^et rbv '&eqv Kad-cardvaL, (ppivag Kovcpag exsc OvSe rov depa ol dv- 
&pco7TOL Tolg bpvLGiv Eiov kTiEV'&epov, naycdag koI VE(j)£2,ag lardvTEg. ^u/larrou, 
u'^ rb KEpSog as rrjg diKaLocjvvrjg dcpLCTTJ. '"Ev ro llE2,07i0vvi](naK(j 7roAe//6) elc 
dvTjp, 6 IlEpLKXTJg, k^cjp-&ov TTjv 'Kokiv KOL dvLGTr] KoX dvTerdTTETO Kot rc5 "koiflCi 
Kol TU) 7ro?i,Efj.({). M^ d(pL(JTi] Tovg vEovg TTJg ETTL TTjv dpETTjv odov.^ QEfiiaroKXyQ 
TiiysTat elivElv, dg to MtTiTLddov rpoTraiov avrbv ek tuv vttvuv avLaraiT]. Tdv- 
TaTiOg hv ry Tiifivrj avog eidTTjKEL. To fisv rov XP^'V^'*^ yeyovog,^ rb Se kvEarug 
hcTL, TO de fiiXlov. 01 Kopcv&coc 7ro?b?iovg uvfi/mxovg aTrEarrjcyav dnb rtJv 'Ai9-J7- 
vatuv. 01 "Ndiiot cTrd tcjv 'A.'&rivaiuv cn^EGTrjaav. HapdaTd ToZg drvxEOiv. 
n^ (TTcJ^ ; Tcy (3u* ; 01 'K-d-rjvaloi roZg "NaEioLg diroaTdaLv ait' avTuv eTroXijur/- 
aav. TiapaaraLTjre Tolg drvxEGLv. Kbyog 6LECTrdp-&r], Toi)g avfi/xaxovg dirb ttjq 
TToXewf dnoGTTjvat. 'Hvtoxov yvufirjv crTTjasig dpiarTjv. 

Sportsmen place snares and nets for the birds. The bad seek to sever the 
friendship of the good. The trophies of Miltiades woke Themistocles from his 
sleep. Let us not turn away youths from the way to virtue. Do not sever {pi.) 
the friendship of the good. The citizens were afraid, that the enemies would 
make their allies revolt from them. The bad rejoice, if they sever {part.) the 
friendship of the good. Tantalus stands thirsty in the lake. The wise man 
takes care not only for {gen.) the present, but also for the future. The soldiers 
raised {aor.) a trophy over [Kara, vj.gen.) the enemies. The Naxians sought to 
revolt from the Athenians. Assist (stand by) the unfortunate. "Where shall we 
stand ? where shall we go 1 Thou shouldst assist the unfortunate. The sol- 
diers will raise a trophy over the enemies. 

LXIV. Vocabulary, 

^AKpoTToTitCf -£Wf, ^, a cit- a%2.6rpiog, -a, -ov, anoth- dva-Tcd-ri/u, to put np, 
adel. er's, forei^. offer. 

* ^ 157. S^ 123. =* § 153, ] . b, (a), (3). * § 119, 1. and 4 142. 

§ 134.] VERBS IN -{XL 159 

ap-ya2,eor, -a, -ov, heavy, i. e. a staff of the Bac- 7Tpoc-Tt-&ijni, to add. 

troublesome, burden- chantes, wound round irpo-Tid-Tifu, to set before 

some. with ivy and vine leaves. lay out (for view), set 

SiadTjfxa, -arog, to, a head- Ktrrog, -ov, 6, ivy. forth. [tre. 

band, a diadem. /j.£Ta-Tl-&i]fn, to change, cKrjiTTpov, -ov, to, a scep- 

Scacpopa, -dg, rj, a differ- alter, remove. Ti-&rj/j,i, to place, arrange, 

ence, a quarrel, enmity. fit/ieo/xat,w.acc.,to imitate. propose as a prize, give, 

kv-TL-d-rifiL, to put in, instil. TtEpi-Ti-d-riiii, to put or set make ; mid., place for 

■&vpaog, -ov, 6, a Thyrsus, round. oneself, take. 

Tg) icaTicJg TTocovvTi ■&ebg rroTiTia aya-d-a TL'&rjaLv. 'O WkovTog 'KoWaKig [lETa- 
TL'd-rjGi Tov Tuv dv&puTruv TpoTTOV. UoXXaKig ol avO-puTTOi Tolg Idiocg KaKolg 
cOJiOTpca TtpogTid^eaaiv. "Elg Tb PeT^Tiov Tid-et to (ieTJ^ov. 'AvTiyovog Acovvcrov 
iravTa hfiLfieiTO, koI klttov ■KepLTf&e'cg Ty /cf^c/l^ uvtI diaS'^juaTog MaKsdo' 

VLKOV, -d-VpaOV 6e CIVtI GKri-^TpOV (pSpUV. 01 CO<plUTal TTJV apETTjV TTpOETL'&EGaV. 

''EvTf&cJfiEv Tolg VEOtg Trjg ao<pLag ipuTa. 'H tvxv navTa av jUETaTf&Eir/. Oi) 

f)g6L0V TrjV ^VGLV fJ,£TaTL-&£VaL. IlO/l/la/Cff doKOVVTEg ■&7J(7£tV KCKOV EO'&'koV £■&£' 

fiEV, Kol SoKovvTEg £G'&2.ov £-&£jLi.£v KaKov. Tag 6La<popag /ZEvad-u/iEv. 'ApyaMov 
yrjpag E-d-rjKE ■&E6g. 'A-&T}vacoi xa^K?jv TroirjaafiEvoi Matvav hv nvXaig Trig aKpo- 
TtoTiEog avE'&Eaav. 'Paov^ e^ aya&ov -d-Elvat KaKov, rj ek kukov kad-Tiov. Tb Ka- 
Kbv GvSEcg xpV<^'i'ov av ■&Eirj. Meto.'&ete Tag diacpopdg. AvKovpyov rbv ■&£VT(i 
AaKEdaifiovtotg vo/novg, [laliaTa d^avfid^ofXEV. '0 Tr6?iE/iog rravTa /xetute^eikev. 
Jlpb Trjg dpETTig ■&Eol ISpuTa £-&EGav. 

To those who do well the gods give {= place) many good things. We often 
add others' ills to our own. We often see riches change (changing) ^he char- 
acter of men. The war has changed everything. God gave (placed, aor.) to 
men many good things. The war will change everything. Who would give 
(place, opt. aor. w. av) laws to foolish men 1 It is not easy to change (aor.) na- 
ture. The gods made (= rendered, placed) age burdensome. The bad we 
cannot easily make good {opt. aor. u\ av). The general should instil {pres. or 
aor.) courage into the soldiers. May riches never change {pres. or aor.) thy 
character ! We will instil {aor.) into the youths a love for virtue {gen.). 

LXV. Vocabulary. 

'A7co-6idoiiJ.i,, to give back, KEVTpov, -ov, to, a sting, rrdyKaKog, -ov, thoroughly 
repay ; mid., to sell. a goad. bad. 

Sidu/xi, to give, grant /xaKap, -apog, happy, bless- TraAtv, again, on the con 

IfiwEdog, -ov, firm, sure, ed. trary. 

lasting. iiEXiTTa, -rjg, tj, a bee. ■K^po-dcdu/j.i, prodo, to be- 

ein-Tiav&dvo/xai,, to forget. fiETa-dcSu/ac tlvI Ttvog, to tray. 

eh-d-vg and ev-&v, imme- give any one a share of XPV^^^ ^- S^-i to ^ i^ 
diately. anything. want. 

01 -d-EOc TzavTa ScSodGtv. TvvaiKc^ apxsiv ov diSuGLv t] <f)vatg. Xapiv 2,a^cbv^ 
uifivijao,^ Kot 6ovg kTriTia-d-ov. AajSdv dnodog, koc "krjipy^ 'nakw. ^Q fiuKapEg 
■&Eoi, doTE [xoi olfSov Kot do^av aya'&Tiv exeiv. 'O 'rr2,ovTog, bv av Suae ■&eoc, 

» See § 52, 10. 2 ^ 47 2. 3 ^ 121, 12. * § 122, 11. 


VERBS IN -fit. 

[§ 134. 

euTredoc egtlv. "k rj (pvacc deduKs, Tavf ex^l [lova 6 av&puTrog. 'H ^vaic Tai- 
poig edoKE Kepac,^ Kevrpa /ie2.crTaLc. '^flv^ aoL dsbc eSuKe, tovtov xpj^ovai 61- 
6ov. 'Ecr&?M uvdpl kol ecrd-Aa Sidcoat -d-eog. UtuxV sv'^vg 6i6ov. Xpr/fiara 
daifiuv KOL irayKaKo) dvdpl didoaiv-, dperijc (5' 6?uyoic dvdpaai fiotp' eiterat. 
Qeog [lOL Soirj ^L7^ovg maTOvg. Tolg irlovaLOLg iTpiTrec rolg tctux*^^^ Sovvat. 01 
crpaTiiJTai ttjv tzoIlv rolg iroleuioLg -TrpovSidoaav. '0 dya-d-og x^^P^'' ^^if 7re- 
v^cfc ;^;p77/zarcjv' fiETadidovg. Ael rovg dya'&ovg avSpag yEvvatug ^ipeiv, b tl av 
6 ■&Ebg dtdu). "Of dv iie}\Xt) rrjv TrarpiSa irpodidovai, [xeyiarrjg* ^Tjficag u^iog^ ka- 
TLv. 01 -d^eoi fioi dvrl kukuv dya'&d 6l6oIev. ^ITiog cpiXov oh irpoduaEL. 

God gives everytliing. If you {pi.) have received {aor. part.) a favor, remem- 
ber it ; and if you have granted a favor {aor. paii.), forget (it). If you have re- 
ceived (anything), give again {aor.). Give me, God, riches and reputation 
to possess. The wealth which God has given {ao7\) is lasting. The gods have 
given men many good things. Give ye to the poor immediately. May the 
gods give {aor.) me faithful friends ! Thou must bear nobly, Avhat {bg uv, w. 
subj.) the gods assign (give) thee. Good citizens will never betray their coun- 
try. God gave men many treasures. The soldiers intended to betray {aor.) 
the town. It is well to give to the poor. Who would betray a friend {opt. w. 
av) 1 Honor the gods, who give {paH.) all good {pL) to men. 

* ^-opKOG), to cause to swear, thi'oughout, wholly, 
administer an oath to. "^rapayyiTiTiCo, to order. 

LXVI. Vocabulary/, 

k-d-EuTog, -ov, not to be eft/XEvo), w. daf., to remain 6/j.vv/j,Cy to swear. 

seen. with, abide by. 5pKog, -ov, 6, an oath. 
dTro-dEiK-^v/j.1, w. 2 ace, to kvrog, w. gen., vpithin. Travrcjf, in every way, 
show,represent,explain, e^ 
declare any one as any- 
thing; m/d, show of my- kmopKov, -ov, TO, a false TT/lacrnA:^ (i.;^;^^), mo- 
self, express, declai*e, oath, perjury. [by. delling art, sculpture, 
display, render. ETzofLvv^c, w. ace, to swear puvvv/ii,, to sti'engthen. 
fiETptog, -a, -ov, Attic jie- aTravtug, rarely, seldom. 

rpiog, -ov, moderate. -^rj^LOfia, -arog, to, a de- 
/x^TTOTE, never. [tor. cree, a resolution. 
fiLfXTjTTig, -ov, 6, an imita- 

"OpKov (pEvyE, Kav StKaiog bjivvrig. M^ tl dsovg kmopKOv kirofivv. *0 olvog 
UETpiog 7irj(^-&Elg^ ^cJvvvcrtv. Oi ^LdaGKaXoi Tovg jua'&'rjTdg fjnuLTjTdg kavTuv aTVO- 
6elkvvuclv. Hv&ayopag TTaprjyyEiXs Tolg fiav&dvovaL, (jTraviug fiEV bfivvvat, 
XPV'^'^fJ'^'^ovg Se Totg opKOig -ravTug kfifiEVELV. 'H 7r?i.a(7TCK?) Selkvvci tu eldrj tuv 
"d-EcJv, TcJv dv&po)7iO)v Kal EVLOTE Kul TUV -drjpuv. M^ u'&saTa 6£c^rig rjTilCfi. 'AvSpb^ 
vovv olvog eSei^ev. ^pvysg opKOtg oi) XP^'^'^^'' o^~' btivvvTEg, ovt' aXkovg h^op- 
KOvvTEg. 'OXiyoLg dsiKvv to. kvTbg (ppsvuv. 01 KpiTal to, ijJT}(j>i.(TfiaTa dTTEdECKvv- 
cav. Mtjttote eIkij bfivvoiTE. 'O (3acnXEvg tov avTov vlbv UTpaTTjybv aTroSEdELXsv. 

Avoid an oath, even if you swear justly. Do not swear a false oath. Those 
who swear a false oath, are deserving of the greatest punishment. The Phry- 

dElKvvjut, to show. 
diKaiug, justly, fairly. 
elK^, inconsiderately, un- 

* § 39, Rem. 

* § 52, 8. 

^ bv attraction instead of a. 
" § 158, 7. (7). 

3 4 158, 3. (li). 
« § 121^ 12. 

§ 134.] VERBS IN -fit. 161 

gians (lid not swear. The judges declare their resolutions. May you never 

swear unadvisedly ! It is not becoming to swear unadvisedly. The Athenians 
declared Alcibiades {'AlKLJ3cd6r]c, -ov) general. 

LXVII. Vocahilary. 

'A|^i6/loyof,-ov,worthmen- jie'&r], -?)c, v, drunkenness. d?uyapxia, -ac, v, the rule 

tioning, noticeable, me- jncjpoc, -", -6v, foolish ; 6 of a few, oligarchy. 

morable. ^(^pog, the fool. izpuro^, -77, -ov, first. 

Sevrepoc, -a, -ov, second. vavTiKog, -rj, -6v, belong- avv-iaTrjiu, to put togeth- 
dvvafiai, 10. pass. aor., to he ing to ships, nautical; er;mzc?., assemble, unite, 

able, can, have power. vavrcK^ dvvafiic, naval bring together. 
imara/Ltac, w. pass, aor., to power. 

know, understand, 

'O irlovTog TroXld, dvvarat. Tig av fiupbg dvvaLTo hv olvu muTrdv ; 'Av7}p 
StKUtog eanv, ogrig udiKslv SvvafiEvog fj.^ fSovleraL. TlpdrTe ixrjdev uv^ fi^ kizia- 
raaai. 'kpiarov egtl ttuvt' k-rriaTaa'&aL Kald. ZiJfiev^ ovx o)g k'&elofiev, d7'A,' 
liQ Svvdfie'&a. TLpb fiid-ijc dvcaTaao. Tt GV[j.<pEpEL Evioig irlovTslv, orav fi^ 
kiziaTuvTai rw ttAowt^' ;^p^c7i9-ai^ ; KaraT^v&EVTog rov llE2.07rovv7](naKov ■no'ki- 
uov bXi-yapxiciv kv ralg TrXsicrTaLg 7z6?iEcrc KaMaravro. 01 tcoXe[iloi ovk airoarTj- 
covrac, irplv av STlcjgl^ ttjv ttoKlv. Mivwf, 6 devTepog, irpcbrog ''E7lX^vo)v vav- 
riKrjv SvvaftLV d^ioloyov cvvEGrrjaaro. 'Ttto Avadvdpov, rov 'Z-KaprLdrov, kv 
'A-&7jvaLg TpLdiiovra rvpavvoi KarEard^rjaav. 

Men have much power through wealth. Else up {pi) hefore intoxication. 
The enemies could not take (2 aor.) the tovm. Of what use is it to thee to he 
rich, if thou understandest not how to use riches 1 What fools could {dv, zv. opt.) 
he sUent over wine 1 No mortal is able to know everything. There are few 
who understand {part.) how to use riches well. The magistrates who are ap- 
pointed {aor. part, pass.) to rule over the town, must {6ei, w. 0£c. of pers.) care 
for its prosperity. 

LXVIII. Vocabulary. 

'A-&2,iog, -a, -ov, trouble- der, manage; iv. adv., -^rjaavpog, -ov, 6, a trea- 

some,pitiable,miserable. put into a disposition, sure. 

dito-TL-driixL, to put away ; dispose. KaTa-r'f&rjUL, to lay down, 

mid., take away. hnL-Ti-d-rjiiL, to add, put up- lay hy ; mid., lay down 

iia-relEQ, to complete ; on ; mid., put on one- for oneself. 

w. /lar^., it expresses the self; w. dat., apply to, Kpdvog, -sog = -ovg, to, a 

continuance of the ac- attack, set upon. helmet, 

tion denoted by the par- h/KpdvE/a, -ag, rj, self-con- 7i6(l>og, -ov, 6, a crest, 

ticiple, as diaTsXu ypd- trol, continence. arE(pavog, -ov, 6, a crown. 

^uv, " I continue to E<p6di,ov, -ov, to, viaticum, (potviKeog, -id, -eov, con- 

■write," or " writing." • travelling money. traded -ovg, -^, -ovv, 

SioTi'&Tjfit, to put in or- t/ko, tj^u, I am come. jurple. 

* hy attraction instead of firjSEv Toiruv, a. ' see § 97, 3. 

« § 161, 3. " see § 126, 1. 


162 - VEEBS IN 'Ul. [§ 134. 

Oi KelTifSvpeg irspc rug Ksmlug itpavT] x^"^^^ ireptT'f&evrai. ^oiviKolg tjckti- 
UEva^ 2,6(j)oig. Ovdeva -d-rjaavpov Tvaial Karad-fjari afieivo)^ aidovg. Tig av iicuv 
^ilov uippova '3-olTo ; ^£vo(j)C)VTt ■&vovtc tjks ng e/c Mavrtveiag uyyeXog Myav, 
Tov vlbv avTOV rbv TpvTiXov Te-&vdvac^ • KuKelvog aTrt&ero juev rov crefavov, 
6uTeXeL Se '&v-j)v • kTrel Ss 6 uyysTiog Tcpoge'&'i^Ke KaV^ sKelvo, ore vckcov red-v/jKe, 
Tvaltv 6 Sevo(l)U)v krre'&eTO rbv arecpavov. 'A?^KL(3tu67]g £(j)vyev elg ^TzdpTTjv Kol 
Tovg AaKedac/LLOviovg Trapco^vvev sTrf&ea'&at rolg 'A-d-rjvaLOtg. Tcj fzev rb cufia^ 
Siare'&ELfievo) naKcJg ;i;pem karlv larpov, rw 6s rrjv ipvxw <j>i-lov. 'E(j)6dcov el^ 
TO yTjpag Karari'&ov. Ot 'A'&7]valot kv rcj devrepcp rov Ile?iOTrovvr]aiaKov ttoM- 
aov eret vrrb rov Xoifiov a'&'X.iurara diere'&rjaav. KaKbv ovdev (pverat ev avSpl 
-&eueXia ■&efievo) rov jSlov oo)(ppoavvr]v Kot kyKpareiav. Tovg inarovg rid-ead-ai 
del enacTOV tavrih. 01 'Ko'hlrat (pol3ovvrai, p) ol Trolifzioi ry 'Kokzi I'KirvQ'Civrai. 

The citizens attack the enemies. "We will take the good as our friends. 
The citizens feared that the enemies might attack the town. Lay by travelling 
money for old age. Put on {am.) the crown. Take care that the enemies do 
not attack [suhj. am-.) you. Croesus deposited many treasures of gold in his 
house. The character of men is often changed by riches. Nature cannot easily 
be changed. A golden crown was placed [aor.) by the Athenians on the gate 
of the Acropolis. Ereiything has been changed by the war. 

LXIX. Vocabulary. 

'Afioi(3r/, -rjg, ij, exchange, the same time ; mid.^ avv-veo), to spin, weave 

recompense, retm-n. give oneself up with together with. 

arparog, -ov, 6, an army. others to a thing. 
cvv-€Ta-6t6o)/j,i, to give at 

'Kdptg x^P'-'^'- awodiSoraL. Tcj si) irocovvrt Tzo7JkaKLg kck^ aTroSiSorat aft,oi(3^. 
ILarptdeg rcoXTiciKig Sia aepdog TcpovdodrjGav. lloTJicL dupa deSorat rolg dv&pu- 
tzoig Trapd ruv ■&euv. 'Q,g /neya rb [iinpov kariv kv Kaipu dc&ev. "Ore elXe^ ttjv 
Q7](3aiG}v TtoXcv A?i£^avdpog, aTceSoro rovg kXev^epovg Trdvrag. 'Ekuv aeavrbv 
ry Klcod-of (TweTTLdcdov, ivapexcov avvvrjaat, olgrLoi^ irore irpdy/iaac (3ov7itrat. 
^Ofiotug alaxpov, anovaavra xpW'-f^o'^ "kdyov [irj (lav&dveiv, Kal SiSofievov re 
aya-Q-bv Trapd rtjv (pi?Mv firj ?M/j,l3dveLv. 01 7ro?urat (pofSovvrac, jjlti tj 'KoKig npo- 
SidcJrac. 'Mt/tcote vtvo rcov (ptXav Ttpodtdolo. 'O arparog vif avrov rov arpa- 
TTjyov TTpovdcSoro. 'AttoSov rb KVTze%7iov. 

Everything is given by God. The wealth which is given [aor.) by God is 
lasting. The town was betrayed by tlie soldiers to the enemies. We must 
bear nobly, what is sent (given) by God. The friend will not be betrayed by 
the friend. Alexander is said, when he had taken {aor.) Thebes, to have sold 
{aor.) all the free citizens. The ai-my is said to have been betrayed {aor.) by 
the general. The citizens feared, that the town might be betrayed. Let us 
sell {aor.) the goblets. 

^ from dcKeci, to adorn. ~ see § 52, 1, 

' see § 122, 9. red-vdvai instead of rs'&vijKevai, Comp. § 134, 3. 

* also. ^ § 159, (7). e § 126, 1. 

"* K/lwi9^«, one Df the Parcae, or goddesses of Fate. 

" by attraction instead of Tvpdy/xaaiv, a fSovXerat. 

§ 135.] smniART of verbs in -^i. 163 

LXX. Vocabulary/. 

AAiyi^wf, tiTilj, in reality. iTrt-delKvvfXL, to showhrRg- 7ro?iVTs?Lr/g, -ec, co'5tl7, 

itfidt-Evvv/xi, to put on, gingly, make a boastful splendid. 

dress in. display of; mid., show ^r/rup, -opoc, 6, an orator. 

airoXXv/Ltc, to ruin ; 7n{d.., of oneself boastfully. ciSevvv/u, to quench, ex- 
be ruined or lost, per- Kepawvjit, to mix. ting-uish. 
ish. ttal^pTjaia, -ag, ■>/, free- avv-aTrolAv/LCf., to ruin at 

kv-6eiKvvfic, to show ; viid., dom in speaking, frank- the same time ; mid., go 

show of oneself. ness. to ruin at the same time. 

^t?iOL (plTiOLg cvva-KbJJkvvrai dv^TVxovaiv. OvSettote ,K?Jog lad^Aov (iTTo/jjvTai, 
'Avdpbg ScKaiov Kapizbg ova a7:ok7jvTai. Kl yvvatKeg :\'a<po?;(7iv a/2(btevvvfievat 
Kokag ha-&r]Tag. 01 a7irj-&C)g co^ol ov aTrevdovGtv eTridei.Kvvc/-&aL ttjv avrcJv co- 
<piav. '0 olvog, kav v6aTi^ KspavvvTjrac, to oujia {)C)vvvglv. 'H bpyri ev'&xjg 
G^evvvotTo. 'Ael kv rcb (Slu aperrjv kol au^poavvTjv ivdeiKwao. 01 Uepcrac 
Tro2,VTEX£lg GToXug ufKpiEVVvvro. 'O ^{/rup ttjv yvu/j.Tjv fiEra 7ral)^riacag aTZEdEi' 
^aro. 'ATuKL^taSjjg vtco tCjv 'A-&7]vai(jv arpaTTj-ybg urcEdsLX'&V- 

The Persians put on splendid clothes. Always show in your life virtue and 
soundmindedness. TVe admire the friends who accompany then- unhappy friends 
to ruin (going to rain together with, etc.). Let us express om* opinion with 
frankness. The sophists made a boastful display of their wisdom. Women 
put on splendid clothes. The orator should express (aor.) his opinion with 

Sfmmart op Verbs in -fit. 

L Verbs in - fj,i which annex the Personal-endings to the 

Stem- vowel. 

§.135. Verbs in - a (i-atri-iii, 2TA-) '. 

1. m-yQrj-iA,[, to lend (XPA-), Inf. xr/Qavai, Fut. ygr^aco, etc. ; 
Mid. to borrow, Fut. XQ^(^o(A,ai. — Aor. l^Qriodiir^v in this sense is not 
used bj the Attic writers. To the same stem belong : 

2. ;f^j/, oportet (stem XPA- and XPE-), Subj. ygfj, Inf. xgrivai. 
Part, [to) yQScov; Impf. ixQ^i^ or XQ^F^ C)pt. '/Q^^'^ (from XPE-). 

3. aTZoyQTi^ it suffices, sufficit ; there are also formed regularly from 
XPAQ, ccTioxQmoiv, Inf. aTTo/Qyv ; Impf ani^Q^ ; Aor. anixQv^- 
<y«(y), etc. Mid. aTZO'/Qcafiai, to have enough, to abuse, waste, oltzo- 
'^QTJ6'&ai, inflected like yQcio^ai. 

4. ovivrj^i, to benefit (^ONA-^, Inf. ovivavoLi', Impf Act. wanting; 
Fut. ovriaGi ; Aor. bWipa. Mid. ovirafiat, to have advantage, Fut. 
ovi^aofiai; second Aor. covi^fi7]v, -J/ffo, -i]ro, etc.. Imp. ovr^co, Part. 
ovqiievog, Opt. ovaifxtjv, -aio, -aito (§ 134, 1), Inf. ovaa&ai ; Aor 

1 § 47, 10. and § 161, 2. (a), (c). 




Pass, (ovrj&riv instead of cavrnii^v. The remaining forms are sup- 
plied by di^^keiv. 

5. m-ii-7tlri-iii,to Jill [TIAA-), Inf. TziftTilavar, Impf. iTiifATTlfjv ; 
Fut. tzXt^gco ; Aor. 87zli]6ct ; Mid. Tzifmlafiai, niiiTiXaad-ai ; Impf. 
imiiTzXdfir^v ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 7rt7Th]G(iai ; Aor. Pass. iTtX^ad-jjv. 

The fi in the reduplication of this and the follo^^'ing yerh is usually omitted 
in composition, when a /n precedes the reduplication ; e. g. s/xiriTcla/naL, but eve- 


6. m^Ttgrji^i, to hum, Trans., in all respects like miiTtlrnii. 

7. TAH-MI, to hear, endure, Pres. and Impf. wanting, (instead of 
them v7Z0[X£vco, aviyoiiai) ; Aor. szIt]v, (rXco,) rXairiv, rlrj'&i, zX^vaiy 
z).dg ; Fut. zXijOO^iai ; Perf. rhXijy.a (on the forms TtzXdfiEV, etc., 
comp. § 134, 3). 

8. (prj-iil, to say (stem fpA-), has the following formation: 

Present ACTIVE. Imperf. | 


S. 1. 



P. 1. 









S. 1. 



P. 1. 




£(p7]C, usually E(p7}a-&a 








(pu, (pyc;, (pfj, (brjTOV, (pufxev, ^fj- 

re, ^uai{v) 
(j>u'&i or (pad-L, (puTU, (p&Tov, 

^uTuv, (pare, (puruaav and 



(pug, (pacja, <puv 
G. (puvTog, (pucTTjg 


(pair]v, (pairjg, dab], <pair]Tov 
and (paiTov, (patr/rjjv and 
(paiT7]v, (pairjfjLEv and (pal- 
fiEV, (paL)]TE and (pacTE, -ev 





Perf. Lnp. Tre^aai^u, let it he said. Aor. Part, (pd/nevoc, affirming. 
Verbal adjective, ("^arog, (parsog. 

Eem. 1. In the second person (Pyg, botJi the accentuation and the Iota sub- 
script is contraiy to all analogy. On the inclination of tliis verb in the Ind. 
Pres. (except ^rig), see § 14. 

Rem. 2. This verb has two significations, (a) to say in general, (b) to affirm 
{aio), to assert, maintain, etc. The Eut. (prjau, however, has only the latter sig- 
nification ; the first is expressed by Xe^cj, tpC). The Impf. £<priv with (pdvat and 
^"f, is used also as an Aorist. 

* In composition, avricprjiu, avfKprjiiL, uvrifrig, avji^-gg, avTi<p7]aif cvfi^iyi, etc.* 
but Subj. dvTc^o), dvTKpyg, etc. 

§ 135.] SUMMARY OF VERBS IN -[Xl. 165 

The following Deponents also belong here : 

1. ayajiaij to wonder, he astormhed, admire, Impf. r^ydfiT^v ; Aor. 
rjyda-&t]v, Fut. (^ydoofxai. 

2. bvvafiaiy to he able, Subj. dyvcofiai (§ 134, 1), Imp. dvvaao, Inf. 
dvvaad-ai, Part, dvvdfievog ; Impf. idvvdf^rjv and '^dvv. ; second Pers.^ 
idvvco, Opt. dvvaifi7]v, dvvaio (§ 154^ ^) ; Fut. dvvi^60[xui ; Aor. 
Idvvrid^ijv, i]8. and idvvd(j&j]v (§ 85, Kem.^; Perf. dedvvj]fxai ; ver- 
bal adjective, dvvatog, able and possible. 

3. imotaiiai^ to hnow, second Pers. imaraaai, etc., Subj. sWo"- 
Tcofiai (§ 134, 1), Imp. imatco, etc. ; Impf. TjTiiatdfxr^v, '^motoo, etc., 
Opt. ETnaraiiirjv, ini^raio (§ 134, 1) ; Fut. iniGTriooiiai', Aor. j^Trtcr- 
trid-ijv (Aug., § 91, 3) ; verbal adjective, Eniarritog. 

4. sQa[A,ai, to love (in the Pres. and Impf. igdco is used instead of 
it in prose) ; Aor. '^gdad-rjv, amavi ; Fut. iQaO'&rjaofxai, amabo. 

5. y.qi^a\iai, to hang, pendeo, Subj. y^Qs^icoiiai (§ 134, 1) ; Part. 
nqeiidiievog ', Impf. ixQefA,dixriv, Opt. HQEiialpirjv, -aio, -aito (§ 134, 1) ; 
Aor. ixQEfA.dc'&riv ; Fut. IMid. -AQeixrioo^ai, pendebo, I shall hang. 

6. TiQiaad-ai, to buy, a defective Aor. Mid., used by the Attic 
writers instead of the Aor. Mid. of corso[Aai, viz. icovrjad^riv (§ 87, 
4), which is not used by them, Subj. TiQicofiai (§ 134, 1), Opt. TZQiat- 
(itjVf -aiOf -aire (§ 134, 1), Imp. itqiaao or tzqlqo, Part. nqiaiiEvog. 

LXXI. Vocabulary. 

Aat/iiovLov, -ov, TO, the KufiTj, -?]^, ?j, a village. -Kpo-arjiiaivco, to indicate 

Deitj. ou/ceri, no more, no longer. beforehand, reyeal. 

kfiTTiTrprj/iii, to set on fire, TroXtrLKog, -tj, -6v, relating TrpSrepov, sooner, before. 

burn np. to the state ; to. tvoIl- avv-sijut, to be with. 

evKleia and evKXeca, -ac;, tckcc, politics. au^poveu, to be of sound 

V, fame. Trorepog, -a, -ov ; icter ? mind, sensible or pra- 

iug, as long as. which of two ? Tvorepov, dent. [save, 

iffwf , perhaps. whether. (petSofiac, w. gen., to spare, 

loicpccTTjc Tvpb TrdvTuv (oero^ ;^;/j^vat rotif av&puTcovg aoxppoavvijv KTrjoaa-^ai. 
'Ev D.Tricrt XPV Toig (jo<poi)g exstv j3iov. 'Epya kuI Trpa^eic aper^g, ov ?>,6yovc 
CjjAoiJv ;\;p££JX'. 'laug ecTtoi^ rtg av, on XPV"^ ^ov 'ZuKpart] ht] Tcporepov ra tto- 
^TLKa StSaaKeiv roi)g kavrCi avvdiarpi^ovraQ ?) aoxppovelv. 1,o)KpaTT]g rrjv tto- 
"Kiv TTO/l/la uvTjaev. 01 Tco7\,eniOL TvoXkag Kcj/iag kveTrprjaav. 'ZoKpavTjg rd dac- 
HovLov ecpTj Trpoariiiaiveiv tavrCi to ij.e7i7.ov. Hovog, faaiv, evK7.ecag -KaTTjp. 01 
noTilraL Tovg cTpaTtuTag TTJg avdpeiag rjya(r&7](jav.^ ^A7,Kc!3id67}g, ecog ^coKpdrei 
^Tvvrjv, kdvvjj'&T] Tuv jXT] Ka7i(bv eirid-vfiLuv KpaTelv. UptaifiTjv Trpb TzavTuv XPV' 
j^aTuv Tov ao(pbv uvdpa (pDiOv elvat fiat. HoXXol jpTy^urcji" dwdiievoL (j)et6E<rd-ai, 
frplv hpav, hpacr&evTeg ovketl 6vvai>raL. 

Socrates maintained [aor.], that the Deity revealed the future to him. I 

' \ .25, 20. '^ § 126, 7. ^ uya(j-&ai tlvq. Tivog, to admire one for sofmethxng. 



[§§ 136, 137. 

maintain, said the general, that {ace. w. inf.) you must attack the enemies. 
Virtue will always benefit man. Till (aor.) the goblets with wine. The town 
was set on fire (aor.). The moderate (man) -wall always be able to control evil 
desu-es. The wise (man) will always love vh-tue. Socratfis understood {curr.) 
how to turn the youths to virtue. We cannot purchase a faithful friend for 

§136. Verbs in -s (zi-d-t]-fA,i, 0E-): 
1. i-7j-[xi (stem 'E-), to send. Many forms of this verb are found 
only in composition. 



Ind. Irj^i, irjg, irjai{v) ; Utov ; lEfiev, isTe, tu(Ji{v) or LeiGL{v). 
Subj. lo), lyg, h) ; Ir/Tov ; lufiev, Irjre, lo)ai.{v) ; a(htC), a(j)t7~]g, a^iy 

{acpirj in Xen.), etc. 
Imp. (i£i?i), tec, lero), etc. Inf. levai. Part, lelg, letaa, lev. 


Ind. tow (from 'IEi2), cKpiovv or ijfiovv (seldom tetv), tetc, hi ; h- 
Tov, leTT}v ; lejiev, cere, leaav. Opt. leiriv. 

Perf. eltia. — Plup. elicetv. — Fut. fjau. — Aor. I. ^//ca (§ 131, 2). 
Aor.n. Ind. Sing, is supplied by Aor. I. (§ 131, 2); Dual elrov, e'lrrjv; 
Plur. eifiEV, Kad-eljuev, ecre, uvelTe, eiaav, ^.(pelaav. 
Subj. 0), 7?V, a<po), cKpTJg, etc. 

Opt. eLTjv, eZ77f, elrj ; elrov, elrrjv ; el/xev, elre, eiev. 
Imp. eg, acpeg, era ; erov, eruv ; ere, eruaav and evrcov. 
Inf. dvai, (K^elvai. — Part, elg, elaa, ev, Gen. 'ivrog, elarjg, cKJtevTog. 
Remark. On the Aug. of cKpirj/ii, see § 91, 3. 



Ind. lefiai, leaat, lerat, etc. Subj. luftat, cKptu/nat, Irj, a^Ly, etc. 
Imp. leao or cov. Inf. lead^at. Part, lefxevog, -i], -ov. 


lefiTjv, leao, etc. Opt. ioi/iTjv (leifj.r}v), lolo, acpLolo, etc. 

Aor. II. 

Ind. eiiiriv Subj. (l)(iai, cKpcJfiaL, ??, tKpy, ijTac, u(p?jTac 

elao, u<pelao Opt. Trpoocjurjv, -oca, -olro, -oc[j,ed^a, etc. 

elro, cKpecTO Imp. ov, ead-o), etc. 

e'lfiE^a, etc. Inf ead-ai. Part, efcevog, -tj, -ov. 

Perf. elfiai, fze'&el/ Inf. ela'&ai, fjied^elad^aL. — Plup. eifiTjv, elao, ucpelao, etc. 
— Put. Tiaojiai. — Aor. I. iy/ca/z^/i' only in Ind. and seldom. 


Aor. I. e'l'&yjv, Part, e^^elg. — Put. e-^rjaofiai. — Verb. Adj. erog, ereog {u<peTog) 

§137. El II I (stem's^-), to he., and ET\ii (stem'/-), to go. 


Ind. S. 1. 




eliii, to be 


Subj. w 






elfic, to go 


Subj. iw 



P. 1. 









Ida {v) 


§ 137.] 



Imp. S. 2. 


Inf. elvaL 


l^l, TVfjOgt'^i, 





Part. 6JV, ovaa. 

seldom -rrpogei 


. l(ov, lov- 





ITU, Trpogcro) 



P. 2. 






P. 2. 



Gen. lovTor, 


euTuaav, seldom Igtqv 


(more seldom bvruv) 


LTucav or iovtuv 







^v, Iivas 



yetv or ya, I went 

iot/j.L or 






yetC, us'Iy yeicr&a 









TJGTOV {rjTov) 



yeiTov, us'ly yTOv 



7]aT7]V (fjTTJv) 



^etTTjV, " yTTjV 




elrj/iev {eljiev) 


7,eiflEV, '* ^/ilEV 



^GTe {rjTe) 

£C7]re [elre) 


yetTE, " yre 




elriaav and elev 




Fut. ECOfiac, I shall be, eay or eaei, Eorai, etc, tr- Opt. kaoifirjv. — Inf. eaea- | 

■d-at. — Part, kaoiisvog. 


Rem. 1. On the inclination of the Ind. of e/^ui, to he (except the second Pers. 
eI), see § 14. In compounds, the accent is on the preposition, as far hack as the 
general rules of accentuation permit ; e. g. Trupsi/xi, rrupEt, irapEGTi, etc., Imp. 
"KapLGd-L ; hut itaprjv on account of the temporal augment, TtapEGTCL on account 
of the omission of e {■napEGETai), TzapElvat like infinitiyes with the ending -vai, 
Tvapcj, -yc, -y, etc., on account of the contraction ; the accentuation of the Part. 
ia compound words should be particularly noted ; e. g. irapcov, Gen. izapovTog, 
so also Ttaptuv, Gen. irapLovTog. 

Rem. 2. The compounds of eIiil, to go, follow the same rules as those of eI/jlc, 
to be ; hence several forms of these two verbs are the same in compounds ; e. g. 
irapEifii, ndpEt and -rrapEiGt (third Pers. Sing, of El/it and third Pers. PL of elfii) ; 
hut Inf. TvapiEvai, Part, irapiuv. 

Rem. 3. The Pres. of eI/ii,, to go, particularly the Ind., also the Inf. and Part, 
among the Attic prose-writers, has almost always a Future signification, I shall 
or wiU g», or come. Hence the Pres. is supplied by spxofiat (§ 126, 2). 

*A7r^i/^{, to be away, or 

airecfii, to go away. 

apKEOfiac, w. pass, aor., to 
satisfy oneself, be con- 
tented, w. dot. 

n(pirifiL, to let go, give up, 

Blow, to live. 

ieov, -ovTog (fi'om del), to, 
that wliich is owed,duty. 

LXXII. Vocahulary. 

drj-Q-Ev, namely, forsooth, 

ECG-ELfj-i, to go, or come 

£IJ.j3poxiC(j, to driye into 
the net or snare, en- 

E^'iTjuL, to let or send out ; 
of rivers, empty itself 

ETTELTa, afterwfirds, then, 

EdiTjfiL, to send up to ; 
mid. w. gen., send one- 
self or one's thoughts 
after anything, i. e. de- 

Ka-d-iTjfiL, to let down, lay. 

/ca-pog, -ov, 6, a wild boar. 

KapTEpog, -a, -ov, strong, 

Kpavyy, -tjc, ?/, a 3ry, a 

163 VERBS IN '[Jll. [§ 138. 

rtM, -ov, 0, a stone. T^edrj, -vg, ^, a fetter. ace., to revenge oneself 

/le^iVfit, to let go, give TrXeovaKic, oftener. on. ^ [known. 

up, neglect. -n-pSg-eL/xc, to go to, ap- (pavepog, -a, -6v, evident, 

vapaaKeva^o), to prepare ; proach. X^^v, -ovoq, ij, snow. 

mid., to prepare oneself, aro/xa, -arof,r6, Hie mouth. c5f, ^ftic for ei? (w;z«A per- 

irap^V^ to let pass, loosen. Ti/zcjpew, to help; mtc?.w. sons). 

0^ aya^ol ov dio, rov vttvov [le'&iaaL ra deovra ■KpaTteiv. 'Acpelg rd, (bavepd. 
u^ diuKe Td, acpavi}. TLolT^ol av&pu-KOi ecpisvrat ttIovtov} Usdag Myovaiv ek 
rbv 'El2,7]gTrovTov KO&elvaL Eepi??v TLfiupovfievov d^iJev rbv 'E2,^g'7rovTov. 
Our* £/c x^^P^C f^e^ivra Kaprepbv li-&ov ()aov^ Karaaxelv, ov-f a-Ko yl/orrng 16- 
yov. 'HpaKlr/g rbv 'Epvfidv^tov Kairpov diu^ag fiera Kpavyrjg elg xtova TToXlrjv 
irapeifievov evejSpoxtaev. '0 'Nellog k^LrjGLv elg ttjv ■&a7MTTav kitra arofiaaLv. 
'Ktto? eTVELT' earaL, ravra -d-eolg [lilet. Ei ■&VT]Tbg el, fSilTiare,^ '&v7]ra ml 
<pp6vei. Mifivvcro^ viog uv, d}g yepuv egij tzotL LinaLog Ict&\ Iva kol diKaiuv 
Tvxvg-^ B/af TTapovGTjg oMeu Icxvei v6/iog. Evdacfiuv elrjv /cat ■&eolg oiXog. 
'A?.kav6pog elTvev'' • EZ n^ 'Me^av6pog fjv, Atoyevvg av rjv. BtucTf apKOVfievog 
rolg irapovat, tuv airovrcov ovk e<ptefiEVog. Kal veoTTjg koI yvpa^ afifu) Koka 
harov. 01 av&puTvoi evdaifiovelv dvvavrai, Kav Ttevvreg uaiv. 'Mrj'&eia aot 
TTapEcrro). 'lofiev, u (pi2,oc. ^evye dcxoaramag Kal epiv, ttoM/iov TzpogLovrog. 
'ETrei ij 'Kavddvri irapeaKevd^eTO dg aTViovGa Ttakiv vrpbg rbv avSpa, 6 'Karvdyrig 
D.eye irpbg rbv Kvpov ■ ^^ nal, rjv fievyjg irap' kjiol, irpuTOv fiev, brav ^ovTiri elg- 
LEvai iig k[j.E, eTzl col Earai,^^ Kal x^ptv gol fiaX?.ov e^u, ogc) av TrleovaKig Etgirig 
WC £,«£• 'ETTEtra Ss cTnroig rolg kuolg XPV<^V^ '^^''■^ ^'^'^ CLwlyg, ex(Jv arrEC ovg av 
a'brbg E'd^EXyg iTntovg. 

The good (man) will never omit to do his duty. Many strive after {£(pceG-&au 
w.gen.) the unknown, while they neglect {part, aor.) the known. Xerxes laid 
fetters on the Hellespont. Let not a man be a friend to me with the tongue 
{dot.), but in reality. Be just, that you may also obtain justice. The friend 
cares for the friend, even though he is absent. When the enemies came into 
the town, the citizens fled. Go in, boy ! The soldiers should all go away 
from the town. Two armies came into the town. 

» § 158, 3. (b). 2 ^ 52^ 10. 3 § 62. M 52, 1. ^ § 122, 11. 

« \ 121^ 16. "^ § 126, 7. ^ ^ 142, 9. ^ § 39, Rem. 

10 elvat em tlvl, to be in the power of any one. 

§ 138.] 

VERBS IN -^(. 


§ 138. 11. Verbs in -fxi which annex the Syllable vvij or vv to the 
Stem-vowel and appe7id to this the Pers onal-endings. 

Formation of the Tenses of Verbs whose Stem ends with 
a, e, 0, or with a Consonant. 

A. Verbs whose Stem ends with a, e or o. 



a. Stem in a. 

b. Stem in e. 

c. Stem in o [u). 



















Att. (TKediJ, -ag, -a 


Att. KopcJ, -elg, -el 

























Aor. . 


P. Pf. 



















B. Verbs whose Stem ends with a Consonant 


o'k-Av-iii,'^ ferdo b\-Av-}iai, pcreo 




yiX-Xv-v^ uA-Tiv-firiv 



Perf. I. 

h'k-(dkE-Ka ('OAE^), perdidA^ 



§ 89. 


Perf. II. 

6/l-cj/l-a, perii 

§ 89. 

Plup. I. 

ok-td'kE-KELv , pe)-dideram 



Plup. II. 

bA-6%-£LV, perieram 


oA-w, -elg, -ei oTi-ovfiaL, -el 

bfi-ovfiac, -el 

Aor. I. 

Idkz-Ga A. II. Ci7\,-b[iriv 



■■d-Tjv et (ji[ib-&r)v 

A. I. P. UflO-G 

I. P. P. b{MO-G- 

Kemark. 'OXKvjxt comes by assimilation from bX-wiii. Por an example of 
a stem-ending with a mnte, see bELKvvfiL above, nnde-" the paradigms (§ 133). 
The Part. Perf. Mid. or Pass, of ofivvfu is b/£vo( . The remaining forma 
of the Perf. and Phip. commonly omit the g among the Attic writers; e.g. 
6fi6fioTat, bfioifiOTo. 

* And GKEda-vvvu, eaKedd-vvvov — Kops-vvvQ, e-Kope-vvvov 
i-erpCi-vvvov (always v). 

' And b7Jkv-(j}, (oXkv-ov — b^vv-u, uixvv-ov (always v). 



170 VERBS m -fii. [§ 1^9. 


The Stem ends : 

§139. A. In a Vowel and assumes -vvv, 

(a) Verbs whose Stem ends in c. 

1. usQci-yvv-fii, to mix, Fut. aegdaco, Att. xf^co ; Aor. ixsQccaa ; 
Perf. }iBXQdita ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. yJagafiai ; Aor. Pass. ixQad-i^v, 
also ixsgdad'ijv. — Mid. 

2. xQS/xd-vvv-fii, to han(/, Fut. y.QEfA.&a(o, Att. xQEfA-m; Aor. shqS' 
fiaaa ; Mid. or Pass. itQeiA,, I hang myself or am hung (but 
ngsfidfiai, to hang, Intrans., § 135, 5) ; Fut. Pass, '/.gsfiaa^i^uoiiai; 
Aor. ixQSf^ciG&7]v, I was hung, or I hung, Intrans. 

3. 7iE7a-'Pvv-(A,i, to spread out, expand, open, Fut. TzezaGco, Att. 
nsrm ; Perf. IVIid. or Pass. nimoL\iai ; Aor. Pass. s7T8tdad-?]v (Syn- 
cope, § 117, 1). 

4. ay.sdd-yvv-[jii, to scatter, Fut. axsdaaco, Att. cxfidoi) ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, iaxidaaiiai ; Aor. Pass. iaxeddaS-ijv. 

(b) Verbs whose Stem ends in e. 

1. E-vvv-fii, to clothe, in prose d[iq)i8'Pi>vfxi, Impf. diicpiivvvv with- 
out Aug. ; Fut. dfiq)isaco, Att. dficpim ; Aor. ruicpUaa ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. riiicpieGiiai, rnK^iEcai, 7JfA.g)iE67ai, etc., Inf. r^fiqjisa&ai ; Fut. 
Mid. d^q)isao[iai, Att. dficpioviiai. — Aug., § 91, 3. 

2. ^s-vvv-[ii, to boil, Trans., Fut. ^saoo ; Aor. s^saa ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. s^86fA,ai,; Aor. Pass. i^s6&t]v. — (^sco, on the contrary, is 
usually intransitive). 

3. xoQS-yvv-fiL, to satisfy, satiate, Fut. xoQsaco, Att. xo^ca; Aor. 
ixogsaa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. xsxoQSGnai ; Aor. Pass, ixogsod-ijv. — 

4. a§E-yyv-iii, to extinguish, Fut. (j^saco ; first Aor. sa^eaa, I ex- 
tinguished; second Aor. sa^Tjv, I ceased to burn, went out ; Perf. 
ia§7]xa, I have ceased to bum. — Mid. 6^svvvfiai, to cease to burn, 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, ea^ecyfiai; Aor. Pass. ia^sad-Tjv. No othecv 
verb in -vvfAL has a second Aorist. 

5. Gtogi'Vvv-iii, to spread out, abbreviated form arogwiii, Fut. Gto- 
qiacoy Att. atogm', Aor. iGtogsaa. The other tenses are formed 
from Gtgtovwiiiy viz. iargcofiai, i(frQoo&i]i>, Grgcotig. See § 136, 
A, c 

§ 140.") VERBS IN -fJll. 171 

(c) Verbs in o, with the o lengthened into w. 
1 ^(6-vvv-fjH, to ffird, Fut. ^cocroo ; Aor. s^coaa ; Perf. Mid. or 
Pass, i^coafiai (§ 95). — Mid. 

2. Q(6-vvv-fii, to strengthen, Fut. ^ojcoj ; Aor. soQOjacc ; Perf. JMid. 
or Pass. £QQ(OfA,ai, Imp. tQQcoao, farewell, Inf. {QQcoad^ai; Aor. Pass. 
IqQfoc&r^v (§95). 

3. otQco-wv-fii, to spread out, Fut. atQcaaoj ; Aor. eazocoaa, etc. 
See GtoQ8vvvfii and § 138, A, c. 

4. ^Qa-vvv-fAi, to color, Fut. ;f^cacrca ; Aor. sxQooGa ; Perf. IVIid. or 
Pass. x8]^Qcof^at. 

§ 140. B. /n a (7o nsona?ii wnc? assumes -vv (see 
deU-vv-[Ai, § 133). 

1 . ay-vv-fii, to break, Fut. a^co ; Aor. f «^«, Inf. d^ca ; second 
Perf. say a, I am broken ; Aor. Pass. idy7]V (Aug., § 87, 4). — Blid. 

2. tiQy-vv-fA.i (or aigyo)), to shut in, Fut. eiq^co ; Aor. eiq^a. (But 
Etgyco, e'lQ^o), elq^a, to shut out, etc.). 

3. ^evy-vv-fi(, to join, Fut. ^ev^o) ; Aor. s^ev^a ; Peif. IVIid. or 
Pass. e^Evyfiai; Aor. Pass. i^sv)^d-riv, naore frequently i^yijv. 

4. fiiy-vv-[Ai, to mix, Fut. ^ut'^co ; Aor. sfAi^a, fiT'Sai ; Perf. fis[i.T/a ; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. [xefi(yf/,ai ; Aor. Pass, iuiyj&r^v, more frequently 
ifitytjv; Fut. Perf ix8{x,i^oi^ai. 

5. o'ly-vv-ixi or otj'oa, prose dvoiyvvfii, dvoiyco, to open, Impf. dvscp- 
yov; Fut. dvoi^w ; Aor. dvecp^a, dvoTiai; first Perf dvsopya, I have 
opened; second Perf. dvio^ya, I stand open, instead of which Att. 
dvscpyiiai', Aor. Pass. dv8opyd'7]v, dvoixd^rjvai (Aug., §87, 6). 

6. ofiOQy-vv-fxi, to wipe off, Fut. o^ao^lco ; Aor. afiOQ^a. — Mid. 

7. oQ-vv-fii, to rouse, Fut. o^jcco ; Aor. coQoa ; Mid. oQvvfiai, to 
rouse one's self, Fut. oQovfiai ; Aor. coq6^7]v. 

8. 7i7iy-vv-[A,[, to fix, fasten, Fut. j7?^^co ; Aor. tnr^a ; first Perf. 
niitriya, I have fastened ; second Perf nlnriya, I stand fast , Mid. 
nrjyvvfxai, Istickfasf ; Perf. nmriyiiai, I stand fast ; Aor. Pass. f;7«- 
y?/!'. — Mid. 

9. QTjy-vv-fxi, to tear, break, Fut- Qr^(^ ; Aor. 8oqi]t.a ; second Perf. 
BQQOjya, lam broken, rent; Aor. EQQaytjv, Fut. Pass. Qccyijaofiai: 

LXXm. Vocabulary. 

'A.Tjdyg, -eg, unpleasant^ join again; of an army, aTro-ajSevvvfii, to quench, 
disgusting. set out again. (3de?.vyiuia, -cf, ij, dislike 

iva-^evyvvfii, to yoke, or ava-Kauo, to bum, kindle. disgust. 

172 VEBBS IN -{Al. r§ I'^l" 

6ial>(>nrvv{Mh to break /C6)ra?.6;, to chatter, prat- gether, make coagulate, 
asunder, tear in pieces, tie. [ligbt. compose. 

tear away. ^vxi^og, -gv, 6, a lamp, a (pvavf^a, -a^of, to, breath. 

kyKanom^ofiai, to be fiaWaicog, -v, -ov, soft, 06)f, <^u>T6g, ro, Hght. 
proud of, make a dis- rich, tender. xo'>^og, -ov, 6, iU-will, an- 

play, b7ilvfii, to destroy. ger. \.WJ- 

k^-oUvfLt, to ruin utterly, arvyeco, to hate. ifjevdopKiov, -ov, rb,^ per- 

Cevyviifii, to yoke, join. cvinrvyvvfit, to join to- -ipevdopKor, -ov, perjured. 
Tuv fSpofiarav Ta T^diara,'^ hav rig irpogcbipTi, irpiv etvl-^v^uv, a^Sn (^taivETaL, 
KEKopeai^ivotg de kol (36e7ivyfxtav Trapexec TcJ airC) <pvari(j.arL ro fxev Tirvp ava- 
Kavaeiag av, to 6e tov Xvxvov (pug uKoalSeaEiag. OZ 'k&vvaloL nera Tvaarig Trig 
dwa/ieug ettI rovg IlEpaag avk^Ev^av. Mr) dacfzovuv xo^ov opayg. 'H v^ptg 
TvoWkd. fidrj TcJv av^puizuv aTculEcjev epya. El fir] (pvXa^Ecg iiLKp\ uTvoletg rh 
ueKova. 01 -KoUfJiLQL ufioaav Tag cvv&fiKag (pvla^ai. '^EV0<bdvrjg elsys, rrjv 
yriv E^ cLEpog Kal nvpbg cvinzayrivaL. 'EuKpaTrjg, ISdv^ 'AvTia-^Evrj to dtE^^uydg 
Ifiariov fiipog asl TrotovvTa (^lavEpov • Oi) iravari, E(p7}, kyKalAwnii^ofiEVog v/zlv ; 
•^EvdopKOv arvyel -dsbg, ogng o/iEtTac. ZEvg avSp' e^oXececev 'O^vfiTziog, bg rov 
EToipov fiaMaKu KO)Ti?Jicov k^aTvarav £-&e?iEL. 

Boil {aor.) the water, O boy ! The garment is torn. The milk is curdled 
(avftirr/yvvfic, per/. 2). The doors are open. The wine was mixed {aoi\) with 
water {dat). The goblet is broken to pieces. The light is extinguished. The 
soldiers will again set out against the enemies. Swear {siihj. aor.) not ^vithout 
reason. Haughtiness will ruin you all. Extinguish {aor.) the light. The wo- 
men in sorrow (sorrowing) tore (aor. mid.) then- garments. 

§141. Inflection of the two forms of the Perfect, 
[ ^ 'A el II a I and rill ai . 

(a) KsL/zaL, to lie down. 
KeTiiai, properly, I have laid myself down, lam lain down, hence. 
Hie doivn, is a Perf. form without reduplication. 

Per/. Ind. KEi/LLat, HElaat, KslTai, K.EL[iE-&a, KelG-&£, KclvTac ; 

Subj. KEUfiat, Ksri, KETjTat, etc. 5 

Imp. KElao, Keta^o), etc. ; Inf. Kecad-ac ; Part. icecfiEvog. 
Plup. Ind. EfceLfiTjv, ekelgo, ekecto, third Pers. PI. ekelvto ; 


Fut. KEtaojiai. 

Compounds, uvuKEc/iai, KarctKetfiai., KaraKEcaai, etc. : Inf icaTaKEicr&ai. ; Imp 

KarciKEcao, EyKELCO. I 

[h) loLfiat , to sit. 
1. ^Hfiai, properly, I have seated myself, I have heen seated, hence 
I sit, is a Perf. form of the Poet. Aor. Act. elaa, to set, to establish 
The stem is 'H/1- (comp. j)a-7ai instead of 7]d-za( [according to § 8 
1.] and the Lat. sed-eo). 

^§51, 1. '§126,4. 




Inl. TjjjLat., riaai, Tjorai, iiiiF.-&a, rjc&e, f/v~ai ; 
Imp. '^<7o, T/G-&CJ, etc. ; Inf. r/(7-&at ; Part, r/jievog. 
T][j,7iv, i/ao, ijGTO, fj/j.e'&a, rjad-e, r/vro. 

2. In prose, the compound y.dd^fjf^ai, is commonly used instead of 
the simple. The inflection of the compound differs from that of 
the simple, in never taking cr in the third Pers. Sing. Perf., nor in 
the Plup., except when it has the temporal Augment: 

Per/. I Kd-&T], Ku^Tjaat., ku-& tjt at , etc. ; Subj. Kud-cjfiai, Kud-^, Ka-&7jTac, 
I etc. ; Imp. K.u-&riao, etc. ; Inf. Ka-Q-?/a-&ac ; Part. Ka^i/ixevog. 

Plup. I £Ka^7j/xr]v and Ka-d-fjfirjv, eK.(f&riao and iia-^rjco, k ku-&71to and k a- 
I -d-rjGTO, etc.; Opt. Kad-OLftTiv, ku^oco, K.d-&oLTO, etc. 

Remark. The defective forms of ^/zai are supplied by e'CecriJci or Keay^at, 
(prose Ka-&£^e(jd-ac, Ka-d-i^eG-d-aL). 

§ 142. Verbs in -oo, which follow the analogy of Verbs in -fiiy in 
forming the second Aor. Act. and Mid. 

1. Several verbs with the characteristic a, s, o, v, form a second 
Aor. Act. and Mid., according to the analogy of verbs in -^i, since, 
in this tense, they omit the mode-vowel, and hence append the per- 
sonal-endings to the stem. But all the remaining forms of these 
verbs are like verbs in -co. 

2. The formation of this second Aor. Act., through all the modes 
and participials, is like that of the second Aor. Act. of verbs in -fit,. 
The characteristic-vowel is in most cases lengthened, as in sazrjv, 
viz. a and £ into 7], o into co, I and v into i and v. This lengthened 
vowel remains, as in sarTjv, throughout the Ind., Imp. and Inf. 
The Imp. ending -rjd^i in verbs whose characteristic-vowel is a, in 
composition is abridged into a; e. g. nqo^d instead of TTQO^r^d-i. 


a. Characteris. a 

b. Characteris. e 

c. Characteris. o 

d. Charac. v 


BA-Q, l3acvG), 

SBE-i2, GiSivwiiij 

rN0-i2, ytyvua- 



to go. 

to extinguish. 

Ku, to know. 

to ivrap tip. 

Ind. S. 1. 

£-l37]-v, I ivent 

eGjS-rjv, I ceased 

h/vuv, Ikneio 

Edvv, to go 



EGi37]g [to bum 


eSvg [in or 





sdv [under 











P. 1. 















(Poet. t:3av) 

(Poet. Eyvuv) 


Snbj. S. 

(Su, (3^g, /jf 

f7/3(J, -rig, -f 

yvio, yvibg, yvu} 

dvo), -Tjg, -9» 







(Sujiev, -Tj-e, 

Gpcbfiev, -TjTE, 






-7]Te, -(J(Jl(v) 

^ Compounds, e. g. dvaiSu), dvaf^yg, etc. ; aTvoa^u ; 6iayv(^ ; avaSvu. 
























fiairjTOv et -aiTOV 
(3aLf/T7]v et -aiT7]v 
[iaiTiixev et -alfiev 
jSacTjTe et -aire 
(3al£v (seldom 

BrjTOV, -rjTUV 
(SijTuaav and 

(Sac;, -d(Ta, -dv 

G. (SdvTog 







GjieirjTOV Qt-elrov 

yvoirjTov et-oirov 




yvoiTjusv et-olfiev 

aj3elr]T£ et -sire 

yvohjTE et -olre 


yvolev (rarely 

(r[3^d-t, -T^TO)^ 

• yVLJdt, -G)TU^ 

did-i, -VTU^ 

a^rjTOv, -TjTCJV 

yVUTOV, -6)T0)V 





a[3rjTcjaav and 

yvuTuaav and 

dvTuaav et 







al^elg, -elaa, -ev 

yvovg, -ovaa, -6v 

dvg^ -v(7a,-vv 

G. a^evTOQ 

G. yvovrog 

G. dvvTog. 

Eemakk. The Opt form 6v7]v, instead of 6vij]v, is not found in the Attic 
dialect, but in the Epic. In the Common language, the second Aor. Mid. is 
formed in only a veiy few verbs; e. g. 7T£ (§ 125, 23), irpiacr&ai, to buy 
(§ 135, p. 165). 

Summary of Verbs with a second Aor. like Verbs in -fii. 
Besides the verbs mentioned above, some others have this form : 

1. didQccGy^co, to run away (§ 122, 6), Aor. {/1PA-) sBqccv, -dg, 
-df -dfisv, -ate, -daav, Subj. dgm, dQdg, d(jd, dgdrop, dQOJ{j.ev, dQara, 
dQ(aai(v), Opt. dQair^v, Imp. dgad^i, -dtoo, Inf. dqavai, Part, dqag, 
-dattj -dv. 

2. niroiJiai, to fly (§ 125, 23), Aor. {IITA-) 87tzi]v, Inf. nrrivai. 
Part, ntdg ; Aor. Mid. sTiTdpiTjVj mdG&ai. 

3. cyJlXco or Gy.eXioi, to dry, make dry, second Aor. {ZKAA-) 
e6ii7.r]v, to wither (Intrans.), Inf. 6yl?jvai, Opt. cxXaiTjv (§ 117, 2). 

4. qj-d-d-va, to come hefore, anticipate (§ 119, 5), second Aor. 
ag)d-rjv, qid-TJvai, q)d-dg, qi'&a, q)d-ai7]v. 

5. y.aico, to hum, Trans. (§ 116, 2), second Aor. {KAE-) iiidrjp,* 
Ihumed, Intrans. ; but first Aor. sxavaa, Trans. 

6. Qsm, to flow (§ 116, 3), Aor. (PTE-) sqqvtjv,* I flowed. 

7. xaiQ(ii, to rejoice (§ 125, 24), Aor. {XAPE-) sxccqtjv.* 

8. dliayoiiai, to he taken, Aor. (AAO-) ijlcov and idXoov (§122, 1)^ 

9. ^1003, to live, second Aor. i^imv, Subj. ^tco, -^g, -qj, etc., Opt. 
icprjv (not ^loirjv, as yvoir^v, to distinguish it from Opt. Impf. 

Bioiriv), Inf. ^lavai, Part, ^lovg ; but the Cases of the Part, ^lovg 
are supphed by the first Aor. Part, ^icoaag. Thus, dve^iav, I came 

* Compounds, e. g. dvdpir&t, dvd(3a, uvd(37]Te ; diroafJTj'&c ; didyvuid-i ; dvddv'&t 

* These are stiictly Pass. Aorists, though they have an Act. Inti-ans. siga 
fication. — Te. 




to life again, from dva^ixocKOfiai. — The Pres. and Impf. of ^iom 
are but little used by the Attic writers ; instead of these, they em- 
ploy the corresponding tenses of ^m, which, on the contrary, bor- 
rows its remaining tenses from ^i6(o ; thus, Pres. t,^ ; Impf. I^coy 
(§ 97, 3) ; Fut. ^icooofiac ; Aor. i^icov ; Perf. ^s^icoxa ; Perf. Pass. 
^e^icotai, Part. ^e^imjA-Evog. 

1 qivca, to bring forth, produce, second Aor. sqjvv, I was pro- 
duced, born, I sprung up, arose, was, qjvvai, cpvg, Subj. govo) (Opt. 
wanting in the Attic dialect) ; but the first Aor. eq)VGa, /produced, 
Put. qivao3, I will produce. The Perf. 7ZEq)vna, also has an intran- 
sitive sense, and also the Pres. Mid. qjvofiai, and the Fut. qjvao[jiat. 

§ 143. Old a (stem 'EIJ., to see), I know. 


Ind. S. 1. 
D. 2. 3. 
P. 1. 

ol6a Subj. el6u Imp. 

ola-d-a elSyc 't'^'^'' 

ol6e{v) eldrj laro) 

larov, larov eidfjrov, -jjrov larov, laruv 

la//.ev el<5cjfiev 

lare eldfjre lare > 

ladai(v) eld(jai{v) laruaav 




eldC)^, -via, -6c 


Ind. S. 1. 

jdeiv- Dual 
7?d£if and -eia'&a ydeirov 
y6ei{v) Ttdeirrjv 

PI. ydeifiev 

Opt. Sing. eldEiTjv, -rjg, -rj ; Dual el6ei7}Tov, -rjTTiv ; PI. el6eii]fi€v (seldom 

eideljiev)^ eldeirjTE, elSelev (seldom eidelrjaav). 
Fut. elaofxai, I shall know. — Verbal adjective, larsov. 

^vvotda, compounded of olda, I am conscious, Inf. avveidevac 
Subj. avvsiSco, etc. 

Imp. avvia-d-i. 

Alfia, -arog, rb, blood. 

aKoXaarug, with, impu- 
nity, extravagantly, li- 

arco-^alvu, to go away. 

aTTO-ytyviJaKO), to reject; 
w. kjiavrov, give oneself 
up, despair. 

uTro-diSpacKu, w. ace, to 
run away from. 

LXXIV. Vocabulary. 

cnro-KpvTrro), to conceal. 
axpv^TO^j -ov, useless. 
l3o7}-&eo}, to hasten to help, 

6vo), to go or sink into, 

put on., to fly away. 
eftTTiTrXTj/iit re rivog, to fill. 
vEKpog, -a, -ov, dead; 6 

vEKpog, a corpse. 

irapa-Trerofiac, to fly away. 

Tvpo-oida, to know before- 

Tzpocrd-erog, -rj, -6v, or 
Tzpoa^erog, -ij, -ov, add- 
ed (by art), artificial. 

irrepv^, -yog, ^, a wing. 

avyytyvuaKO), w. dot., to 
pardon. [that 

cJare, to. inf. and ind., so 

First Pers. ^8ri, second ^drjc-Ba, third -^Sri, are considered as Attic forms. 



01 av^pcjToc rrjv aki]-&eLav yvuvat (T7tev6ovciv. Tvu-&t, aeavrov. Tvuvat 
ra/LfTTOv usTpov. 'H Tzolcg kKLvdvvevcsv vTzb riJv TvoXefxiuv h\u)vai. ^evye 
Toi)g uKoTiacTug ^LuaavTag. 'Lvyyvu-^i f^oi, w Trdrsp. Aifibg /xeytarov alyoc 
av&puTroLg ecpv. 'O^ela y]6ovr] TcapaizTdaa (jf&uvEC. 'O 6ov2.og £.7m-&sv^ airodph^ 
Tov decriroTT^v. 01 CTpaTrjyol syvcjaav^ rolg iro/uratg ^OTj-d-elv. M'^ttots aeavrov 
a-Koyvug. AaiSa2.og -rroLrjcag TCTepvyag 'Trpog^erug h^enrr] jiera tov 'Uapov. 
''ZvX?Mg hvEiz%r]GS rrjv nxokiv fovov nal veKpuv, ugre rbv KepafzecKov^ aljiaTt j6ii^- 
vac. 01 TiolenLOL ttjv yijv refiovTEg* aTCE^Tjaav. 'Kxpv^'ov TrposidEvai, ra fiiX- 
Tiovra. 01 uyad-ol ttcivtuv jxirpov laaacv {know how) ex^i-v. J1o?i?loI av&poircoi, 
ovTE dinag fdEcrav, ovre vo/iovg. 

Go away, boy ! The whole town flowed with blood. The bird flew away. 
The general determined to assist the town. The father pardoned the son. 
Mayest thou not live licentiously ! Men rejoice to know {aor. paH.) the truth. 
The town was taken by the enemies. Let us not despair. The slave ran away 
from his master. The boy rejoiced when he saw [aor. part.) the bird fly away 
{aor. paH.). It is well in everything to know (how) to observe moderation. 
Never praise a man, before {-uplv av, %v. subj.) thou knowest him well. {aadCog), 

§ 144. J) ep orients (§ 118, Rem.), and Active Verbs whose 
Future has a Middle form. 

a. List ofDeponents Middle most in use. 

'Ayuvi^ofzac, to contend, dE^Loofiat, to greet, TiafSdo/iai, to insult, 

alKi^o/xai,, to treat inju- SExojLtac, to receive, juavTEVofiat, to prophesy, 

riausli/, SiaKE?iEvo/, to exhort, fiapTvpofiai, to call to ivii- 

alvtrrofiaL, to speak darkly, dupeofiac, to present, ness, 

alad-dvo/iai, to perceive, hyKE%Evoiiai, to urge, ^dxofiac, to Jight, 

alrtdofiai., to accuse, kvrsXkojxaL, to command, fi£fj.(j)ouac, to blame, 

aKEOfiat, to Ileal, £7nK£2,Evo{, to urge, /j.T], to demse, 

aK.podop.aL, to hear, kpyd^ofiac, to work, /ii.fxtofi.aL, to imitate, 

a.Kpo(3o?u^oju,ai, to throw cuxop-ai,, to pray, fiv&EOjiaL, to speak, 

from afar, to skirmish, ?]y£o/, to go before, fzvd-oXoyEO/uat, to relate, 

aXXonai, to leap, '^Edoiiai, to see, fiVKao/nat, to low, 

uvalStuoKOfiac, to restore to Idofxat, to heal, ^vXsvojuaL, to gather wood, 

life, or to live again, lAd(TKop,at, to propitiate, ^vXii^ofiai, to gather wood, 

livaKOLVoojiaL, to communi- iTCTrd^ofiat, to ride, oSvpofiac, to mourn, 

cafe with, iaxvpii^oiiaL, to exert one's oluvt^o/xac, to take omens 
CLTZEX'd-dvo/itai, to be hated, strength, by birds, 

aTcoXoyiofiai, to speak in Kavxdofiat, to boast, b7.o^vpoiiai, to lament, 

defence, KOLvoXoyEopiai, to consult opx^op-at, to dance, 

apdofiac, to pray, with, bG<, to smdl, 

daird^o^iai, to welcome, Kraofiat, to acquire, TrapatTEOfiat, to entreat, 

u<piKveo[xai, to come, 'kT]'it,oiiai, to plunder, TrapaKE/^Evofia/,, to urge, 

3id^o/iai, to force, ?i,oyi^oftai, to consider, 7rapafxv&Eop,ac, to encour- 

ytyvofiac, to become, ?.vp.acvofiai, to maltreat, age, 

* § 121, 13. ''determined. ^ a place in Athens. ''fllO. 


7cal)l)rjGui!^o[iaLf to speak 

neronai, to fly, 
'!rpayfiaT£vofiac, to be busy, 
irpooi/Lttu^ofiai, to make a 

TTpo(l>aci^oiJLai, to offer as 

an excuse, 
itvv&dvofcai, to inquire, 
oeBo/iat, to reverence, 

GiitTTTOftat, to consider, 
(yrad-judo^uaf., to estimate 

(jToxd(^oftaL, to aim at, 
OTpaT£vo/j,ac, to go to war, 
arpaTOTTESevoiiai, to en- 
TSK/uaipofxai, to limit, 
TEKTaivo/, to fabricate, 
Texvao/iat, to build, 

VTTcaxvEo/xaL, to promise, 
VTroicplvo/xai, to answer, 
(j), to spare, 
(p-&tyyo/, to speak, 
(pt/iOfppoveo/xat, to treat 

Xapc^ojuuL, to show kindness, 
Xpdofxai, to use, 
u)veo/xai, to buy. 

b. List of Deponents Passive most in use. 

*A?ido/iaL, to wander, evavTtoojuat, to resist, Tjdofxai, to rejoice, 

h^vfiiojuai, to reflect, Kpi/iauac, to hang^ 

hvoeofiat., to consider well, fivadrrofiat, to loathe, 

iTTCfie/iOfiai and. -iofxac, to ocofxat, to suppose, 

take care, ■Kpod-vjxioiiaL, to desire^ 

kTVLarafzac, to know, aEf3op,at, to reverence, 

ux'd-ofiat, to be displeased, 
8ov2,o{iai, to wish, 
^pvxdofiaL to roar, 
deofiai, to want, 
6iavo£0/, to think, 

dvva/iai, to be etOie (Mid. ev7i.a(^£0fiaL, to be cautious, 
Aor. only Epic), 

Eemjlrk. 'Kyafiai, to wvnder, aldiojuac, to reverence, a.fZ£i.j3opai, to exchange, 
afiiXluofxat, to contend, uTroKpivoftat,, to answer, diro?.oy£o/Liac, to apologize, apvio-, to deny, dvli^o/ua, to lodge, 6ia?i,£-yofiai, to converse with. k-TrivoEOfiac, to reflect 
upon, 2,otSop£Ojuac, to reproach, jiitji^oiiai, to blame, hph/oiiai, to desire, TiELpdoaai, to 
try, TrpovoiofLaL, to foresee, (l>i?i.o(ppovEOfiai, to treat kindly, and ^LloTLfiEOjxaL, to he 
ambitious, have both a Mid. and Pass, form for their Aorist. Of these, ayauat, 
al6eojiai, hinTCkdoiiai, upv£0[iai, 6ta?.Eyo/j,at and (juXoTLjiEOjiaL, are more frequently 
in the Pass. Aor. ; on the contrary, dfUEijSopac, cnroKpivoiiai, d-Ko^oyionai, (isu- 
<pofiai and (pi^^ofpovEOfiai, more frequently in the Mid. Aor. 

c List of Active Verbs most in use with a Middle Future 

deZaai, to fear, 
StdpacTKu, to run away, 
dtuKu,^ to pursue, 

'Ayvoew,* not to knoiv, 
adcjjt to sing, 
uKovo),-\ to hear, 
akaXd^o),^ to cry out, 
dfj.aprdvuj'f to miss, 
a'Kavrdu,^ to meet, 
d7ro/lai>6>,t to enjoy, 
dpTra^tj.t to seize, 
Badi^u, to go, 

fSaivco, to go, 
j3i6o), to live, 
jSHttg),'^ to see, 
^odo},1i to cry out, 
ye2,dcj,1i to laugh. 
jTjpdaKO), to grow old, 
yiyv6(TK0), to know, 
ddKvo), to bite, 
6apd-dvo), to sleep. 

eyKufiid^o), to praise, 
elfj.1, to be, 
ETzacvEG),* to praise, 
kiiLopKEu, to perjure on£s 

kcr&io), to eat. 

* Also with Put. Act., in writers of the best period. — Tr. 
t Also with Put. Act., but only in the later -writers. Comp. Rost. Gr. Gram., 
4 82, VI. D, c). The forms of the Put. Mid., however, are to be preferred. — Te. 



[§ 144. 

■&avfj,a^o},'^ to wonder, 
i?ew,* to rvn, 
^Tjpau, d-rjpevo),* to hunt, 
^lyyuvu, to touch, 
■d-vijaKci, to die, 
■&pu(TKG), to leap, 
Ka-iivu, to labor, 
KXaio),^ to weep, 
KXenrcJ, to steal, 
Kola^(j,* to punish, 
KOiiia^u,* to indulge in fes- 
?, to obtain, 
"kaufSavu, to take, 
XiXliao), to lick, 
uav&avu, to learn. 

vso), to suyini, 
ol6a, to know, 
ol(i{d'^G),~^ to lament, 
d?MXv^o),^ to howl, 
ouvvfitji to sicear, 
opuu, to see, 
Trai^o), to sport, 
naax^i to suffer, 
TTTidao), to leap, 
•rzivio, to drink, 

TT^TTTW, to fall, 

ttXeo), to sail, 

Tcveu, to blow (but ovu- 

iTviycj,'\ to strangle, 
TTod^eo),* to desire, 

-KpogKvveo),^ to reverence^ 
/Seo), to flow, 
acydo), to he silent, 
fri(j7rtt&),t to he silent, 
GKioTVTca, to sport, 
arrovda^cj, to be zealous^ 
GvpiTTG), to pipe, 
TtKTco,^ to produce, 
TpEX(^, to run, 
rpuyu, to gnaw, 
rvyxavo), to obtain, 
TO'&a^o), to rail at, 
^evyo), to flee, 
(pd-avci,^ to come heftyre^ 
XaaKG), to gape, 
v(.)OE«,* to contain. 




§145. Nature of a Sentence. — Subject. — Predicate, 

1. Syntax treats of sentences. A sentence is the expression of 
a thought in words ; e. g. ro qodov S^dXXei, the rose blossoms, 6 av- 
d-QcoTTog d-vritog iativ, to :<alov Qodov d-dlXei h r^ rov nazQog >i^7Z(p. 
Every thought must contain two parts or ideas related to each 
other and combined into one whole, viz. the idea of an action and 
of an object from which the action proceeds. The former is called 
the predicate, the latter, the subject. The subject, therefore, is that 
of which something is affirmed, the predicate, that which is affirmed 
of the subject ; e. g. in the sentences, to Qodov d-dllei, 6 avd-Qco- 
nog d-vrjTog iaziv, — to qoSov and o dv&Qmnog are the subjects, '^ak- 
Xst and d-vrjTog iaTiv, the predicates. 

2. The Greek language expresses the relation of ideas partly by 
inflection ; e. g. to Qodov '&dll-s i, 6 aTQaTicoryg fid'/s Tat, ol GTga- 
TimToi [idx-ovTai; partly by separate words; e. g. the tree is 
green, o avd^qmnog d-vt]t6g Igtiv. Li this last example, the notion 
or idea contained in dv&QcoTiog is connected by i<jTiv to that con- 
tained in d-vijTog. 

3. The subject is either a substantive, — a substantive-pronoun or 
numeral,^ — an adjective or participle used as a substantive, — an ad- 
verb which becomes a substantive by prefixing the article, — a pre- 
position with the Case it governs, — or an infinitive. Indeed, every 
word, letter, syllable or combination of words may be considered as 
a neuter substantive, and hence can become a subject, the neuter 
article being usually prefixed. 

To (}6 6ov ■&aTAEi, the rose bbssorns. 'Eyd ypa^u. Tpecg v^-&ov. 'O 
ao<l>bg evdaifiov kariv, the vnse man is hxxppy. Oi -rraXai avdpeloi ?}aav, the an- ■ 
dents were courageous. 01 Trepl M.c7iTia67jv KaXioQ efiaxeaavro. To di- 
ce <jKei,v KaXov kariv. To el avvdecfio^ karcv, the el is a conjunction. 


4. The subject is in the nominative. 

Rem. 1. The subject is in the Ace. in the construction of the Ace. with the 
Inf. see § 172. In indefinite and disti-ibutive designations of number, the sub- 
ject is expressed by a preposition and the Case it governs ;^ rivTapar 
^Mov, about four came; so Kai^' iKaarovg, singuli, Kara e^vt], singulae gentes. 

Rem. 2. In the following cases, the subject is not expressed by a separate 

word : 

(a) When the subject is a personal pronoun, it is not expressed, unless it is 
particularly emphatic ; e. g. ypa(^u, ■rpa(l>Eic, jpa(l)EL. 

(b) When the idea contained in the predicate is such, that it cannot appro- 
priately belong to every subject, but only to a particular one, the subject being 
in a measure contained iu the predicate, or, at least, indicated by it and hence 
readily known : e. g. e^rei ol 7ro?J/xcot avf/Moi^, ekt] pv^e (sc. 6 KTjpv^, the her- 
ald proclaimed) tocc "'E.Htjgl 7rapaaKevd(Taa-&ai. So aTjfiaiveL Ty GolTziyyt, 
kaalTny^ev (sc. 6 GaATnKTTJg, the trumpeter gives the signal with the trumpet). So 
also V e t, it rains, vi6e t, it snoics, (3 povra, it thunders, acFT pa, ttt e c, sc. o 
Zevg, it lighte7is, are to be explained. 

(c) When the subject is easily supplied from the context; thus, e. g. in such 
expressions as o a cr i, 7.£yovci, etc., the subject av&pcjiroL is regularly omitted. 

Rem. 3. The indefinite pronouns, one, they, are commonly expressed by r i ^, 
or by the third Pers. PL Act., e. g. AiyovGi, (pace, or by the third Pers. Sing. 
Pass., e. g. 7IyEraL, or by the personal Pass., e. g. (j)i?iov/, ^t?S}, they love me, 
ymi., etc., or by the second Pers. Sing., particularly of the Opt. with a v, e. g. 
(ftairjg av, dicas, you may say, one may, can say. 

5. The predicate is either a verb, e. g. ro godor -& dXXEi, or an 
adjective, substantive, numeral or pronoun in connection with elvat. 
In this relation shai is called a copula, since it connects the adjec- 
tive or substantive with the subject so as to form one thought ; e. g. 
TO QoSov y.aXov i 6t ir. Kvgog tjv ^ aailev g. Zv r^ad- a 
narrow 7t qcdz og. 01 ardgsg rja av r gsig. Tovto to nQciyaa 
86 r I roda. "Without the copula elvai, these sentences would stand 
TO q68ov — y,a7^6v. KvQog — ^amlEvg, etc., and of course would 
express no thought. 

Rem. 4. It is necfssar}' to distinguish the use of Ecvai, when it expresses a 
distinct independent idea of itself, that of being, existence, abiding, etc., e. g. ectl 
■&e6g, there is a God, God is, exists, from the use of the same word as a copula. 
In the former sense it can be connected with an adverb ; e. g. ^coKparrig tjv d.el 
abv Tolg vioig ; Ka7.(bg, KaKug Ecrrtv, it is well, ill, etc. 

§ 146. Agreement, 
1. The finite verb agrees with its subject-nominative in number 
and person; the predicative* or attributive adjective, participle, 

* When the adjective belongs to the predicate, and is used in describing what 
is said of the subject, it is called predicative; but when it merely ascribes some 

§ 146. J SYNTAX. AGREEMENT. 181 

pronoun or numeral, and the predicative substantive, or the sub- 
stantive in apposition (when it denotes a person), agree with the 
subject in gender, number and Case (nominative). 

'Eyu ypafcj, cri) ypa(j>etg, ovro^ jpucpec. 'O av&puirog ■&vr]T6c etjrtv. 'H aperif 
Kokr] eariv. To -Kpuyfia alaxpov kartv. 01 '''E.}J^7]VEg TroleiUKcyraTOi r/aav. 'O 
KaTibg Traic, V '^o(bf/ yvvr], to utKpov tekvov. Yivpog i/v (Saau.evr ; here the pre- 
dicate jSacxtXevc is masculine, because the subject is masculine. T6/nvpic rjv 
(3aai?ieia ; here the predicate is feminine, because the subject is feminine. Ku- 
poQ, .6 jBaatXevg, To/nvptc, h 3aal?i,£ca 

2. As ehaij when a copula, takes two nominatives, viz. one of 
the subject and one of the predicate, so also the following verbs, 
which do not of themselves express a complete predicative idea, 
take two nominatives : vnaQiEiv, to he, yiyvso&ai, to become, cpvvai, to 
arise, spring from, to he, av^dvead-at, to grow, ^tveiv, to remain, y.a- 
raartjvaL (from xad-iaTi](j.i), to stand, doxeir, ioixsvai and qjai-psad-ai, 
to appear, drjXovad'ai, to show one^s self, xaXeiG'&ai, 6vo^dt,s<5d-ai and 
XsysG'&ai, to he named, dxovEiv, to hear one's self called, to he named 
(like Lat. audire), aiQE'io&ai, dTzodeiy.vva'd-ai and y.Qivead-ai, to he 
chosen something, vo[A,i^S'&a(,, to he considered something, and other 
verbs of this nature. 

'O K-vpog hy Ev er (SaatXsvg ruv IlEpauv, Cyrus became Icing of the Persians. 
Aid, TovTcov 6 ^iXiTCTzog rjv^ij'&r) fiiyag, by these means Philip grew great. 'AA- 
Ktf^LaSrjg i^pe'&rj GTpaTrjyog. 'A.vti <j)i?iuv kol ^evuv vvv KoXaKeg Kal ■&eolg 
kx&poi aKovov a IV (aiidiunt), instead of fiends, etc., they {hear themselves called) 
are colled flatterers and enemies of the gods. 

Remark. Instead of the second Nom., several of these verbs are also con- 
nected with adverbs ; then they express a complete predicative idea ; e. g. rd 
av&og Ka?^ijg av^dvEvac, the flower grows beautifully. Thus, the verbs yly- 
V sad- at and ^vv at particularly, are connected with the adverbs ^ixf^y X^pk> 
knag, tyyvg, aktg ; e. g. rolg ^A'&Tjvatcjv arpaTTjyotg kyiyvovro 6ixa al yvufiat, 
the views of the Athenian commanders were divided; to. Trpdyfiara ovru tte^v- 
KEV, the affairs were of such a nature. 

LXXV. Exercises for Translation from English into Greek. 
(§§ 145 and 146). 

Piety is the beginning of every virtue. To mortal men God is (a) refuge. 
The wise strive after virtue. Learning (to learn) is agreeable both to the youth 
and to the old man. Before the door stood about four thousand soldiers. The 
(maxim), know (aor.) thyself, is everywhere useful. The general commanded 
{aor.) (them) to hold (their) spears upon (elg) the right shoulder, till the trura- 

quality to the substantive with which it agrees, it is called attiibutive ; e. g. in 
the expression 6 dya-&ug avrip [the good man), dya-&6g is attributive, but in b avrjp 
koTt ayaMg [die man is good), it is predicative. — Tr. 


182 SYNTAX. AGREEMENT. [§ 147. 

peter should give a signal (widi) the trumpet. The herald made (aor.) procla- 
mation to the soldiers to prepare themselves for (elg) battle. We admire brave 
soldiers. "Without self-control vs^e can practise (cwr.) nothing good. Semiramis 
was queen of Assyria. Socrates always passed his time in public. After {fxera, 
w. ace.) death, the soul separates from the irrational body. It is (= has itself) 
difficult to understand {aor.) every man thoroughly. The Loves are perhaps 
called archers on this account, because the beautiful wound even from a dis- 
tance. Tyrtaeus, the poet, was given {aor.) by the Athenians to the Spartans 
as a general. The Lacedaemonians were {Karaarrivai) the authors of many ad- 
vantages to the Greeks. JSIinos, who {part.) had ruled very constitutionally and 
had been careful to do justice, was appointed {aor.) judge in {nata, w. gen.) 
Hades. Virtue remains ever unchanged. If (eay, w. svbj.) one, chosen (to be) a 
general, has subjected {aor.) an unjust and hostile city, shall we call him unjust ? 

%1¥I. Exceptions to the General Rules of Agree- 
ment . 

(a) The form of the predicate in many eases does not agree with 
the subject grammatically, but in sense only {Oonstructio xarct 
cv V s<j IV ov ad intellectum). 

To 7r?i?j-&og e7Tej3o7i-&?](jav, the multitude brought assistance; the verb would reg- 
ularly be singular here, but is put in the plural, because TrZ^i^of being a collec- 
tive substantive, includes many individuals. 'O arparbg airejSatvov. To arpa- 
TOTreSov uvsx^povv. To fieipaKLov kan KoAof, the hoy is beautiful; here the sub- 
stantive is neuter, while the adjective is masculine, agreeing with the subject, 
therefore, only in sense. To yvvatKtov eart Ka?^]. 

(b) When the subject is not to be considered as something defi- 
nite, but as a general idea or statement, the predicative adjective 
is put in the neuter singular, without any reference to the gender 
and number of the subject. In English we sometimes join the 
word thing or something with the adjective, and sometimes translate 
the adjective as if it agreed with the substantive. 

OvK ay ad-bv ttoTiv ko L p av ia- elg Koipavog lorw, a plurality of rulers is 
not a good thing, etc. Ai ueraf^oXal Tivttt] pov, changes are troublesome. 'H 

flOV apx'>-0. K p CIT LGT ov. 

Rem. 1. When the predicate is a demonstrative pronoun, it agrees with the 
subject in gender, number and Case, as in Latin; e. g. Ovrog ecrriv 6 avrjp, this 
is the man. Avtt} earl TiTjyrj koI upxv tvclvtuv tuv KaKuv. Tovro karL to av- 
'&og. Yet the Greeks veiy often put the demonstrative in the neuter singular, 
both when it is a subject and predicate ; e. g.T ovro karLv ?j dcKatoavvTff 
this is justice. Tovro kari Tzriyri Kal apxv yeveaeoc 

(c) Verbal adjectives in -rog and -rsog frequently stand in the 
neuter plural instead of the singular, when they are used imperson- 
ally like the Latin verbal in -dum. 

§ 147.] SYNTAX. AGREEMENT. 183 

Uiard lart role (piloL^, we must trust friends, instead of ttiguv Igtl. So 
also, when the subject is contained in an infinitive or in a whole clause, where 
in English we use the pronoun it ; c. g. Tf/v iTeirpu[iivriv /lolpav ndvvaTu. 
karcv a-Ko^vyelv kol -d-eC), it is impossible even for God to escape the destined fate. 
AijXa, 1:gtiv {it is evident) on. del 'iva ye rtva Tjfiuv jSaaiMa yev£C-&at. 

(d) A subject in the neuter plural is connected with a verb in the 

Td, ^ua T pixel. Ta npay/Lcard koTt mla. Kmov uvdpbc 6 up a 
ovrjGtv ovK exe I- 

Rem. 2. When the subject in the neuter plural denotes persons or living be- 
ings, the verb is often put in the plural, to render the personality more promi- 
nent; e. g. rd Te?ii] {magistracy, magistrates) rovg GrpaTitJrag E^enefiTpav. This 
is also the case, when the idea of individuality or plurality is to be made particu- 
larly prominent ; e. g. ^avspd t] aav viroxupovvrcdv kcI ltttccjv kuI uv'&puTruv 
IxvTj TToWd {many tracks appeared). 

(e) A dual subject is very often connected with a plural predi- 

Atio dvdpe e fxax e cr av r o. 'Ade2,(l)d Svo rjaav Kaloc. 

Eem. 3. The dual is not always used, when two objects are spoken of, but 
only when they are of the same kind, either naturally connected, e. g. Tzode, 
X£^p£, ^Te, two feet, etc., or such as are considered as standing in a close and 
mutual relation, e. g. dSel^u, two brothers. 

Rem. 4. A feminine substantive in the dual has its attributive in the mascu- 
line dual; e. g. a/z^w rw ttoIee ; here rw (masculine) agrees vnth Trolee (femi- 
nine), and so in the other examples. T w yvvacKs. "Ajucpco tovtu rd ijfiepa. 
T otv yevBGEOLv. T ovr u t d VEXva. 

(f ) When the predicate is a superlative, and stands in connection 
with a genitive, the gender of the superlative is commonly Hke that 
of the subject, as in Latin, more seldom like that of the genitive. 

^ -& 6v g ;\;a/le7r6Jrar6f egtl tuv voguv. '0 7/2,10 g ttcivtuv XafiTzpo- 
rarog egtcv. Sol omnium rerum lucidissimus est. 

LXXVI. Exercises on § 147. 

The army of the enemy retired. The people of the Athenians believe that 
{ace. w. inf.) Hipparchus, the tyrant, was killed {aor.) by Harmodius and Aris- 
togiton. Envy is something hateful. Drunkenness is something burdensome 
to men. Inactivity is indeed sweet, but inglorious and base. Beautiful indeed 
is prudence and justice, but difficult and laborious. To leam from {irapd, w. 
gen.) (our) ancestors, is the best instruction. Together with the power, the pnfle 
of man also increases. Money procures men friends and honors. Afflictions 
often become lessons to men. The misfortunes of neighbors serve (= become) 
as {elg) a warning to men. The Athenian (of the Athenians) courts of justice, 
misled by a plea, often put to death the innocent (= not doing wrong), while 
fSi) they often acquitted the guilty (= wrong-doers), either moved to sympathy 


(sympathizing) by (e/c) the plea, or because the guilt}'- had spoken {aor.) grace- 
fully. The two long roads lead to {etc) the city. The Spartan youths, in the 
streets, kept their hands Avithin the mantle. The enemy possessed themselves of 
two great and magnificent cities. The eagle is the swiftest of all birds. Virtue 
is the fairest of all blessings. 

§ 147^'. Agreement when there are several suhj ects, 

1. Two or more subjects require the verb or copula to be plural. 
When the subjects are of like gender, the adjective is of the same 
gender, and in the plural ; but when the subjects are of a different 
gender, then, in case of persons, the masculine takes precedence of 
the feminine and neuter, and the feminine of the neuter; but in 
case of things, the adjective is often in the neuter plural, without 
reference to the gender of the substantives. 

'O $i/ii7r7rof Kol 6 'A?^i ^ av 6 p g 7to7Jm Kal ■Q^avuaara cpya an e 6 e i- 
^ avTO. 'O 1, 0) KpccTT] g Kal 6 U/iaT cjv }] a av (70(poc. 'H ui] "^v P f^ol 
ff d-vy aTT] p ^ a av Kalai. 'H b pyrj Kal i] aavv e a ia e cat KiiKai. 
'O av7] p Kal rj ■yvvrj ay a-d-oi slcnv. 'H yvvrj Kal r a t e itv a aya'&at 
eloLV. 'flf side Trar e pa re Kal jirjT epa Kal ad sX<j)oi) g Kal rrjv iavrov y v- 
V al Ka alxjJ'OXi^TOvg y ey evrj [lev ov g, kSaKpvaev. 'H ay opcL Kal to ttqV' 
T av elov IlapLG) ?ii-&(f) t] a ktj [lev a tjv. Ai-&o l re Kal rrTiiv&o i Kal ^v'ka 
Kal Kepaftog uraKTcog e p ^ cfi/xev a ovdev xpVf^'-H-^ eartv. 

Rem. 1. Sometimes the verb and adjective agree, in form, with the nearest 
subject ; this is particularly the case, when the predicate precedes the subjects ; 
e. g. (pi?.^el ce 6 TzaTrjp Kal rj urirrip and ayad-og haTtv b Trarr/p Kal tj [XTjTrjp. 
Sometimes where the verb follows different subjects, it agrees with the first, the 
other subjects being thereby made subordinate ; q. g. (S aa iXeiig 6e Kal ol aw 


2. When several subjects of different persons are connected, the 
first person takes precedence of the second and third, but the second 
of the third ; and the verb is put in the plural. 

*Eyw Kcl ai ypdcpoixev, ego et tu scribimus; Eyd Kal eKelvog ypa(pofiev, ego et lUe 
scnbimus ; eyd Kal ai) Kal EKelvog ypcK^oiiev, ego et tu et tile scribimus ; av Kal kKel- 
vog ypa(pere, tu et ille scribitis ; h/d Kal eKelvot ypa^ofiev, ai) Kal EKeivoi ypcKpere, 
i^fielg Kal ekelvol ypa<pofi£v, vftelg Kal EKEtvog ypcKpEve. 

Rem. 2. In addition to a subject-nominative which expresses the idea of plu- 
rality, there is often one or more denoting the parts of which the first is com- 
posed {axvf^o.* '<-(^'^' b?i0v Kal fJ-epog) ; e. g. o I ar p ar lut ai ol filv ^vavTto>- 
■&7]aav Tolg TroTiEfiiocg, o l de inzecpvyov, some of the soldiers ivithstood the enemj/y I 
hut the others fled ; here arpariuTai denoting the whole is in the Nom., instead of ] 
being in the Gen. and governed by its parts oi juev and ol SL 

* A construction by which the whole is named, and a part is put in apposi- 
tion with the whole, instead of the whole being in the Gen. and governed by a 
word denoting a part. — Tk. 

§ 148.] SYNTAX. THE ARTICLE. 185 

LXXVII. Exercises on § 147^. 

Sociates and Plato were very wise. Ni.sus and Euryalus were friends (in) 
word and deed. "WisdQui and health were always the greatest blessings of man 
iplur.). The Spartan Cleonymus and Easias (an) Areadian, two gallant men, 
died in the battle fought against {rrpoc) the Carduchians. Shame and fear are 
innate (in) man. I and my brother love thee. You and your friends have 
done me many favors. The citizens ran in different directions, every one to 
(kiri, w. ace.) his own. When (my) friends saw me, they embraced me, one on 
one side, the other on the other.=* (Of) the citizens, some rejoiced over [k-rrl, w. 
dttt.) the victoiy of Philip, others mourned. 

§148. The Article. 

1. The substantive as a subject, as well as in every other relation, 
takes the article o, ?/, ro, the, when the speaker wishes to represent 
an object as a definite one, and to distinguish it from others of the 
same kind. The substantive without the article represents the idea 
in a merely general and indefinite manner, without any limitation ; 
e. g. avd-QQOTTog, man, i. e. an individual or some one of the race of 
men ; but the substantive with the article makes the object definite, 
indicating that such was the view taken of it by the speaker ; e. g. 
civ'&QcoTZog, i. e. the man whom I am considering, or have in view, 
and whom I consider as a different individual from the rest of men. 
So q)iXo<yoq)ia, philosophy in general, ij cpO^ooocpla, philosophy as a 
particular science, or a particular branch of philosophy. 

Rem. 1. The article is also used, where one object is to be distinguished from 
or contrasted with, another of a different kind ; e. g. 7r6Af//of ovk egtlv dvev 
KivSvvuv, war is 7iot loithov.t danner ; but 6 'ir6?i,E/iog ovic dvev kcvSvvuv, rj 6' 
elprjvTj aKivSwog ; here iroTieuog takes the article because it is contrasted with 


Rem. 2. The substantive, as a predicate, usually omits the article, the idea 
conveyed by it being mostly of a general nature ; q. g. vv ^ ?) rjfiepa kyevsro, 
day became night, efxiropiov 6' ^v to x<^piov, and the place was an emporium; 
— but if the predicate denotes something definite, befoi'e mentioned or well 
known, it takes the article ; e. g. avve(^d2'J\,Ero r bv '0 pearrjv tovtov elvai, 
lie concluded that this was Okestes {tlie one before mentioned). 

2. Hence the article is also used to denote the whole compass of 
the idea, since the speaker considers an object as the representative 
of all others of the same class, and therefore as expressing a definite 
whole ; e,. g. 6 avd' ga tz o g ^vrjiog iariv, man (i. e. all men) is 
mortal; ri dvdQsia aalri egtlv, i. e. everything which is under- 

^ dTiXog d\7\.o-&ev, alius aliunde. 


186 SYNTAX. THE ARTICLE. [§ 148. 

stood by tlie term dvdQSia ; — 7 6 y dXa iativ r^dv, milk is sweet, i. e. 
milk in general, all milk. 

Rem. 3. When the English indefinite article a or an, denotes merely the class 
to which a particular thiog belongs, the Greek uses the substantive alone with- 
out the article ; e. g- a man, avd-purroc. 

Rem. 4. Common nouns sometimes omit the article, where according to No 
1, it would be used. Such omission occurs, (a) "svith appellations denoting hiri' 
dred or relationship, and the like, wliere the definite relation is obvious without 
the article ; e. g. Tzarrjp, fiiirrip, vlog, udelcpog, TraZSeg, yovelg, avrjp (husband) , 
yvvr] [wife), etc. ; — (b) when two or more independent substantives are united to 
form one whole ; e. g. TvalSeg Kal yvvaiKsg, 7r6/icg Kal ocKcat ; — (c) when common 
nouns ai-e used as. or instead of, proper nouns ; e. g. ?puog, ovpavog, aarv, jisect- 
of Athens, Tro/iLg, of a paiiicular city, known from the context, yTJ, of a particular 
country, I3a<n?i,evg, of a particular king, commonly the king of Persia; — (d) when 
common nouns which are usually specific, and would take the article, are used 
in an abstract sense ; e. g. r^yelad-at -d-eovg, to believe in gods, e^' ittttov Isvai, to 
ride horse-back, sttI delTVvov hXdelv, to come to suppe)', i. e. to eat. 

Rem. 5. Abstract nouns, the names of the arts and sciences, of the virtues and 
vices, generally omit the article, when they are taken in their abstract sense ; 
e. g. aXfi'&sLa, ooTTjpta, au^poavvri, diKaioavvrj, kirLarTijiT], Evai(3ei.a, a<ji(3eia, 
KaKta ; but if one class of abstracts is to be distinguished from another, or the 
whole compass of a science, etc. is intended, the article is used. 

3. The article very often takes the place of the possessive pro- 
noun, when it is connected with such substantives as naturally be- 
long to a particular person mentioned in the sentence. 

01 yovelg rd. r e kv a (jrepyovaiv, parents love their children. Kvpog re Kara- 
TTfjdycrag utvo tov ap fiaro g r bv 'd^ d paKa evedv Kal dvaj3ag sttc tov Itz- 
iT ov TO. IT a It a elg r d, g x ^^ P<^C ^"^o.^^, C. having leaped down from HIS 
chariot, put on his breast-plate, etc. 

Reim. 6. The article is often used in a distributive sense ; tlie article is here to 
be explained by its giving individuality to the noun with which it is connected ; 
G. ^. b 'Kvpog VTTLaxvetTat Scoastv rpia ?}fit6apecKa tov firjvbg -<p arpar cu- 
Ty, C. promises to give three half-Darics, A (each) month to EACH soldier. 

4. The article, being originally a demonstrative pronoun, is of- 
ten used where an object, at first stated indefinitely, is named a 
second time ; for the same reason it is used, when the speaker points 
to an object. 

'O Kvpog diduciv avr5> pvpiovg dapemovg. 'O 6e Tia/Sdv rb x P '>^ <^ ^ ^ v, C. 
iues him ten thousand Danes; but he taking the (that) money — , where xP'^'^'^ov 
has the article, because it refers to the preceding dapetKovg. ^evcag ayuva e'&rj- 
Ke ■ E-&e6psi de rbv ayC5va Kvpo:. 'Tnep TTJg Ku/urjg y7]lo<pog tjv, tuv 6e lir- 
niuv 6 ?i6(t)0 g eveTzlrjG'&r], where 7 o<pog is the same as the preceding yrjlo^og. 
^epe poL, d Tzal, rb ^ i (SXiov, the (that) book. 

5. Proper names as such, i. e so far as in themselves they denote 

§ 148.] SYNTAX. THE ARTICLE. 187 

individuals, do not take the article ; e. g. ^coxQurrig tcprj. 'Evr/.Tjoav 
Q 7] ^ a 10 1 yl ax e. d u I ^lov I ov g. Mtj olsad'E iiritE Keqg o^XiTi- 
nqv vmQ X s q q ov ^ c ov, f^rjzs fD iXititt ov vtzIq u4 ^q) ltz 6- 
X^odg 77ol8f(^(78iv, ozav ('d(06iv ijixag fi.j]d£Pog zojv ccXIotqiodv i(pi£(i8- 
vovg. The J, however, take it, when they have been mentioned and 
are afterwards referred to, or even wlien thej have not been pre- 
viously mentioned, if they are to be represented as well known ; 
e. g. ^Tto r ov 'IXiG a ov Ityerai o B o q t ag zi]v 'fi q e i-O'v i av 

Eem. 7. Proper names, even when an adjective agrees with them, do not com- 
monly have the article ; e. g. ao(pbg ZuKparrj^, the wise Soaxites. The article is 
also omitted with a proper name, when a noun in apposition having the article, 
follows it ; c. g.KpolaoQ, b ruv AvSCov ftaai/ievg. The names of rivers are 
usually placed, as adjectives, between the article and the word Trorafxog ; e. g. 
6 TLijveidg Tvorafiog, the river Peneus. 

6. "When adjectives and participles are used as substantives, they 
regularly (according to No. 2) take the article. The English, in 
such a case, either employs an adjective, used substantively, e. g. 
01 ayad^oi, the good, or a substantive, e. g. to ayad'ov, the advantage, 
the good, 6 Xt'ycov, the speaker, or resolves the participle, which is 
equivalent to ixeivog og {is, qui), by he, who, which, etc. In Greek, 
this use of the participle, in all its tenses, is very frequent ; e. g. 
TzlEiora CO q) eXco V (= iy.eivog og coqeXet) to xoivov fiEyiarcov 
Tificav d^iovrai, he who (whoever) henefits the state most, is woHhy of 
the highest honors ; o TrleTara (o q eXtig ag (= ixsTrog og (o^eX^ge) 
TO y.oivov II. t. T^^icoGato ; o TtX. coqsXyGcov r. 'A. [x. r. d^icod"^- 
GEtai. TloXXovg s^ofiEv zovg izoifiojg GwaymviLoiiivovg. But if 
the adjectives are to express only a part of the whole, the article is 
omitted ; e. g. xaxa nai aiGyqa ETiQa^Ev. The infinitive also has 
the article, when it is to be considered as a substantiA'e ; e. g. zb 

7. ylXXo I signifies others, oi aXXo i, the others, the rest, i. e. all 
besides those who have been mentioned ; ?/ dXXrj 'EXXdg, the rest of 
Greece. E z eq o g, alter, takes the article (o ez eq o g), io denote 
one of two definitely ; so o i ez eqo i, the one of two parties. UoX- 
Xo i signifies many, ol it oXXo i, the many, the multitude, the mass 
(in distinction from the parts of the whole); ol TiXEiovg, the 
qreater part (in distinction from the smaller part of the whole) ; ol 
iXeigzoi, the most (of a preponderance in number). 

8. The Greek can change adverbs of place and time, more sel- 
dom of quality, into adjectives or substantives, by prefixing the ar* 

188 SYNTAX. THE ARTICLE. [§ 148. 

tide. In like manner, a preposition witli its Case may be consid- 
ered as an adjective. 

'H avu TTokLQ, the upper ciiy ; 6 fiera^i) roTrog, the intervening place ; ol kv&dds 
uv&pcjTTOt or ol kv'S-ude ; 6 vvv (SaGiXevg, ol Tzakai aocpol d.v6peg, ol tots, t) av- 
pLOV (sc. Tjfiepa), 6 uei, the ever enduring ; ol rravv tuv CTpaTtoTuv, the best of the 
soldiers ; ij ayav ufj,s?.ELa, the too great carelessness ; 6 Tvpbg Toijg Uepaag TzoT^efiog^ 
the Persian war ; i] tv Xe^^ovr/acp Tvpavvlg. 

9. When a substa:ntive having the article has attributive exple- 
tives connected with it, viz. an adjective, adjective pronoun or nu- 
meral, a substantive in the genitive, an adverb, or a preposition 
with its Case (No. 8), then in respect to the position of the article, 
the two following cases must be distinguished : 

(a) The attributive is connected with its substantive so as to ex- 
press a single idea ; e. g. the good man = the worthy ; the wise man 
== the sage, and denotes an object which is contrasted with others 
of the same kind, by means of the accompanying attributive. In 
this case, the attributive stands either between the article and the 
substantive, or is placed after the substantive with the article re- 

O aya-&bg av7]p or 6 avrjp b uya-&6g (in opposition to the bad man) ; ol ttaou- 
aiOL ■noXiTat or ol TcoTurai ol TrZoicxiOi (in opposition to the poor citizens) ; 6 
TOW 'k.'&rjvaiciv 6r][j.og or 6 67j^og b Tcbv 'A.-d-Tjvalo)v (in opposition to another peo- 
ple) ; ol vvv av&puTzoL or ol dv&pcoTOi ol vvv ; 6 Tcpbg Tovg Uepaag 7cb7,e[x.og or b 
TvoAeiiog b izpog Tovg liipaag (the Persian in opposition to other wars). In all 
these examples the emphasis is on the attributive : the good man, the 7ich citizens, 
the Athenian people, men of the present time, the Persian war. 

(b) The attributive is not connected v>'ith its substantive to ex- 
press a single idea, but is to be considered as the predicate of an 
abridged subordinate clause ; here the attributive is not contrasted 
with another object of the same kind, but with itself, inasmuch as it 
is designed to show that an object is to be considered, in respect to 
a certain property, by itself, without reference to another. The 
English in this case uses the indefinite article with a singular sub- 
stantive, but with a plural substantive, omits it entirely. Here the: 
adjective without the article is placed either after the article and 
substantive, or before the article and substantive. 

'O avr/p ay ad- b g or ay ad^ og b dvijp, a good man = ayad-bg tov, the man 
who is good, inasmuch as, because, if he is good. 01 av&purrot jucaovac tov avdpa 
KttKov or KCKov TOV dvSpa, they Imte a had man, i. e. tliey hate the man, inas- 
much as, because, if he is bad. (On the contrary, Tbv KaKbv dvbpa or tov dvdpa 
rbv KaKov, the bad man, in distinction from the good ; hence, Toi)g [lev uya'&oi)^ 

5 148.] SYNTAX. — THE ARTICLE. 189 

uvx^pcJTTovg uyaTrcJ/xev, Tovg 6e KUKoic, iit(rov/j,ev). 'O Idaailevc i/Sfjur xapKeraL 
Tolg TzoTiiraLg ay a-& ol^, good citizens, i. e. if or because tliey are good; (on the 
contrary, toI^ aya'&OLg TroXlraic or roig 'Ko7uTai^ rolg uya-&clr, good citizens, in 
distinction from bad citizens). 'O -^Eog ttjv -ipvxvv KparicTTjv tC) uv&pcJTT(f) 
eve(j)V&ev, God has implanted in man a soul, which is the most excellent or perfect. 
01 ind Tov tjVlov KaTa?iafZ7r6fj,evoL tu xpf^fJ^ara /lelavrepa exovGiv, have a blacker 
skin ; the blackness of the skin is the consequence of the KaTaAu[jinEa-&aL vTzd 
TOV rj7\.Lov. 

Rem. 8. When a substantive with the article has a genitive connected with it, 
the position tinder (a) occurs, only when the substantive with its genitive forms 
a contrast with another object of the same kind ; e. g. o tuv ' A.'&tjvo.luv dri^og or 

6 dfijioc; 6 TcJv 'A-&7jvaio)v (the Athenians, in contrast with another people) ; then 
the emphasis is on the genitive. On the contrary, the genitive without the arti- 
cle of the governing substantive is placed before or after that substantive, when 
this latter substantive expresses a part of what is denoted by the substantive in 
the genitive, the emphasis then being on the governing substantive ; e. g. 6 drj- 
uog Tuv 'A-&7]vacuv or tuv 'Ad-Tjvaiuv 6 Sfjixog, the people, and not the nobiUty. — 
When the genitive of substantive-pronouns is used instead of the possessive pro- 
nouns, the reflexives tavrov, aeavrov, etc. are placed according to No. 9, (a) ; 
e. g. 6 EfiavTov Trarrip or 6 traTTjp 6 kfiavrov, etc. ; but the simple personal pro- 
nouns fiov, GOV, etc. stand without the article, either after or before the substan- 
tive which has the article : e-^.o Tzarrjp /uov or fiov 6 iraTrjp, 6 TcaTTJp cov or gov 
6 Trarrip, 6 Tcarrjp avrov (avryc) or avrov [avrr^c) 6 rraTr/p, my, thy, his {ejiis) 
father, 6 irarrjp 7][iibv, vfiuv, avruv or '^j/uuv, vfxCjv, ahribv b Trarr/p, our, your, their 
{eonim) father. In the Sing, and Dual, the enclitic forms are always used. 

Rem. 9. The difference between the two cases mentioned is very manifest 
with the adjectives uk poc, /xeGog, eGxarog. When the position mentioned 
under (a) occurs, the substantive with its attribute forms a contrast with other 
objects of the same kind ; e. g. 57 /J.ee7] T^oJac, the middle dty. in contrast with other 
cities ; 57 eGx^-Trj vT<aog, the most remote island, in contrast with other islands. 
When, on the contrary, the position mentioned under (b) occurs, the substantive 
is contrasted with itself, since tlie attributive defines it more clearly. In this 
last case, we usually translate these adjectives into English by substantives, and 
the substantives with which they agree as though they were in the genitive ; e. g. 
kirl t€) opei uKpo) or err' uKpo) tu bpei, on the top of the mountaiii, properly on the 
mountain where it is the highest : ev ^leGij Ty ttoIei or ev Ty 'K67.£t [leGri, in the 
middle of the city ; ev eGX^Ty tt} vijgg) or ev vtjgcx) Tf] eGxctTy, on the bordei' or edge 
of the island. 

Rem. 10. In like manner, the word juovog has the position mentioned under 
(a), when it expresses an actual attributive explanation of its substantive; e. g. 
6 juovoc iralc, the oxlt son ; on the contraiy, the position mentioned under (b), 
when it is a more definite explanation of the predicate ; e. g. 'O Tzalg fxovoc or 
fiovog 6 Tzalg Tcai^ec, the hoy plays alone [unthout company) : whereas b fiovog iraig 
would mean, the oxlt hoy ploys. 

10. Further ; on the use of the article with a substantive which has 
an adjective agreeing with it, the following things are to be noted : 

190 SYNTAX. — THE ARTICLE. [§ 148. 

(a) The article Is used with a substantive which has an adjective 
pronoun connected with it, when the object is to be represented as 
a definite one ; the adjective pronoun is then placed between the; 
article and the substantive, e. g. o Ifiog TtazijQy on the contrary, 
laog a^sXcpog, a hrother of mine (undetermined which) ^ ifiog Tzaig, a 
child of mine, but 6 t^iog naig, my child, a definite one, or the only 

(b) The article is used with a substantive, with which toiovzogy 
roiogds, r og ovr og, zijlixovzog, agree, when the quality 
or quantity designated by these, is to be considered as belonging to 
a definite object, or to a whole class of objects previously named. 
The article commonly stands before the pronoun and substantive ; 
e. g. xoiovTog avijQ '&avixa(jz6g iariv, ta loiavza TTQayfiata xaXcc 
ioTiv. On the contrary, the article must be omitted, when the ob- 
ject is indefinite, any one of those who are of such a nature, or are 
so great ; e. g. toiovtov avdqa ovx av inaivoir/g, you ivould not praise 
such a man. 

(c) When 7t cig, 7t dvr sg belong to a substantive, the following 
cases must be distinguished : 

(a) When the idea expressed by the substantive is considered as 
altogether a general one, the article is not used ; e. g. Tiag avd-QOj- 
nog, every man, i. e. every one to whom the predicate man belongs, 
Tidvreg av&QcoTroi, all men. Here, nag in the singular, generally 
signifies each, every. 

(j5) When the substantive to which nag, navrsg belong, is to be 
considered as a whole in distinction from its parts, it takes the arti- 
cle, which is placed according to No. 9, (a) ; e. g. 3/ ndaa yrj, the 
whole earth, ol ndvzag noXTrai, all the citizens without exception, the 
citizens as a whole or body. This usage is more seldom than that 
under (a). The same construction occurs also with olo'g, but it 
is still more rare than with nag. Here the singular nag always has 
the sense of the ivhole, all. 

(y) When nag is joined with a definite object having the article, 
merely for the purpose of a more full explanation, but without any 
special emphasis, its position is according to No. 9, (b) ; e. g. oi 
GZQarmtai e'llov to a t q at 6 n ed ov dnavordnav r o at q a- 
r on ed ov; o i 6 r q az i(a r ai n dr r sg or n dvz eg o I c z q a- 
z lojz ai zaXcog Ifxa^Eaavzo. This is by far the most frequent use 
of nag, ndvzeg. The word oXog also is usually constructed in the 
same manner, when connected with a substantive having the arti- 

§ 148.] SYNTAX. — THE ARTICLE. 191 

cle ; e. g. diu ttjv noXiv o}.7jV or dia o2,tjV rrjv noXiv, through the whole 
city, i. e. simply through the city (not dia ztjv olr^v nohv, which 
would signify through the whole city). 

(d) When ex act eg, each, every, belongs to a substantive, the 
article is omitted, as with nag in the sense of each, every, when the 
idea expressed by the substantive is considered as altogether gene- 
ral ; e. g. xa^' saddTT^v ruiiqav, every day, on all days ; when, on 
the contrary, the idea contained in the substantive is to be made 
prominent, then the article is joined with it, and is always placed 
according to No. 9, (b) ; e. g. y,ara rriv rnjiEQav iy,uoz')]v, or 
usually xad-' sxdazr^v Z'^v Tjiiiqav, every single, individual day, 

(e) When ^qog^ each of two, a fjiq) (a and d^Kf) 6t &Qog, 
both, belong to a substantive, the article is always used, since here 
only two known, therefore definite objects can be spoken of. The 
article is here placed according to No. 9, (b) ; e. g. im t cav nXev- 
Qcav iy, at SQ CO V or eTzi sy, ax iqcov z ^v nXev gmv, z a coz a 
dfiqiorega or dfA,q)6zsQa za, mza, d{A,(poiv zolv '/^eqoTv 
or zoTv 'I eQOivdf.icpoLV. 

(f ) When a cardinal number belongs to a substantive, the article 
is omitted, if the idea expressed by the substantive is indefinite ; e. g. 
zqelg avdgeg tjX'&ov ; the substantive, on the contrary, takes the ar- 
ticle which is placed, — (a) according to No. 9, (a), when the sub- 
stantive with which the numeral agrees, contains the idea of a uni- 
ted whole ; e. g. ol zoov ^aaikiwv olvoxool didoaai z olg z q lal 
day.zvXoig oiovvztg ztjv QpidXrjv, i. e. with the three fingers (the 
three generally used) ; indeed the article is very frequently used, 
when a preceding substantive without the article, but with a cardi- 
nal agreeing with it, is afterwards referred to ; — (|5) according lo 
No. 9, (b), when the numeral is joined with a definite object merely 
to define it more explicitly, without any special emphasis; e. g. 
ifiax^oavzo ol fiszd TlaQLuXt'ovg onXTzai yjXioi or iikioi ol [iszd TI. 

(g) Further ; substantives to which the demonstratives ovz og, 
b d £, iy.E IV g and av z 6 g, ipse, belong, also regularly take the 
article ; but the article has only the position of No. 9, (b) ; e. g» 

ovTog 6 dvriQ or o dvriQ ovzog, not 6 ovzog dvrJQ, 
r^dc ?j yvo3iji7] or r^ yvojfirj 7J88, 
iaeivog avyjQ or ar?yo iyaTvog, 

avzog 6 ^aGtlevg or ^aacXevg avzog, but avzog ^aaiXevg sig- 
nifies the same king. 

192 SYNTAX. THE ARTICLE. [§ 148. 

Rem. 11. The article is omitted, — (a) when the pronoun is the subject, bvt 
the substantive the predicate; e. g. ai)Tr] kcrlv avdpbg aperrj, this is the virtue of 
the man; so there is a diiFerence between tovtu tu didaaKukui xpi^vrat., they have 
this teacher, and rovro 6i6. xP-i t^^^y ^ this man as or for a teacher ; — (b) when 
the substantive is a proper name; e. g. ovrog, eKslvog, avrdg 'LoKpdrTjg. 

LXXVIIL Exercises on § 148. 

Avarice is (the) root of every vice. Good education is (the) source and root 
of excellence. Wisdom is worthy of all diligence. Man has understanding. 
Strive, young man, after wisdom. A kid, standing upon [eTti, w. gen.) a house, 
reviled, when he saw a wolf passing by, and railed at him. But the wolf said : 
Ho there,"^ you do not revile me, but the place. An honorable war is better 
(more desh-able) than a shameful peace. Too great ease is sometimes injurious. 
In the war against [irpog) the Persians, the Greeks showed themselves very 
brave. The Athenians, persuaded by Alcibiades to strive [aor.) for power upon 
[Kara, w. ace.) the sea, lost [aor.) even their dominion upon the land. The 
wealth of Tantalus and the dominion of Pelops and the power of Euiystheug 
are celebi-ated by the ancient poets. The halcyon, a sea-bird, utters a mournful 
(TV. Those who were bom of the same parents and have grown up in the same 
house and have been beloved by the same parents, those indeed (Stj) are of all the 
most intimate. Thy mind directs thy body, as it chooses. I saw thy friend. 
Through the park in Celaenae flows the river Maeander. On the top of the tree 
sits a bu'd. On {Kara, w. ace.) Caucasus is a rock, that has (part.) a circumference 
of ten stadia. The city lies on (ev) the edge of the island. The words of those, 
who (oi dv, It), subj.) practise truth, often avail more than the violence of others. 
If {edv, IV. subj.) such men promise one anything, they perform nothing less than 
others vrho immediately give. The earth bears and nourishes everything fair 
and everything good. Among all men it is an established custom, that {ace. w. 
inf.) the elder begin every word and work. The generals resolved to put to 
death {aor.) not only those (the) present, but all the Mytilenaeans. Most of the 
cities sent, eveiy year, (as) a memorial of former kindness, the first fi-uits of 
their grain to the Athenians. Every day, deserters came to Cyras. Mysus 
came in, holding in each of his two hands a small shield. The peltastae ran 
(oo?-.) to (cTTi, w. ace.) each of the two wings. When Darius was sick and ex- 
pecting the end of (his) life, he desired that {ace. w. inf.) both his sons might be 
present before him (sibi). Both the ears of the slave were bored through. Both 
the cities were desti-oyed by the enemy. These works are very agreeable to me. 
That man is very wise. Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, founded in Sicily a 
city directly {avrbq) under the mountain of Aetna, and named it Adi'anum. Ac- 
cording to these laws the judge decides. This is a suflBcient defence. This is 
true justice. Not only the soldiers, but the king himself fought veiy brarely 
This they employ (as) a mere pretence. This Channides recently met me, 
dancing. Cyrus sent to Cilicia the soldiers, that Menon had, and Menon, the 
Thessalian, himself. The time of maturity for {dot.) woman is twenty years, 
for man, thirty years. The three cities lying on {napa, w. ace.) the sea were 

destroyed by the enemy. 

^ .«— i. ^ 

* ^Q ovrog. 

§§ 149, 150.] srNTAx. — classes of verbs. 198 

§ 149. Classes of Verbs, 
The predicate or verb, in reference to the subject, can be express- 
ed in different ways. Hence arise different classes of verbs, which 
are indicated by different forms. 

1. The subject appears as active ; e. g. o nalg yQcicpsif to av- 
^og '&dlle I. — The active form, however, has a two-fold signifi- 
j cation : 

' (a) Tramifwe, when the object to which the action is directed, 
is in the accusative, and therefore receives the action; e. g. 
TVTttm Tov mdda, yQaifca rt^v ImaroXriv. — Transitive verb. 
{^) Intransitive, when the action is either confined to the subject, 
e. g. TO cLv^oq ^aK'Ui, or when the verb has an object in the 
Gen. or Dat., or is constructed with a preposition ; e. g. ini- 
'&V!A(o zijg clQSTJjg, x<^iQ(» ^j <^oq)ia, EQXojxai aig zr^v noliv, — 
Intransitive verb. 

2. Again, the subject performs an action which is reflected on it- 
self; hence the subject is at the same time the object of the action, 
i. e. the actor and the receiver of the action are the same ; e. g. zvn- 
rofiai, I strike myself, ^ovlavoiiai, I advise myself. — lliddle or re- 
flexive verb. 

Rem. 1. When the reflexive action is performed by two or more subjects on 
3ach other, e. g. TvirrovTaL, tJiey strike each other, SiaKeXevovrai, they encourage 
^ach other, it is called a reciprocal action, and the verb a reciprocal verb. 

8. Lastly, the subject appears as receiving the action ; e. g. ol 
jrQanatai vtio tcov 7TolsiA,ia)v idicoxd-r^aav, the soldiers were pursued. 
— Passive verb. 

Eem. 2. The Act. and Mid. hare complete foims. For the Pass., the Greek 
)as only two tenses, viz. the Tut. and Aor. All the other forms are indicated 
)y the Md., inasmuch as the passive action was considered as a reflexive one. 

§ 150. He marks on the Classes of Verbs. 
1. Many active verbs, especially such as express motion, besides 
i transitive signification, have also an intransitive or reflexive sense. 
'Comp. the English expressions, Imove [Intrans.] and Imove the book 
Trans.], the tree breaks [Intrans.] and the ice breaJcs the trees [Trans.], 
md the Latin vertere, mutare, declinare) ; thus, e. g. dvdysiv, to draw 
KKk, regredi, didyEir, to continue, perstare, iXavrsiv, to ride, iii^dl- 
.uv and dg^dlUiVy to fall into or upon, ix^dXXeiv, to spring forth^ 
ifZoxXivsiv, declinare, ZQtTieiv, like vertere, crqiqieiVj like mutare, 


194 SYNTAX. — CLASSES OF VERBS. [§ 150. 

i^siv in connection with adverbs, e. g. ev, 'Aaamg sxEiv,hene, male 
se habere, zeXevrav, to end, to die, and many others. 

2. Several active verbs with a transitive signification, which form 
both Aorists, have in the first Aor. a transitive signification, but in 
the second Aor. an intransitive : 

6vo), to wrap up^ first Aor. edvaa, I wrapped up, second Aor. sdvv, I went in, down, 
larriiii, to place, " £GT7]Ga, I placed, " e(JT7]v, I stood, 

(pv CO, to produce, " ^(pvcfa, I produced, " ecpvv, I was produced, 

aKeXXujtomakedjy, ^^ {EaKr]/M,'Foet. Invade dry), '^ eaK?i7iv, I withered. 

So several active verbs with a transitive signification, which form 
both Perfects, have in the first Perf. a transitive signification, but ., 
in the second an intransitive : 

t/Eipo), to avxiJce, first Pf. h/r/yepKa, I have awakened, second Pf. eyprjyopa,Iam awahe, 
oTCkvjxi, to destroy, " b7iC)7^eKa, I have destroyed, " bXu2,a,I have perished, 
■:TEi-&G), to persuade, " TreTreLKa, I have 'persuaded, " ireirofd-a, I trust. 

Moreover, some second Perfects of transitive verbs which do not 
form a first Perf., have an intransitive signification ; e. g. ayrvfii, tO\ 
hreah, second Perf. 'idya, I am hrohen, mqywiii, to fasten, nmriya, 
am fastened or standfast, Qjjypvijj, to rend, sQQcoya, lam rent, aiqnco, 
to make rotten, oiarina, I am rotten, ztjxco, to smelt, e. g. iron, TstTjua, 
lam smelted, qjaivco, to show, nscpr^va, I appear. 

3. On the signification and use of the middle form, the foUowing' 
are to be noted : 

(a) The middle denotes first, an action which the subject per-! 
forms directly upon itself, where in EngHsh we use the active verb 
and the accusative of the reflexive pronoun ; e. g. rvTTzouat,, I strike 
myself, hvipdfirjv, I struck myself rvipo^ai, I shall strike myself 
This use of the middle is rare. Here belong the following verbs 
which are presented in the aorist-form : anlfui, to keep from, aTioa- 
'lia'&ai, to keep one^s self from, to abstain from ; a7tayS,ai iivd, to 
strangle, to hang some one, aitdy^aad-ai, to strangle or hang Okie's self ; 
Tv^pacj'&ai, 'AOipuG&ai, to strike one's self; im^akEad'ai tivi, to throw 
or place one's self upon something, to apply one's self to something ; 
TtavaaG&ai, to cease (from navoa, to cause to cease) ; 8ai^ac&a.i, to 
show one's self ; particularly verbs which express an action per- 
formed by the subject on his own body : Xovoaod-ai (to wash erne's 
self), 'Piipacd-ai, dXeiipaC'&ai, iqiaaa'&ai, yvfivdad'ai, naXvifjaa'&ai, 
yio(jfii^6acd'ai,, ivdvaaa'&ai, ixdvaaa-d'ai, yMqacd^ai, GTsq^avmaaa-d'ai, 
and the like. With the exception of the above verbs and some 
others, this reflexive relation is commonly expressed by the active 
form with the accusative of the reflexive pronoun; e. g. ETtaivsip 

§ 150.] SYNTAX. — CLASSES OF VERBS. 195 

iavrov, avaQxav iavtov, to make himself dependent on, dnoy.nvTi- 
ZEiv savTov, id-i^eiv mvzov, TzaQsxsiv iavtov, unolveiv lavrov, to free 
himself dnocjcpdzTeiv savrov, uTtoKteiveiv iavtov. Then the middle 
form has the signification of the passive,, thus, InaiVcTa&ai, dnoyau- 
veadai, dnoocpdttea'&ai, laudari, interfici, jugulari ah olio, and al- 
jso has a passive form for its Aorist and Future. ' 

Rem. 1. In all the middle verbs mentioned above, the action is such as does 
not necessarily refer to the subject ; for I can, e. g. as weU wash another as my- 
self But the action may be such as necessarily refers to the subject, inasmuch 
as the subject wliich performs the action, must be considered the same as the 
object which receives the action ; then the middle form expresses the simple 
idea of an inti-ansitive action ; this is a frequent use of the middle. Here be- 
long particularly very many verbs which express an act or perception of the 
mind. Only a very few verbs of this kind have theh Aor. %vith a middle form ; 
e. g. (pvla^aad-ai, to guard one's self, to beware {^vXu^at rivd, to guard any one), 
SovXevaaad-ac, to advise one's self {f3ov2,evaai rtvc, to advise any one), yevaaa^ai, 
to taste (Act., to cause to taste) ; on the contrary, most verbs of this kind have 
then- Aor. with a passive form, but have the future in the middle fonn; e. g. 
■ivaiivria-d-rjvaL, avaiJ.vriusG'&aL, to remind one's self to remember, recordari (uva/xvy- 
lai TLva, to remind any one), alaxvv&rjvac, alaxwsia^aL, to be ashamed {alaxvvat 
TLva, to make ashamed), ^o,37]i3-7}vai, (pofSijaea^aL, to fear {<>oftfiaai nva, to moJce 
'if aid, terrere), liopev&rivaL, -rtopevaeo^aL, to go, profcisd {TTopevacu riva, to cause 
me to go, to convey one), 'n£paLO)-&?/vaL, TTSpaiuaea-d-ac {K0Ta/j.6v), to pass over, (tts- 
^acioaac rtva, to cause to pass over, trajicere), 'nT.ayx&'nvai, TtAayEea^at, to wander 
'iibout, circumvagari {7r?My^at tlvu, to cause to wander), avLa'&rivai, uvtaaEcr&ai, to 
\ifflict one's self, to be grieved {avtuaac rtva, to afflict any me) ; also dLalv&Tivai, 
kaKpcd-ijvac, to separate one's self discedere, a^allayrivai, abire, KoijLi7j-&?jvai, to 
■leep, (f)avrivaL, apiparere, -Kayrjvat, to congeal, ETrap^rivaL, to raise ones self and 
nany others. 

(b) In the second place, the middle form denotes an action which 
[he subject performs on an object belonging to itself, on one con- 
nected v/ith itself or standing in an intimate relation with it. In 
English, we commonly use here either a possessive pronoun or a 
)reposition with a personal pronoun ; e. g. tvTTTOfAai, itv\pdf.iriv tijv 
:8rpal]]v, I strike, struck my head {tvntuv x., to strike the head of 
),nother), lomaod-ai tovg Tiodag, to wash one's own feet Q.ovaiv t. n., 
b wash the feet of another), dnoKQVipaad-ai ta iavtov, to conceal 
me's own of airs ; xata6tQ8\paa{>ai. yjjv, siU suhjicere terram, to sub- 
ugate land for one's self, dvaQtyaaa&ai tiva, siU devincire, to make 
dependent on one's lelf dTtolvaac&al tiva, to loosen for one's self, to 
edeem, noQiGaad-al ti, sihi aliquid comparare, to procure for o?ie's 
elf {TTOQiteiv tl tivi, alii aliquid comparare, to procure something 
or another), Htriaaa'&al ti, TzaQaaxsvaGaG-d-ai ti, sihi comparare, to 

196 SYNTAX. — CLASSES OF VERBS. [§ 150. 

acquire, prepare for one's self; dfivvaij'&ai rovg TToXsfiiovg, propuU 
save a se hostes, to keep off the enemy from one's self aTzcoGao&ai 
na-AOL, a se propulsare mala. This use of the middle is much the 
most frequent. 

Rem. 2. As the active can be used, when the subject does not itself perfonn 
an action, but causes it to be done by another, e. g. 'AXe^avSpog ti]v lioktv kc- 
reoKafev, caused the city to be destroyed, so also can the middle be used to express 
the same idea, yet with this diiFerence, that with the middle the action always 
refers in some way to the subject : e. g. 6 -narrip rovg -naldag kdcSa^aro, which 
either signifies, the father educated his own children, or, if it is clear from the con- 
text, he caused them to he educated; Kcipacd-ai, to shave one's self or to get one's self 
shaved; 'Apyelot eavruv eiKovag -rr o it] a a /xsv o l uvi'&eaav eig Ae?i<povg. Ha- 
pad-eoT^at rpaire^av, to set a table before one's self or have it set before one's self. 

Rem. 3. The middle form is often used to express reciirrocal actions (see § 149, 
Rem. 1). This is particularly the case with verbs signifying to contend., vie with, 
converse with, embrace, salute, to make an agreement or compact ; e. g. fiaxea^ai, to 
fight with, uutA?iuad-ai, to contend with, aycovil^eo'&aL, to strive, dia7ieyEG'&aL, to con- 
verse vnth, uGTia^eiy&ai, to salute, ravra uvvTid-ec&ai, mutually to agree on these 
points, GTzovdug a7rivSEa-&ai or noiela-d-aL, to make a treaty {o'lzovdag tcoleZv signi- 
fying to make a libation). So also, whei-e the action is not strictly reciprocal, but 
where the idea expressed by the vei'b necessarily supposes two persons or two 
parties, as in questions and answers; e. g. ■7rvvd-tt.vea-&aL and epeo'&ai, to inquire, 
aTTOKpivea-^aL and dTTafietj3Ea-&ai, to answer, avjHj3ov?.eve(7-&ai., to consult with one, 
ask his advice, and uvaKoivova-&ai, to consult one {uvaKOLvovv being especially used 
of consulting oracles). 

4. From the reflexive signification of the middle, the passive is 
derived. Here the subject permits the action to be performed by 
another upon itself. Hence the subject of a passive verb always 
appears as the receiver of an action ; e. g. fA-aGTiyov^iai, ^yf.uoviiai 
(vTio tivog), I receive hlows, punishment, Ilet myself he struch, pun- 
ished = I am struck, punished {hy some one) ; ^Xdjizo^ai, ddixovpiai, 
I suffer injury, injustice; 8iddoY.0(-iai, I let myself he instructed, I 
receive instruction, I learn, hence vtto 7ivog, from some one = do- 
ceor ah aliquo ; nd&oiiai, I persuade myself or I permit myself to 
he persuaded, vtzo rivog, hy some one = I am persuaded. 

5. For two tenses, however, viz. the Fut. and Aor., there are , 
separate forms to express a passive action ; yet the Aor. Pass, (see ' 
Rem. 2,) of many reflexive and intransitive verbs, is used instead i 
of the middle ; all the other tenses are expressed by the middle 
form. Hence the rule : the Fut. and Aor. Mid. have a reflexive or \ 
intransitive signification, not passive, inasmuch as there are sepa- 
rate forms for the Fut. and Aor. Pass. ; all the other tenses of the 
middle are used at the same time to denote the passive also. j 


Eem. 4. The cause or author of the passive condition or state, is expressed by 
the preposition vtto Avith the Gen. ; e. g. Oi arpaTicJTai vTrb t Cjv tt oae n'tov 
edtux'&V'^o.'^} the soldiers were pursued by the enemy. Instead of vtto, tt p6c with 
the Gen. is used, when at the same time the strong and direct influence of a 
person, is to be denoted; e. g. uTt/mi^eo-dac, adcKdc-dat rrpur rivoe; ; also -nap a 
with the Gen. is used, when tlic author is, at the same time, to be represented as 
the person from whose vicinity or neighborhood, or through whose means in- 
ternal or external the action has come ; hence especially with 'Ki[j.TTec-&at,, 6l6o- 
c&ai, 0)(j)£?ielG-d-aL, avXAeyea'&ai, T^eyea&aL, crj/iaivea'&ai., kTndeiKvvcf&ac {demon- 
strari) ; e. g. 'O ayy£7iog eiiefi^-d-T] irapu /Sac^Aewf , was sent from bein^ near the 
Icing, by the king. 'H fieyiaTrj evrvxio. tovtc) rcj avdpl irapu -QeCov dtdorai. noA- 
Ad XpvudTa Kvp(j irapa tuv (piTiuv GvveiXeyfjteva rjv. 

6. It is a peculiarity of the Greek, that not merely the active of 
transitive verbs governing an accusative, may be changed into the 
personal passive, but also the active of intransitive verbs governing 
the Dat. or Gen. 

^■& ovov iiaL VTTO Ttvoc, I am envied by some 0J2e, invidetur viihi ab aliquo (from 
(pd-ovelv Tivi, invidere alicui). Uiarevofiai, utt carov fj.a t vtto rivog, credi- 
tur, non creditur mihi ab aliquo (from TacTevetv, atnGTelv tlvl), Kat h-Kifiovlev- 
ovreg, Kal eTTilSovTiSvo/ievot dia^ovac iravra tov xpovov (from eTnjSovltveiv 
TLvi). 'AaKELTac TO del TifLCOfj,€vov, dju el ecT ai ds to aTifxa^ofievov (from dfze- 

%£LV TlVOg). So dpXO [, KpUTOVfLUC, KttTacj) pOV OV fiat VTTO TLVOg 

(from upxEiv, KpuTelv, KaTa^povelv Tivog). 

Rem. 5. Deponents (§ 118, Rem.) are merely verbs, which have only the 
middle form, and a reflexive or intransitive signification. 

LXXIX. Exercises on §§ 149, 150. 

Cyrus, (as he was) riding by, cried out to Clearjchus, to lead the army against 
{KaTa, w. ace.) the centre of the enemy. The river Acheron, which (part.) flows 
through Thesprotia, falls into the Acherusian lake. Cyms died fighting very 
bravely (aor.). The general commanded the soldiers to go forward, until they 
should engage {opt. aor.) with Cyrus. In the third year of the Peloponnesian 
war, Lesbos revolted from the Athenians. The Athenians say that {ace. lo. inf.) 
the first men were born in (= out of) Attica. When the soldiers slept, the 
general was awake. Nothing among men, neither good nor evil, has a (§ 148, 
9, b) steadfast order. The wicked are pale from anxiety, and lean (^ diied up) 
in body. Antisthenes prided himself, that {part.) he always showed his garment 
torn. Troy was taken by the Greeks. Some came, after {aor. part.) they had 
exercised and anointed themselves, others, after they had bathed. Beware of 
the flatterer. Abstain fi-om intercourse with bad men. The youths had adorn- 
ed themselves with garlands. The Sphinx flung herself from the height. Ajax 
killed himself in a fit of madness {aor. paH.). Those whom {ot dv, w. subj.) men 
fear {aor.) very much, they cannot look in the face, even if they encourage 
(them).=^ Xerxes, after the sea-fight at {■Kepi, w. ace.) Salamis, departed {aor.) 

* ov8e Tzapafiv&ovfievoLQ dvTi(3XE7reiv. 


198 SYNTAX. TENSES AND MODES. [§§ 151, 152. 

vnih a part of his force from Europe. The soldiers sepai'ated. Agesilaus tra- 
velled (aoi-.) from Sparta into Asia. Ulysses wandered about (aor.), ten years. 
Ninus. the king of the Assyrians, collected (am:) a respectable army, and made 
(for himself) an alliance with (Trpof, w. ace.) Ariaeus, the king of the Arabians. 
The combatants anointed (aor.) their bodies with oil. AVhat thou hast not ((i^) 
laid up {aoi\ mid.)^ take not. When Alexander took [aor.) the city of the The- 
bans, he sold [aor.) all the freemen. The Plataeans repelled the attacks of the 
Thebans, wherever they met [opt.) (them). Fair is the man, who {part.) has 
adorned his mind with culture. Beside necessary evils, men themselves provide 
themselves yet others. The soldiers held [aor.) their shields before them. Al- 
ways lay up for thyself travelling-money for [elg) old age. If {part.) thou hast 
acquired reflection, thou wilt neither strive after riches, nor reproach poverty. 
Intelligent parents have their children educated. Darius caused a stone monu- 
ment to be made {part, aor.), and erected it {aor.). If we keep off {part.) the 
enemy, we shall possess the city free and little exposed {pres.) to stratagems. 
A government that {part.) has been neglected {aor.) and begun to degenerate 
(taken a transition to [eivi, iv. ace] the bad), is hard to restore again. Hate 
flatterers {part.) as deceivers {part.) ; for both injure those who trust them {aor.). 
It is burdensome to be governed by a bad man. 

§151. Tenses and llodes, 

1. Tenses denote the time of the predicate, which is represented 
either as present, future or past ; e. g. the rose blooms, will bloom, 

2. Modes denote the manner of representing the aflfirmation con- 
tained in the predicate ; i. e. the relation of the subject to the pre- 
dicate is represented either as an actual fact, as a conception, or as 
a direct expression of the will. The mode which expresses a fact, 
e. g. the rose blooms, is called the Indicative ; that which denotes a 
conception, e. g. the rose may bloom, the Subjunctive; the mode 
which denotes the direct expression of the will, the Imperative, e. g. 

§ 152. A. More P articular View of the Tenses. 

1. The tenses may be divided, in accordance with their form and 
meaning, into two classes, namely, (a) into Principal tenses, which, 
both in the Ind. and Subj., always indicate something present or fu- 
ture ; — (b) into Historical tenses, which, in the Ind. always denote 
something past, in the Subj. (Optative), sometimes that which is 
past, and sometimes that which is present or future. 

2. The Principal tenses are the following : 

(a) The Present, (a) Indicative, e. g. ypacpofisv, scribimus ; {(3) Subjimctive, 
9. g. ypd<j>(i)[ieVf saibamus; 


§ lo2.] SYNTAX. TENSES. 199 

(b) The Perfect, (a) Indicative, e. g. yeypiKpafiev, scripsimus ; {(3) Subjunctive, 
e. g. yeypa(pG)iiev, scripserivius ; 

(c) The Future, Indicative, e. g. yfmi{jo/iiev, scribemiis, tue shall write; 

(d) The Future Perfect, Indicative, e. g. (3£(3ov?iev(TOfia[,, I sJuiU have advised 
myself, I shall deliberate, I shall be advised. 

3. The Historical tenses are the following ; 

(a) The Aorist, (a) Indicative, e. g. eypaipa, I ivrote; (/?) Optative, c. g. ypa- 
Tpatfit, I might urite, or I might have toritteii ; 

(b) The Imperfect, (a) Indicative, e. g. eypacpov, scribebam; (/3) Optative, e. j^. 
ypd(poip.i, scrib&'em; 

(c) The Pluperfect, (a) Indicative, e. g. eyeypacpecv, scripseram ; {ft) Optative, 
e. g. yeypcKpoi/ic, scripsissem ; 

(d) The Optative of the simple Future, e. g. ypatpotfxi, I icould tirite, and of 
the Fut. Perf., e. g. fteftovlevcoinrjv, I should have deliberated, or have hem 
advised; e. g. 6 uyyeT^og eXeyev, on ol ttoIejilol v lktjco lev, the messen- 
ger said, that the enemy would conquer ; eXeyev, otc Travra vtzo tov aTparj)- 
yov ev fteftov?t,ev(joiro, he said that everything would be well planned by 
the general. 

4. The present indicative represents the action in the time pre- 
sent to the speaker. The present is often used in the narration of 
past events, since in a vivid representation, what is past is viewed as 
present. This is called the Historical Present. 

Tavrijv r^v racppov ftaai^ieig [leyag it o Lei dvri epv/uarog, ETreid?} Trvv&d- 
V erac Kvpov TrpogeXavvovra. TIv rig Upiafiiddv vecorarog Ilo2,v6upog, 'Em- 
ftjjg Ttalg, bv e/c Tpoiag kfxol Tzarrjp 616 a a t Ilpcafj.og ev 66fi.ocg rpsipEcv. 

Eem. 1. The present elfii {to go) with its compounds, has a future signifi- 
cation, in the Ind. and Subj., I shall go; the Inf. and present Part, have both a 
present and futui'e signification : e. g. ovk Ev'd-bg d<p7] uu avrbv ov6' airs Cfic 
{abibo), d?JJ h pij go jxaL avrbv Kal k^Efacu Kal e/ley^w. Comp. § 137, 
Rem. 3. — lOcxofiac and tjko with present forms, are often translated in 
English by perfects, namely, olxo/xac, I have departed, and 7/ ku, I have come; 
jet oixofiac, properly means, lam gone, and tj ku, I am here {adsum) ; e. g. 
M^ Ivirov, ore 'Apdcnrag olx £t ci,i elg rovg TroXefitovg, tJiat A. is gone { = trans- 
fugit) to the enemy. TLko) vsKpcJv Ksv&p.cJva Kal ukotov 'Kv7iag Xcttuv. 'T/ieZc 
HoXig d<pLKvelcr&E, otzol ijfiElg irdXai y ko ftev (have come). 

5. The perfect indicative represents a past action in time present 
to the speaker. The action appears as one completed in time pre- 
sent to the speaker. 

T£ypa(j)a rrjv etzlgtoItjv, I have loritten a letter, the letter is now written, it being 
immaterial whether it was written just now or a long time ago ; ^ "noXig ektic- 
rac, the city is now built, noio stands there built. 

Rem. 2. Many Greek perfects are translated into English by the present 
tense ; in this case a condition or state occasioned by the completion of the action 
is denoted ; e. g. 6E6£fiai {I have been bound), lam now in a bound state, am bound; 


200 SYNTAX. — TENSES. [§ 152. 

re^vrjua [Ihave died), lam dead; -iretpTiva [I have shmvn myself), I appear, ol6a, 
3wvi {Ihave seen), I know, ri^n^a [I have bloomed), I am Uooming, 7re7roi-&a {Ihave 
convinced or persuaded myself), I trust, ^s^rjK-a {Ihave stepped out), I go, fxe/xvv^ai, 
memini {Ihave reminded myself), lam mindful, KeKrrifiai {Ihave acquired for my- 
self) I possess, K£K?i,7] {I have been called), I am called, and many others. 
Where the perfect is translated by a present, the Pkip. is translated by an Imp. ; 
e. g. h-£(pf]veiv, I appeared. 

6. The future indicative denotes an action as future in relation to 
the present time of the speaker. The Greeks very often use the 
Fut. Ind. in subordinate clauses, even after an Historical tense, to 
express that which should, must or may he, where the Latin employs 
the Subj. ; the other forms of the Fut., pai'ticularly the Part., are 
also so used. 

Noyuouf virdp^at Set toiovtovc, di' 0)v rolg fiev aya-&olg evrifiog koI eXev'&epoc 
6 j3iog 'KapaaKeva(jd-f]aeTaL {might be obtained), rolg dh KaKolg raTreivog re 
Kttl uTiyetvbg Kal afSiorog 6 aldv eTtavaKeiaerat. 'Hyef/.ovag eXajSov ol 
arpartcoTai, ol avrovg a^ovaiv {should lead), ev&ev l^ovG l {might obtain) rd 

7. The future perfect indicative represents the action as past 
(completed) in the future, in relation to the present time of the 

Kat Tolg KaKolg /xefii^eTac scr&Xu, the good shall have been viixed vnth evil. 
'H 7ro?UTeta reHug neKocpTjceraL, eav b roiovrog avrjjv kizLaKOTzy ^vla^ 6 
rovTuv kTtLGTTJfiuv. The Eut. Perf. of those verbs whose perfects are translated 
by the present (see Rem. 2), must then be translated by the simple future; e. g. 
UEjxvr]Gouai, meminero {1 shall have reminded myself), I shall be mindful. 

Eem. 3. The Put. Perf. is used in Greek, only in principal clauses, and in 
subordinate clauses introduced by ort and 6g {that). In all other subordinate 
clauses, the Subj. Aor. (more seldom the Perf.) in connection with a conjunc- 
tion compounded of av, e. g. kdv, ettuv, erceLdav, orav, Tvptv av, egr' dv, bg uv, 
etc., is used instead of tlie Put. Perf. ; e. g. edv tovto 2,E^yg, si hoc dixeris, if 
you shall have said thus. 

8. The aorist indicative expresses past time, in a wholly indefi- 
nite manner, without any additional relation ; e. g. 'iyqaxpa, I wrote, 
KvQog noXXa S'&vt] ivixyeev. It thus stands in contrast with the 
other tenses which express past time ; still, since it indicates past 
time indefinitely, it may be used instead of either of these tenses. 

9. The imperfect indicative represents an action as past, but al- 
ways in relation to another past time. 

'Ev cj Gv eiz ai^eg, eyu ey pa<pov, while you were playing, I was writing. 
'Ore kyyi)g Tjcrav ol ^dplSapot, ol "EXkrjveg kfiaxovro, when the barbarians 
vxre near, the G. fought. "Ore ol (idp^apoi £'!TE?i7j2,v'^eaav (or kiT^2,-&ov), ol T.^- 

§ 152.] SYNTAX. — TENSES. 201 

Tii^veg efiaxovT 0. Tore (or tv ravry ry /luxv) o^ 'EZAjyvff -Qafylxi- 
AecJrara e ua ^ov t o. 

Rem. 4. The Impf. Ind. is also used to denote, — (a) the heginmng of an ac- 
tion, e. g. etzeI kyyvg eyevovro l^aTrivTjg, ol tikv avrcjv k t 6 ^ ev )v, some of them 
hegan to shoot their airoivs ; — (b) tho, continuance^ (i. q. ol /uv ETTOpEvovTo, ol 
6' e t IT V T 0, one patiy continued their march, the other continued to pursue ; — (c) 
habit or custom, e. g. avruv olizep Trpoc&ev tt p o g e kvv ovv, kuI Tore Trpof e/ct- 
vrjaav, those who were before accustomed to do obeisance to him, did it then also ; — 
(d) endeavor or attempt, e. g. irpurog K?Japxor rovr avrov arpanuTag I (3 c u^e t o 
ievai, Clearchus endeavored to compel his soldiers to advance. 

10. Hence the Aor. Ind. is used in historical narration, in order 
to indicate the principal events, while the Impf. is used to denote 
the accompanying circumstances. The Aor. narrates, the Impf. de- 
scribes and paints ; the Aor. denotes a single, momentary action, the 
Impf. a continued action. 

'Yovq T^eXraGTaq k 6 e ^ av t o ol jBapjiapoL kol k pu-xo v t o' eirei 6' kyyvg 
7] a av ol o-uJCiTai, et p utt ov r o • kol ol TceXTaaTal EV'&vg eItt ov r o. 'O 6e 
KMapxoc krapax'&V '<^o.c t(^o(i eIt o, and C. ivas terrified (a single, momen- 
tary act) and feared (continued act). 

E.EM. 5. The Aor. Ind. is often used in general propositions, which express a 
fact bon-owed from experience ; the verb is then translated by an English Pres. 
or by is wont or is accustomed, wdth the Inf ;.e. g. 'KdTJiog ?} XP^'^^^ uv a7.u)G ev, ff 
voaog £ pap av ev, either time destroys {is wont to destroy) or disease impairs beauty. 

11. The pluperfect represents an action as completed before an- 
other past action. 

'^TTELdri ol "'EJikrjveg e tt e2,7j2,v^ e a av (had come), ol iroMpcoc aTTETVEcpev- 
yeaav {had fed). 'Ore ol cvppaxot efrXrjGia^ov, ol '' A.-&r]valoL rovg lUpoag 
kvEVtK7]K£aav. '^yEypd^ELv rrjv £7riGTo?u^v (sc. when the friend came). 

Kem. 6. It is to be noticed, that where the relation of one past time to another 
is readily seen from the connection, and no special emphasis belongs to it, the 
Greeks commonly use the Aor. instead of the Plup. ; e. g. etteiStj ol "'E?AT}VEg 
k7r?iX'&ov, ol TTo/Jpioi u7rE7rE(j)£vyEaav. Indeed, the Aor. is often used instead 
of the Perf even, when the relation of the past to the present does not require 
to be particularly indicated. 

12. As the Aor. Ind. expresses a past action as independent and 
completed, and as the Impf. Ind., on the contrary, represents an ac- 
tion in its duration and pi'ogress, (since it always refers to a past ac- 
tion which is related to another past action, being used in descrip- 
tion and delineation,) so the subordinate modes of the Aor., viz. the 
Subj., Opt. and Imp., together with the Aor. Inf. and Part., are 
used when the action is represented by itself, as completed ; on the 
contrary, the subordinate modes of the Pres., together with the 

202 SYNTAX. TENSES. [§ 152, 

Pres. Inf. and Part., and also the Opt. Impf., are used, when the 
speaker would describe an action in its duration and progress. In 
this manner the following forms stand contrasted : 

(a) The Aor. Subj. and the Pres. Subj. ; e.g.^vyuiiev and (l>evyuix£v, 
let us fly ; Aeyu, Iva [j,dd-i)g and Iva [j,av& avri^, that you may learn ; 

(b) The Aor. Imp. and the Pres. Imp.; e. g. (l>vye and ^evye, fly; dog 
and 6l6ov fioi to (^l^Hov, give; 

(c) The Aor. Inf. and the Pres. Inf. ; e. g. Me'Acj tpvyelv a.nd (p evy e lv, I 
wish to fly ; keIsvu as Sovv ac and 6 id 6v at /u-ol to (3tj3?iiov ; but the 
Aor. Inf can also denote a past time and take the place of the Perf Inf., 
when the relation to the finite verb does not require to be particularly in- 
dicated ; e. g. i'jyyeLle Tovg TroXefilovg u7ro(pvy elv and airoTze^ev- 
y sv ac, nuntiavit hostes fagisse ; 

(d) The Aor. Opt. and the Impf Opt. ; e. g. sleyov, Iva fiad-oig and Iva 
f/,av&avocc, that thou mayest learn, tit disceres ; eWs tovto yivocTO 
and yiyvocTo, that this might Jiappen ! The Aor. Opt. can also take 
the place of the Plup. Opt., when the relation to another past action does 
not require to be particularly indicated; e. g. ijyyei^iev, otc, kTveid?} ol 
'T.X?inveg £7re?i-&oc£v {had come), ol (3ap(3apot rjdrj airo^vyoiev 
[had already fled). 

The Aor. Part, always denotes past time, and hence stands in contrast with 
the Perf. Part., since the former describes an action as absolutely past, while 
the latter, at the same time, represents it in relation to the finite verb ; e. g. ol 
avTouoTiOL riyyeilav Tovg 7ro?i,eftiovg dTTO(l>vy ovTag and d'noiTe(l>evy6Tag. 

LXXX. Exercises on § 152. 

After Darius was dead and Artaxerxes had ascended (aor.) the throne, Tis- 
saphenies traduced Cyi'us to {Trpog, tv. ace.) his brother, (asserting) that he was 
plotting against him {opt.). The latter (6) credits it (= is persuaded) and ap- 
prehends Cyrus, intending to put him to death {ug, w.fut. part.) ; but his mother 
by entreaty gains Ms release (= having begged him off for herself, aor.) and 
sends him again to his government. Hector, whither has gone the courage, that 
thou once hadst 1 Be not troubled that Araspas has gone over to the enemy. 
In good time* art thou come. Themistocles wrote: (I,) Themistocles, have 
come to thee. If any one does not know himself, and believes he has come to 
a knowledge of that Avhich he does not truly know, he is a fool. The messen- 
gers from Sinope said: We ai-e come to {part, fat.) congratulate you, war- 
riors, that ye have been delivered, as we have heard, through {Sid, lo. gen.) many 
dangers. Under {em, to. gen.) Cecrops and the first kings, until {elg) Theseus. 
Attica was always inhabited by cities. God has carefully regulated eveiything 
in the world. The dwellings in Memphis have remained until (/^Q'PO niodern 
times. QEnoe, which lies (=is) on the borders of Attica and Boeotia, had 
been fortified. Zeno scourged a slave for {Erri, iv. dat.) theft; upon his saying 

=* elg KaXov. 

§ 153.J SYNTAX. — MODES. 203 

(gen. ahs.) : " It was fated for me to steal," Zeno said : " To be flayed too (aor.),** 
The world is a stage, life a passage across (that stage) ; thou earnest, thou saw- 
est, thou wentest away. Xerxes threw a bridge over the Hellespont and dug 
through Athos. Destiny casts down what {ol dv, w. subj.) it has exalted {aor.). 
Even the worst (man) acquires riches easily. Inactivity teaches a great deal of 
vice. Commanding is easier than doing. Cyrus called (part.) Araspas, a Mede, 
who had been a comrade of his (= to him) from youth (t/c ttaidor)^ and bade 
him guard for liim the wife of Abradatas, the Susian, and the tent, until he himi- 
self should take (them) in charge. The people resolved to choose thirty men, 
who should draw up the laws of the country, in accordance with which 
{Kara, lu. ace.) they should administer the government. Every where, in Greece 
the usage prevails, that the citizens swear {ace. w. inf.) to be united [fut.). The 
soldiers hoped to take the city. I believe, that those, who (§ 148, 6) practise 
wisdom, and believe (themselves) to be competent to teach the citizens that 
which is useful, by no means become violent. Say what I must do, and it shall 
be done. It (= this) is very beautifully said and ever will be (= remain) said, 
that the useful is beautiful, the hurtful odious. Tyi-ants will acquire nothing 
valuable. Noble men we shall ever remember. 

§ 153. B. Mo re P articular View of the Mo des. 

1. The three following modes are to be distinguished, viz. the 
Indicative, Subjunctive (Optative) and Imperative (§ 151, 2). 

a. The Indicative expresses a fact or phenomenon, asserts some- 
thing directly ; e. g. to Qodov '& dXXei — o TtatTjQ y sy q a(j) s riiv 
Iniatoljriv — ol TZolBfiioi an e cpvy ov — ol nolirai tovg 7toXs[iiovg 
V lyiriG ov 6 LV. 

b. The Subjunctive denotes a conception. The Subj. of the his- 
torical tenses is called the Optative in Greek (§ 73, II.). 

(a) The Subj. of the principal tenses, i. e. of the Pres. and Perf., 
and also the Subj. Aor., in Greek always represents the conception 
as something future. The Subj. of the principal tenses is used in 
principal clauses : (1) in the first Pers. Sing, and PL to express an 
exhortation or admonition ; (2) in the second Pers. Sing, and PI. 
of the Aor. (not Pres.) with ^iri to express a prohibition ; (3) in 
doubtful questions ; in principal clauses, however, almost exclusively 
in the first Pers. Sing, and PL, but in subordinate clauses, it may 
be in any of the different persons. 

'lujiev, eamus, let us go- M7 luftev, lei us not go. M7 (po^rj'&yg, ne metuas, do 

not fear. Tc tvolui.lev ; what shall toe do"? In subordinate clauses, Ovk exo), ottoi 

rpairauac, non habeo, quo me vertam, I do not Jcnoio ivhere to go. Ovk ex^i, ottoi 
TpdTTTjrai, he does not know where to go. 

(fi) The Subj. of the historical tenses, viz. the Opt. of the Aor., 

20i SYNTAX. — ^MODES. [§ 153. 

Impf. and Plup. as well as the Opt. of the Fut. (§ 152, 3, d), repre- 
sent what is conceived either as past, present or future. The Opt. 
denotes a present or future, only in conditional clauses, and in such 
elliptical clauses as arise from them ; e. g. ei ri axoig, doitjg ci v, 
if you had anything, you would give it. Both the condition eiri 
iyoig, and the consequence 8 o lt] g av, are here represented as a 
present, mostly a future uncertainty, an undetermined possibility, a 
mere supposition, admission or conjecture (Comp. § 185). This 
form of Xhe conditional clause, viz. s i with the Opt., may express a 
wish, the concluding clause connected with it, being understood ; e. g. 
€t Tovto y iv oiz o! if this shoidd happen (then I would be happy, 
^tvyjig civ enjv), == that this might happen/ Instead of the sim> 
pie el, the stronger at ^ s, el y uq, that, is then commonly used; 
e. g. sl'-d- s (a I y ag) Ifiol 'dsol zavzijv zijv dvvafiiv tz aga-d'aisvl 
that the gods would give me such power/ Very frequently the 
concluding clause is used elliptically, the condition connected with 
it being understood ; e. g. ijdscog av axovoaifii, I would gladly 
hear (if it were possible, si i^siTj). Comp. No. 2, c. "With the 
exception of the instances here mentioned, the Opt. generally refers 
to the past. 

Ee3I. 1. When a wish is to be represented as one which the speaker knows 
cannot be realized, the Ind. of the historical tenses is used ; e. g. eWe tovto 
kyiyvero! that this might he {were) done! el^e tovto ky iv eto! that 
this had been done ! 

c. The Imp. denotes the immediate expression of one's will ; e. g. 
hog and d id ov ^oi io §i§Xiov, give ; y q aifj at co and y qacp it co 
111V im^toXi^v, scnhito, let him write. 

Rem. 2. The difference between the Pres. and Aor. Imp., is, that the Pres. 
generally denotes a continued, oft-repeated action, while the Aor. denotes a single^ 
instantaneous action : e. g. tt ei-d-ov Tolg aocpuTipoig, obey those wiser than yourself, 
a direction to be observed at all times ; av aT s LvaTu ttjv x^^P^> l^ l^i^- raise 
his hand, (Slt^ov etc to, bpr], look upon the mountains, single, instantaneous 
acts. So uKovaov, uKovaaTe, le^ov, M^aTe. Comp. § 152, 12, b. — The Perf 
Imp., which is of rare occurrence, is used to indicate that the consequences of 
the action are to remain or be permanent ; e. g. KeK'Xeia'&td 7} ■&vpa, let the door he 
shut (and remain shut). It will be evident, therefore, that neither the Aor. nor 
Perf. Imp., expresses any relation of past time, as the Ind. of these tenses does, 
but only such modifications of action as are stated above. 
. Rem. 3. In negative or prohibitive expressions with ft rj {ne), the Greek com- 
monly uses only the Pres. Imp., not the Aor. Imp., but instead of it, the Aor. 
Subj. ; e. g. fi^ ypa<pe (but not //^ ypd^^f ) or fi^ ypaipyc, do not torite (btit not 
f*^ ypd-ipov). 

§ 153.] SYNTAX. — MODAL ADVERB av. 205 

Remarks on tub Modal Adverb uv . 
2. The. discussion of the modal adverb av m intimately connected 
with the treatment of the modes. This adverb is used to show the 
relation of the conditioned expression to the conditioning one, inas- 
much as it indicates that the predicate of the sentence to which it 
belongs, is conditioned by another thought. A complete view of 
the use of av cannot be presented until conditional sentences are 
treated of (§ 185) ; for the present, the following remarks on its 
construction will be sufficient. It is connected : 

a. With the Ind. of the historical tenses, viz. the Impf., Plup. 
and Aor., 

(a) To indicate that something could take place under a certain 
condition, but did not, because the condition was not fulfilled. 

Ei TovTo Di^eyeg, ijfiupTaveg av, si hoc diceres, eirares, if you said this, you were 
wrong {hut now I know you did not say it, consequently you did not do wrong). 'El 
TOVTO eXe^ag, rjiiapTeg uv, si hoc diocisses, errasses ; at hoc non dixisti, ergo non er- 
rasti (the Aor. here takes the place of the Plup.) ; or without a protasis, e. g. 
kxaprjg av, laetareris or laetatus fuisses (sc. si hoc vidisses). 

(|3) To indicate that an action took place (was repeated) in cer- 
tain cases or under certain circumstances. The historical 
tense of the principal clause is then usually an Imperfect. 

Ei Tif rw 2(j/cpar£i irepi rov avr cTieyo i, krcl Trjv vno'&eaiv err avjjyev 
uv TvdvTa Tov "kbyov, if any one contradicted Soa-ates, he would (he was aocus- 
iomed to) carry hack tJie whole argument to the original proposition (i. e. he would do 
this as often as any one contradicted). 

Bem. 3. 'Av is not used with the Ind. of the principal tenses. 

b. With the Subj., in order to represent the conceived future 
event, which is naturally expressed by the Greek Subj. [No. 1, b. 
(a)], as conditional, and dependent on circumstances. Li the Com- 
mon Language, this usage occurs only in subordinate clauses, the 
modal adverb then standing in close connection with the conjunction 
of the subordinate clause, or combining with it and forming one 
word. In this manner originate idv (from si av), otav (from ozs 
av), onorav (from onote av), TtQiv av, od^i av, ov av, onov av, oi av, 
07101 av, y av, onrj av, odsv av, onod^&v av, etc., oq av {quicunque or 
si quis), oiog av, oTtoTog av, oaog av, onoaog av, and others. 

c. With the Opt. (very seldom with the Fut. Opt.), to represent 
a present or future uncertainty, undetermined possibility, a mere 
supposition, admission or conception, as conditional. The Opt. with 
av must always be considered as the principal clause of a conditional 


206 SYNTAX. MODAL ADVERB (IV. [§ 153. 

proposition, even if the condition belonging to it, is not expressed 
[No. 1, b. (^)]. 

Ei rovTo ?Jjoic, a/j-apravoig uv. Without a protasis, e. g. X^'i-P'^'-? ^tv, you 
might, could, would rejoice {if you heard this). Tevoir' av ttuv ev t€) fiaicpu) xpovip, 
all might, could happen. AsyoLg av, you might speak (sc. si tibi placuerit). The 
Opt. with av is very frequently used, when the speaker wishes to state a strong 
affirmation modestly. 

d. With the Inf. and Part, (very seldom with the Fut. Inf. and 
Part.), when the finite verb, used in the place of the Inf. and Part., 
would be connected with dv. 

'El Tt elxev, e(j)T], 6 ovv a t av, if he had anything, he said he would give it 
(oratio recta, el n elxov, e6tJKa av, if I had anything, I would give it). El n exoi, 
e(pT], 6 ovv at av (oratio recta, el tl exot/ia, Soir^v uv). A^Aof sld/zapravuv 
av, el rovTO liyoig (= 6fj2.6v kanv, on dfiapravoLg uv, el rovro Myoig). 

Eem. 4. As av represents the predicate as conditional, it ought properly to be 
joined with the predicate, e. g. Myoi[j.c uv, D.syov uv ; yet it commonly follows 
that member of a sentence which is to be made emphatic, e. g. koc ovk ocec a a- 
XV f^ov av davelcr&ai to tov ^uKparovg 7rpdy/j.a. Hence it is regularly joined 
to such words as change the idea of the sentence, yiz., to negative adverbs and 
interrogatives 5 e. g. ovk dv, ovd' av, ovtvot' dv, ovdeTror' dv, etc. — ric dv, tl uv, 
TL 6' dv, TL drj-r" dv, Tvug dv, Trwf yap dv, dp'' dv, etc. ; — also to adverbs of place, 
time, modality and other adverbs, which, in various ways modify the expression 
contained in the predicate and define it more exactly ; e. g. evTuvd-a dv, tot" dv, 
elKOTog dv, Icrug dv, tclx^ dv, iiakLOT'' dv, riKiaT'' dv, ^adloiq uv, r/decog dv, etc. 
Hence it happens that dv is sometimes repeated in the same sentence. 

LXXXI. Exercises on § 153. 
Let us shun the unseemly, and aspire after the beautiful. Let us pray (aor.) 
the Gods to guide the present (enterprise) to the most honorable issue. Let us 
not yield to the enemy. How shall I, who am [paH.) mortal, contend with di- 
vine destiny'? Tell me, whether [TtoTepov) we shall say that Socrates in his 
conversations speaks seriously or jests (= call S. speaking seriously or jesting). 
When Hercules was at a loss, which of two {ortoTepog, w. gen.) ways to {em, w. 
a^c.) life he should enter (= turn himself), there appeared two majestic women. 
One, running to him {aor.), spoke thus : I see, Hercules, thou art at a loss 
(= thee at a loss) which way to life thou shouldst enter. If {eav, w. suhj.) there- 
fore thou wilt make me a Mend {fern,.), I will lead thee to the pleasantest and 
easiest way. Gods, that ye might avert danger from us. O that the triad 
of the Graces (Xaptref) might ever assist {aor.) me. that I might ever asso- 
ciate Avith the wise and good, and never have intercourse with {gen.) the bad. 
if I could have lived with you then, when you were still a youth. If I were 
(but) able to make what is done {part.) undone ! Tight bravely, soldiers. Strive 
after Adrtue, young men. The temple-robber ought to be torn in pieces by 
wild beasts. Historians ought neither to extol anything in order to conciliate 
(Trpof, w. ace.) favor, nor omit (anything), if it is deserving of mention and re- 

^ 154.] SYNTAX. — ATTRIBUTIVES. 207 

Tnembrnnce. Judge {aor.} not contrary to [Ttapu, w. cux.) the laws. O war- 
riors, despair {aor.) not of yourselves. He who {§ 148, 6) ventures to em- 
ploy force, may need not a few allies ; hut he who can persuade, none. How 
could those who do base (deeds), become friends to those who hate such (deeds) ? 
Who without self-control could either learn or properly practise anything good ? 
With {/neru, w. gen.) a wise understanding, one may pass [mr.) life most pleas- 
antly. The bad no one can make (= place, aor.) useful. 


§ 154. Attributives . 
1. Attributives serve to explain more definitely the idea contained 
in the substantive to which they belong ; q. ^. to xalov Qodov, 6 
u sy ag Tzaig. The attributive may be : 

a. An adjective or participle, e. g. to naXov q68ov, to drd-og 
-& aXXov; 

b. A substantive in the genitive, e. g. ot tov d svd gov zaQTtoi; 

c. A substantive governed by a preposition, e. g. ij ngog r^v 
noliv odog-y 

d. An adverb, e. g. ol vvv av&QcoTZoi ; 

e. A substantive in apposition, e. g. KQotaog, 6 ^ aaiXevg. 

Rem. 1. The genitive depending on substantives, receives different names ac- 
cording to tbe relations it expresses : fa) subjective, when it takes the place of 
the subject, e. g. ol r ov S sv 6 pov KapTcoi (arising from rb 6 iv 6 pov (pepet 
Kapirovg), the fruits of the tree, i. e. which the tree producer; ra rov 'Ofirjpov ttoltj- 
fiara, the poems of Homer, i. e. which he made; — (b) objective or causative, when it 
takes the place of the object of an intransitive verb, e. g. fj t7] g cocpiag eirc- 
■& V fj. i a, the desire for ivisdom, {ETad-vjiib rrjg aocpiag, the co^/cf being the cause 
of the e'xc'dvfxia) ; evvoca rivog, good-icill toioards one {evvovg el/at tlvl) ; — (c) 
■passive, when it takes the place of the object of an active verb, and thus denotes 
the thing affected or caused by the transitive action, e. g. ^ tt] g lioleug ktl- 
ctg (from KTt^et ttjv iro/iiv), the possession of the city (the city being the thing pos- 
sessed) ; 6 TTjg eTTKTToXTJg ypacpevg, the writer of the letter; — (d) of quality, 
e. g. rb evpog rerrapuv (Tradiov; avrjp iieyaXrjg aperTjg ; — (e) of pos- 
session, e. g. rb Tov Mivcovog orpaTevfia. 

REsr. 2. Wlien the substantive which is to be more fully explained by the 
attributive, contains a general idea or one which can be easily supplied from the 
context, or, by frequent usage in a particular connection, may be supposed to 
be known, then the substantive, as it is subordinate in the idea to be expressed, 
is often omitted, and the adjective or participle commonly with the article, is 
used as a substantive. Such substantives are, e. g. avd-pu-rrog, av^p (man, hus- 
band), yvvT] {woman, wife), rrarTJp, [J-'nTr]p, vlog, Tvalg, ■&vydTrip, adel^og, Trpdyfia, 
XPVfJ-o-, epyov, xpovog, vfiepa, x<^P<^, 7V, ^^og, olda, ohog, and others. 

208 SYNTAX. APPOSITION. [§ 154-. 

01 ■&v7iToi (sc. uvd-pu-rroL), mortales. Tci 7}fj.erEpa (sc. xP^ifJ-o-Ta)^ res nostrae. 
'H vcrepaia (sc. vfLspa). 'H rrole/ila and rj (l)i?ua (sc. X"P(^), « /iOSf//e and friend- 
ly land. 'H oIkov/llevt] (sc. 7^), «Ae inkaUted earth. Tr/V Taxlor']v (sc. o^ov), 
Twam cderrime. To kukov, evil. Ta Kanct, evils. 'Me^avdpog 6 ^i?u7r7vov (so. 
vlog). 'Ev aSov (sc. oIko)) elvac. Elg di6aaKd?.ov, elg TlliiTuvog (poirav. Td. 
rijc ryxn^, fortune and all which belongs to it ; ra Trig TzoAeag, the affairs of the city ; 
Td, Tov TTo2,E/20v, the whole extent of the war. 01 vvv, 01 tote, qI izulac (sc. av- 
•&pu'7T0t). Ta oIkoc (TTpayfiaTa), res domesticae. 01 Ka'&' fjfj.dg, our contemporaries, 
01 afM^i or TZEpi Ttva, a person with his companions, followers or scholars ; ol dfi<pl 
IlEtGiaTpaTov, Pisistratus and his troops ; oi uji^l Qalrjv, Tholes and his school. 

2. "When a substantive is put in the same case with another, for 
the sake of a more exact definition, it is said to be in apposition 
with that substantive. A word may be in apposition not merely 
with a substantive, but also with a substantive pronoun ; e. g. '^{lEtg, 
oi cocpoi — ExeTvog, 6 ^aciXevg, and even with a personal pronoun 
contained in the verb. 

Q E jiiOT K7i,7) g i] KO) Ttapu (j£, /, Themistocles, have come to you. 'O yiaiag 
TTjg 'kxXavTog 6 lanov ov /nai avTolg (instead of eyo) 6 Maiag sc. vtog), Z, the 
son ofMaia, the daughter of Atlas, etc. 

3. When a word is in apposition with a possessive pronoun, that 
word is put in the Gen., because the possessive then takes the place 
of the Gen. of the personal pronoun. 

'Eubg TOV u^Mov (3iog, the life of me ivretched; here d-&?iiov is in apposition 
■with £/26g, which is used instead of kfiov. Tdfxd (= to, e/io.) tov SvaTrjvov kuku, 
the evils of me, vnhappy one! 2^ TTjg KaXkiaTTjg Ev/zopfia, thy gracefulness, most 
heautifd one ! In English, as these examples show, we may often translate the 
Gen. by an exclamation. On the expression 6 ?]fi£T£pog, v/^sTepog, a^eTepoc 
avTuv TraTTJp, see under § 169. Rem. 2. 

LXXXn. Exercises on § 154. 

In Hades dwell (= are) all the dead. Men send then- children to school (to 
the house of teachers), that they may learn {part, fat.) the sciences, music and 
the {to) (exercises) in the gymnasium. Alexander, the son of Philip, achieved 
many and brilliant actions. Many, who {part.) neglect {aor.) domestic affairs, 
attend to those of the state. Leonidas and the three hundred with him, fought 
bravely at Thermopylae against {ettI) the Persians. Thales and his school and 
almost aU philosophers abstained from political affairs. The character of the 
Deity we must reverence very highly. fortunate (man), thy life have the 
Gods adorned with every blessing (Greek : thy life of the fortunate). Unhappy 
men that we are, our (= the) enemies have mined our native land. The com- 
panions of Ulysses perished {aor.) by their own crime. Om* own citizens have 
betrayed ns. Your own brother deserts you. 

§§155 157.] SYNTAX. GENITIVE. 209 


§155. The Ohj ectiv e Construction , 
As the attributive construction (§ 154) serves to define the sub- 
stantive more particularly, so the objective construction serves to de- 
fine the predicate more particularly. By object, taken in its wider 
sense, is to be understood everything by which the predicate is more 
particularly defined, viz. (a) the Cases, (b) Prepositions with their 
Cases, (c) the Infinitive, (d) the Participle, and (e) the Adverb. 

''Emd-vficj TTjg GO(piag. Tpu<po) ttjv £iriaro?.^v. ^vxoiuat roZg ■&eolg. 'Ecttj 
irapii rw ^aaiT^el. 'Ettl'&v/j.cj ■ypa<peLv. FeAwv elTtev. KaMog e/j-axeaaro. In 
each of these examples, it is evident that the verb is limited, defined or more 
fnlly explained by the word or words connected with it. 

§156. I. Genitive. 
The Genitive Case primarily denotes the relation whence, and 
therefore expresses, — (a) in a local relation, the out-going or removal 
and separation from an object, since it designates the object or point 
from which the action of the verb proceeds ; e. g. waeiv odov, cedere 
via, to withdraw from the way; — (b) in a causal relation, it ex- 
presses the cause, source, author, in general the object which calls 
forth, produces (gignit), excites and occasions the action of the verb ; 
e. g. iTn&vfioo Tfjg dgEtTJg; here aQsrijg is the object which calls 
forth, etc. the desire expressed by ETiid^v^a. 

§ 157. A. Local Relation. 

Genitive of Separation. 

The Genitive, in a local relation, is used with expressions de- 
noting removal, separation, being distant from, beginning, loosing, 
abstaining, desisting, ceasing, freeing, missing, deviating from, dif- 
fering from, depriving. 

Such verbs are Trapaxc^pelv, V7roxo)pstv, eiKetv and vTreiKstv, vTravtaracrd-aL 
and e^LOTacr&ai, voa<pL^etv, x<^pK^'''^i diopi^scv, cKpiEvai, cKpiecy&ai, a—ex^i-v, ar:e- 
Xe(r&ai, apxsiv, upx^c-d-ai, VTrupxeiv, e^apxeiv, Tzaveiv, Travecy&ai, A^}£iv, ku- 
2,vetv, elpyeiv, ?i,vecv, kJ.ev&epovv, a'KaXkarTELv, orepelv, uTzoarepelv, xvpovv, 
ipTjjxovv, Scafepetv, dfiapravetv, a^aXkea'&aL^ ipei'dsadai., etc. ; diex^i-v and aTrc- 
3^etv, to he distant; — the adjectives k2,EV'&epoc, Ka^apog, Ksvog, kpt^fiog, yvfivoc, 


210 SYNTAX. GENITIVE. [§ 158. 

(,p(i>uv6g, 't}n7i6c, Siucpopog, and many compounded with a privative ;— the adverbs 
dvev, x<^pk, T^^v, E^o), EKag, dixa, rrepav. 

01 Tuv AaKedaifiovLuv veurepoL role 'irpeaSv-epoi^ avvrvyxavovTeg eIkovcti 
TTjg bdov [withdraw from the road). 'K'tzcx^'- '^^'^' apyvpeio)v{is distant 
from the silver mines) ij kyyvrara "Kolig Mejapa tzo^.v 'n/i.elov ruv TrevTaKOcicjv 
araSiuv. Mf/Tjjp Tzaidbg elpy ei fivlav [keeps the fly from her child). Hav- 
ov Ti]q vjSpeug [cease your insolence). 'H Tcolig 7]\ev& £pio-&7] ruv rv- 
pdvvcov [was freed from tyrants). 01 Tto/Jficot, rovg nolirag t€>v aya-&cJv 
uTT EOT spT] Gav [deprived the citizens of their goods). Tcj vC) ol av&poiroL 6 l a- 
(pEpovni Tuv aXluv ^6 o) v [differ from other animals). 'Apx ^ (^"^ at t^- 
vog signifies to begin generally, without any reference to others ; e. g. ovv rolg 
■&eolg apx£(^'9-aL XPV iravTog spyov; hnt a px£i-v, k^dpxeiv, iTrap- 
X£ i-v, Karapx^i-'^'. signify to do something first (i. e. before others), to begin, hence 
also to be the author of to originate ; e. g. 01 ttoIeiilol vp^av dSiKuv spyov. 
01 'A.-&7]valoi Kal AaKEdaifioviot v ttt} p^av TTJg Elev&Epiag dizday r?) 
'E?Jid6Ly libertatis amtores fuerunt. 'BTiEV'&Epog ^o^ov, free from fear ; K a- 
•d aphg dStKtag, free from injustice ; upfxara kevcL t/v loxcov, chariots with- 
out dnveis ; aizaidevTog fiov a tKTJg, uneducated in music ; x^P^^^ r dv 
alXidv, apart from the others; ttA^v Newvof, except Neon; nipav tov 
TTOT auov, beyond the river ; e^u B eXiJv slvai., to be beyo)id the reach, of the darts. 

§ 158. B. Oausal Relation of the Genitive, 
The Gen., in the causal relation, signifies also an out-going, but 
not as in the local relation, a mere external out-going, but an inter- 
nal and active one, since it expresses the object, by whose inward 
power, the action of the subject is called forth and produced {gig- 

a. The Genitive as an expression of Action* or the Active 


1 . In the first place, the active Gen. stands as the Gen. of origin 
or author, and is connected with verbs denoting to originate from, 
to spring from, arise from, to produce from, to he produced from, to 
he horn from: yiyvEO&ai, q)VEiv, qjvvai, ehai. 

'Api(jTO)v av S p uv upiara j3ov?i,Ev/j.aTa y i y v £ ~ a c, the best counsels origi- 
nate from the best men. TLar pbg jiev cV) /.iyErai 6 Kvpog y sv Ead-ai Kafc- 
Bvaov, Tlspauv PaaiXiug, Cyrus is said to have been the son of (to have originated 
from) his father Camhyses ; 6 Se Kap(3vG7]g ovrog rov JlEpaeiduv yivovg 7]v, 
but this Cainbyses teas a descendant of [of the race of) the Persians; /itjt pbg dk 
dfio/.oyElrai. 'MavSdvrj g y ev iad-at. 

2. In the second place, the active Gen. stands as that object 

* With this Gen. the subject appears as rccei^^ng the action denoted by the 

§ 158.] SYNTAX. — GENITIVE. 211 

which has acquired another, made it its own and possesses it, — lienco 
as Gen. of the owner or possessor. This Gen. stands with the verbs 
thai, yeviod'ai ; also with the adjectives 'idiog, olxetog, ItQog, y.vQiog. 

T?7f (jjv a e 0) ^ usyiarov KujJ^oq t a r i v, nature possr^sses {has) the greatest 
beauty. Tot) HoKparovg tto7JJi r/v nper?], Socrates had much virtue. Hence 
originates the Gen. of quality, with which in English we connect the substantives, 
business, manner , custom, peculiarity, duty, mark; e. g. 'Av 6 p6 g eariv ayadov 
ev TTOtelv Tovg (piXovg, it is the business, custom, peculiarity, duty, mark of a good 
man to benefit his fnends ; or it becomes, it bespeaks a good man, a good man is waid, 
etc. 0/ HEV KLvSvvoi TCQ7\XaKLq r cJv ?/y e fiov uv 16 to i, liic&og 6' ovk Ictlv, 
dangers are often the lot of {peculiar to) commanders. Kvpog Tavrrjg rriq x^^9^^ 
Kv pcog hyevETO, Cyrus teas the rider of this place. "linTog I e pb g rev '117/lov, 
a horse sacred to the sun. 

3. In the third place, the active Gen. stands as that object which 
includes another or several other objects, as parts belonging to it ; 
the Gen. expresses the whole in relation to its parts, and is com- 
monly called the partitive Genitive. This Gen. is used: 

(a) With the verbs elv a i and y lyv e g d" at, Vv'hich then signify 
to he among., to he numbered or considered among, to he of the num- 
her of, to he a part of, to he one of. 

TIv Kal 6 '2uKpaT7]g tojv uficpl MlTirjTOv ct p aT ev o jiev cdv, Soa'ates also 
was among those icho carried on war around Miletus ; crpaTevoiievuv here denotes 
the whole, of which Socrates is a part. 'H 'LiXeia ear t r iqg 'A a lag, Z. is a 
part {or a city) of Asia. Tbv ■ddvarov TjyovvTac Tzavreg at a/J^o-i ruv [leyic- 
ro)v KUKuv elv at, is among, or is one of the greatest evils. 

Hem. 1. The partitive Gen., denoting the whole of which a part is taken, is 
very often used as an attributive : — (a) with substantives, e. g. urayoveg vSarog, drops 
of water, (here v^arog is the whole, parts of which are expressed by arayoveg, and 
so in the other examples) ; cufiarog fzepog, a part of the body ; — (b) with neuter 
adjectives and p-onouns, e. g. f^-saov ijiiepag, the middle of the day ; ev fj-iac) rrjg 
66ov, in the middle of the way ; ev tolovtu rod klv6vvov, in such circumstances of 
danger; elc tovto bpyrjg, to such a degree of anger ; 'iz7\,elaT0v rov Grparev/j^arog, 
most of the army; — (c) with substantive-adjectives, particularly superlatives, with 
participles, substantive-pronouns (interrogative and indefinite) and numerals, e. g. 
ol xPV'^'^ol ruv av&pcj7zo)v, the useful part of {the useful among) men ; oi ev Opo- 
vovvreg ruv av&puiruv, the wise among men ; tuv v—o^^vyluv tu uvayKOia Kal ra 
dwaruTara, the necessary and more able of the beasts of burden ; to ijyovuevov rov 
CTparevfiarog, that part of the army which lead = the van ; ol Stoj^avreg rcbv irr- 
neuv, those of the horsemen who pursued ; rig ruv crparicdrtbv, toho of the soldiers? 
ol (Tocpuraroi uv&puTTOv, the wisest of men. — Ilol/,ot, 6?uyoi, riveg r&v av&pumov. 
(On the contrary, ol ■Q-vtitoI uv&poTvot, because the property of mortality be- 
longs to the whole class ; ttoTi/ioi or 6?uyot uv&pu~oL, denotes a whole consisting 
of many or few, but tzoHoI or b}dyoi uv&pioTruv, represents the many or the few 
as a r^art rf the ^^Jt^c) ; — (d) with adver-bs, {a) of place, e. g. Ovdafiij AlyvrrTov, 
nor^ .Xi ) /*:'T'* '"^'<- olSa, d-rrov yrjg earcv, I do not hnmu tvhere on earth he is,- 

212 SYNTAX. GENITIVE. [§ 158. 

Travraxoi' ryg y7/c, uUque terrarum, evmjicJwe in the icorU; so also with -rro^ev, 
TTop^u), TTpoao) ; (i3) of time, e. g. oi/^e r^r W^pa^> '^'l^ yliiciac, rov xpovov, late 
in the day, late in life, etc.; rplg rrjg v/^spag, thrice a day; irollaKig rfig ijuipac 
many times a day. 

(h) With words which signify to participate, to share in, to im- 
part, to communicate ; — to touch, to take hold of, to he close to, to 
border on ; — to acquire and obtain, or to strive to acquire. 

Here belong the verbs aerex^Lv, utrecTL fioi, fiera-, dtaStSovai, kolvcoveIv, kol- 
vovad-at (these often taking a Dat. besides tlie Gen.), hnapKElv {to impart a share 
of),did6vaL,'npog6i66vat; — ■&iyydvetv, ■>4javELV, uTzrtG'&aL, la/x^uvea^ac, /ura-, 
GvTJkaaiidveLV, eTtt-, uvTi?M/J.iSdi^eG\}ai, Gvvaioea'&ai, tx^a-d^^i- [to adhere to, to bor- 
der upon), UVT-, -nepiexi^G^CLL, ■y7dxtadaL ; — rvyxdveiv {to acquire, to hit), layxd- 
vEiv, ecpLKvela^ai, icl?]povofj.elv, Trpog/pcei {ixoi rivog, something belongs to me) : — 
opejecrd-aL, £^Lea-&aL, uvriTroiEla^at., Evrperrea'&ai., CTOxd(^£od-aL ;— the adjectives 
Koivog, laog, ofioiog, avriog, havriog, 'Knpa'n7.7]nLog (which however commonly 
take the Dat.), hinx^piog, <j)L?<.og, d6i£?,(j)6g, ikdSoxog, also with Dat. ; — the adverbs 
£bV^, f^e^^/f ) 'T^pda-d-sv, efrnpoa-^ev, o'klg'&ev, jnera^v, ev'&v, straightforward to, fie-. 
Xpi, up to, uvTLOV, ttXtjglov, etc. 

Ilo?JMKtg ol KaKol dpx^v Kal r i/nuv uetexovglv, evil men often par- 
take of offices and honors. Qd7.7:ovg (ilv Kal ipvxovg Kal airuv Kal tt o- 
rd)v Kal virvov dvdyKrj Kal rolg dovloig /XEradcddvat, rro2,e fz i ktj g (T 
hnr LCTT] fi7] g Kal ft eXiri] g ov /ueradoTEOv, itis necessaiy to share heat and 
cdd, etc., mth slaves, but we are not to share tlie kncndedge of war, etc. 'O o-o^of 
rrjg vjSpeug dfioipqg egtlv, is free from {does not partake of) insolence. 
'AitTEGd-at rrjg x^i-P^C- Ai/zv?/ ex^t o-f- {borders on) rov arjiiarog fie- 
ydlrj. "E p 7 1» e ;i; « ^u e i? a, /ef ws Za_?/ hold of opus aggrediamur. 'O GTparrjydg 
rdv avTuv rolg Grparicoraig cvvaipErac kcv dvvcjv, tlie general shares in 
the same dangers as the soldiers. 'ETreuJ^ ■&vriT0v GUfiaTog ETVxeg, ud-a- 
V UT ov Se 'ipv XV ^, TTEipcJ TT/g ipvxi]g d"&dvaTov fivfi^rjv KaToXiiTElv, since you 
have obtained a moital body, bid an immortal spirit, etc. TvyxdvELv, XayxdvEiv, 
Xpvfidrtjv, EVTVxtctg. Td;^'^^^ TE/.svrr/g, ovofiaTog. 'OpeyeG'&E or £<l>iEG'&e rrjg 
dpETTji, strive to obtain virtue. "Ouoiog (pvyijg, bjiolog rov 'Hcpaiarov, EVT&i) Tv- 

id^ElOV, 7t7i7]GL0V Q7]j3C)V, E^^g H?MVT0}VOg. 

Rem. 2. Verbs signifying to take hold of govern the Gen. of the part taken 
hold of; e. g. E/iajSovTO rr/g i^uvrjg rov 'OpovTTjv, they took Orontes by the girdle; 
X^ipog eTieIv Ttvd, to take one by the hand. So any verb may govern the Gen., 
when its action refers not to tlie whole of an object, but to a part; e. g. Eva^s 
Taovv Kal TliypTjra, "kafiovrag rov l3apl3apiKov or p ar ov, he commanded 
G. and P., having taken a part of the army ; eSokei, GvyKa?jGavrag Tioxajovg Kal 
ireT^raardg Kal r uv 6 tt?. i r iJv, they thought best, having called together the captains, 
targetiers, and A part of the heavy-armed, etc. 

4. The active Gen., in the fourth place, denotes the place where, 
and the tim6 when, an action occurs. The action or event belongs, 
as it were, to the place and time, and in a degree proceeds from 
them, and is produced by them. 

§ 158.] SYNTAX. GENITIVE. 213 

Tlie Gen. of place is rare in prose. Adverbs of place in the form of tlie 
Gen. Sing, occur very frequently; e. g. ov, ivhere, avrov {tottov), there, at 
that place, ovda/iov, nowhere, and others. 'Av&r] ■&uA7i.ti rov tapor, Uosscnns 
put forth in the spring, tlie spring being considered as the producer of the blos- 
soms. So "^epovg, in summer, ;j;£i/ia>vof, in winter, ?jf/epag, by day, r^f avrf/c rj/it- 
oac, vvKTog. The Gen. too denotes the time within which anything is done ; e. g. 
BacriTievg ov /jax^cTat StKa TjfxepCjv, within ten days. 

5. Finally, the active Gen. denotes the material of which any- 
thing is made. This Gen. is used : 

(a) With verbs signifying to make or form from something ; — 
with expressions ^QUoXmg fulness and want; — with verbs signifying; 
to eat, to driiik, to taste, cause to taste, to enjoy ; — to smell, and to 
emit an odor of something. 

Here belong the verbs Trotelv, n/\,7j-&eLV, TzTiTjpovv, ■Kip.-K'kavai, yejieLv, aarrELv, 
evTcopetv, Inropelv, Tzevead-ai, deiad^ai, del, aiTavt^eiv, xpVy tc'&ieLv, ^ayelv, evu- 
X^lcF'&ai, TTtvetv, yeveiv, Kopecaa-d-ai, uTzoT^avetv, irveiv, o^eiv, Tvpog^akTiELv, etc. 
the adjectives TcMog, TrA^pr/f , [learog, irTiovcicog, daavg, TrivTjg, hvdefjg, etc. : — ad 
verbs, as ukig. 

'X.a2, Kov 7C ETZ LT] [lev a earl ru ayaXjuara, made of bronze. 'F, gt po) fie- 
V 7j earlv bdbg 7^l-& ov, the way is paved with stone., (Hence the attributive rela- 
tion, 'EKTrufza ^v?>,ov, a cup [made] of wood. TpaTre^a apyvpiov. Ire^avog 
V aKiv& cjv). 'H vavg aeaay /uevij tjv av&p uttcjv, the ship was loaded 
tvith men. Ta 'Ava^aybpov fSifSXia y i /x e i a o <j) cjv Xoy ov, arefuU of wise say- 
ings. ^EvTaii'&a Jjaav Kcofiat no?.?.at fisGr al airov Kal olv ov, there many 
villages abounded with food and wine. 'Atto p eZv, -rriv eo-d-ai, CTcavi^e tv 
ro)v XPV H-^T ^Vytobein want of means. ^'Ea-Q-ie tv k peciv, to eat of flesh. 
Kopeaaa^ ac (^o p IStj g,to be filed with food. Uiv e lv olv ov,to drink of wine. 
^ATToXav e tv ttuvtov t uv ay a-& C>v,to enjoy all good things. T ev ead- a l 
r LfiT] r^to taste honor. T ev e iv nva r i/x^ g,to cause one to taste honor. 'O^e iv 
lo)v, to smell violets, avpov ttv etv, to emit the smell of myrrh. TL p o g jS dTiXe tv 
fivpov. Ilvelv rpdyov. 'O^eiv Kp o fiv o)v. '^g 7)6v [lOL Trpogs- 
Tiv EV a e xoipEiov up e uv, so sweet was the smell ofswinds flesh to me. A a- 
crx)f dsvd pcjv, covered with trees ; ■&7] pio)v ttTiT] prjg, full of animals. 

Rem. 3. Verbs of eating and drinJdng, govern the Ace, (a) when the substance 
is represented as consumed wholly or in a great measure ; (bj when the sub- 
stance is to be indicated as the common means of nutriment, which each one 
takes ; e. g. Hivu rov olvov, ttoXvv olvov, I drink the vnne, much wine. Hence 
TTtvELv olvov is Said of one whose usual di-ink is wine, but tzlvelv olvov is to 
take a drink of wine, to drink some of the wine. Hence the Gen. with verbs of 
eating and drinking has a partitive sense, like the English expressions, to eat or 
drinh of something. 'Att olav e lv rtvog r t, signifies to receive good or evil 
"frori'i some one. \ 

^ RjEM. 4. Aei, as impersonal, may take the Dat. of the person, with the Gen, 
" of, the thing or person needed ; e\g. Ei [lev vfiZv rtvog okT^ov del, if you need any- 
thing else. Ael and XPV in the sense of necesse, opus est, are followed either by the 

^^ SYNTAX. GENITIVE. r§ 15g 

Inf. alone, or by the Ace. of the person with the Inf ; e. g. del (xprj) ae ravra 
^ocelv, you must do this. Aal also, tliough more rarely, takes the Dat. of the per- 
son with the Inf ; e. g. d aoc deot 6i6aaKeiu, if it were necessary for thee to teach. 
(b) With verbs oUensation -^n^ perception ; e.g. axoveiv, dy^qoa- 
a&ai, TTvv&dvead'ai, caG&dpBo&ai, ooq^Qaivead-ai, ovviivai, to under^ 
stand; and with verbs of reminding, rememherijig o^udi forgetting ; 
e. g. i^i^pi^axsiv, fivii^oveveiv, lA^'iivrja'&ai, imlap&dvsa&ai, and the 
corresponding adverbs, e. g. U^-qu, XQixpa. 

Kal Ko>^ov avviv^c, Kal ov ^covovvro, a k a v co, I understand the 
dumb man, and hear hm although he does not speak. 'Qg iJCJcj>povTo raxcara 
rcov Kafj.r]Xa>v ol Uttol, as soon as the horses smelt the camels. OiK lcKpo6- 
f^evotrov aSovTocnot hmring the singer, '\kovuv dlKrjg, to hear a suit ■ 
aca^avea-&ac Kpavy^,, ^opvf3ov, e^c,8ovX-^,, to perceive a cr. tu- 
mult, plot These verbs often govern the Ace. of the thing ; often also they gov- 
em the Ace. of the thing in addition to the Gen. of the person: e. ^ 'O'kaue- 
vco, ., n.overov ayyelov r^ rrap^ rov Kvpov, i^e^Uyrj, b^tassooLs 
the Armenian heard from th^ messenger the communication of Cyrus — 0/ dya^ot 
Kal a.Svr.v rcov ^ilcov f^e^v^^vrac, the good remen^er even absent 
friends. M^ e^ ,7. av^ av ov ro^v ev e py e a ccov, do not forget acts of kind- 
ness. Aa-dpa Tc^v arpaTTjycov, without the knowledge of the generah. 

(c) With expressions of being acquainted and unacquainted with 
of experience and inexperience, of hiowledge and ignorance, of 
makmg trial of something, and with those of abUity, dexterity 2.ndi 
skill in anything. 

Here belong the words eg.^eipog, aneipog, h7,taTr,p,^v, h^iara^evog, dventarv- 
a^v avyyv.^ov, aSaij,, anaidevro,, I6i6^rrj,, ^e^paa^ac, L^dpo, and feV^, Ix^cv, 
and adjectives m -lko^ (derived from transitive verbs) which express the idea of 

JE^Tre.poj- or k'KiaTr,g<.v d^d r~n, r hcv v ^, I am acquainted loith the 
art.^ A'KaLdevTog aperrjg, [zovaLKr,g, ignorant of vhtue, music; avy- 
yv^fXi^v rov av'&po^ivov ^payf^arov, pardoning [not knouimj) hu- 
manarors. A^ecpo, e^ecv rcov v o g,uv, to he unacquainted with, ignorant 
ofthelau-s; aiv o tt e c p aa-^ a i yvof^ng, to venture, to try an opinion. liec- 
pu>p,evog rov [Sd^ovg, trying {making trial of) the depth; tt e i p 6 u e v o , 
ravrrig Tvg ra^eog, making tnal of this arrangement. Kal tt ap a(7 k ev a- 
OTiKov rov ek rov rroXe/xov rbv arpar^ybv elvat XPV Kal -KopiortKov 
ro V e^i rvdecov role arpanoratg, it is necessary for the general to be capable 
of providing what pertains to the ivar, and of furnishing what is necessary for the sol- 
diers. AidaaKaXcKdg rfig ao^^iag, skilled in teaching philosophy. 

(d) Finally, with verbs signifying to see, to observe, to judge, to 
examine something, some action, external indication or single cir- 
cumstance in one {%i^'6g), particularly with verbs signifying to ad- 
mire, to praise and blame.— Th^ person in whom one sees, etc. 
something, is put in the Gen., and that which is seen, etc., in the 

§ 158.] SYNTAX. GENITIVE. 215 

Acc, or in au accessary clause, or in the Gen. of the Part, which 
then agrees with the person. 

Such verbs are vpav, ■&£ua-&ac, ckottsIv, iiTovonv, ivvoelv, yiyvuoKeiv, inia- 
Taad-at, eidevai, ivd-vfielad^at, Tzvv&dveaT&ai, alcduvead^ai, juavT&uveiv, KpiveiVj 
k^era^eLV, MyeLV, djjXovv, dyaad-ai, d-avfiu^eiv, eTraiveiv, fie/jcpead-ai, ipeyeiv. 

UpuTov fiev avTuv eaKoitei, he first considered in respect to them, 'lla-^rjaai, 
Tovfiov (Slov, thou hast observed in my way of life. 'Eyvo ifiov TroLovvrog, he per- 
ceived that I. was doing. To jSpadi) kuc fiE?iXov, b fii fj.(j)0VT ai fidXiara ij fiuv 
{which is the chief complaint they make against us), p.?] alcxvvtc-&e. El ay aoai 
Tov TTcrpog, baa Ttiirpaxe, if you admire my father for what he has done. 'Eyd 
Koi TovTo ETTaivcj ' A.y T] <7 c 2. ct V, I praise Agesilaus for this also. T opytov 
p.d?u(7Ta ravra ciyap,ai, I admire these things especially in Gorgias. "O ^av- 
jia^cj TOV ST ai pov, roSe eartv, what I admire in a companion is this. UoTiXcl 
'O fiTj pov kit atv ov p,ev, we praise many things in Homer. 

Bem. 5. When the above words refer merely to a thing which one admires, 
blames or loves, they govern the Acc, sometimes also the Acc. of the person 
alone ; e. g. ewaivelv, ipeyecv, p.efi<pea-&ai riva ; so also, ayaad-ai, ■&avpaC,tiv 
Tivd, to look with wonde)' at one., eitlier at the person himself or the whole nature of the 

b. The Genitive as the expression of Cause. 

6. The second division of the causal Gen. includes the Gen. which 
expresses cause ; i. e. the Gen. denotes the object which calls forth 
and occasions the action of the subject. This Gen. stands : 

I. With many verbs which denote a state or affection of the mind, 
viz, (a) with verbs signifying to desire, to long for ; — (b) to care for, 
to he concerned for ; — (c) to he pained, to, he grieved, to pity ; — (d) 
to he angry and indignant ; — (e) with qjd-oveiv, to envy (ztn iivog, 
Dat. of person and Gen. of thing); — (f) to admire, praise and 
hlame {tivcc zivogj Acc. of person and Gen. of thing). 

Such verbs are, (a) e7rc-9vp.slv, epav, epo)TiKcJg exsi-v or dLaKelad-ai, dtifj^, 
Tvetvyv ; — (b) k'Kqx£}^.elG-&aL, ^povri^eiv, K?/6e(j-&ac, nepLopacrd-ai, rrpoopav, VTrepo- 
pav, Tzpovoelv, psAEt, perafie^et, up.e7.ELV, b7uyup£lv, (pEtdEG-d-ai. ; — (c) oAofvps- 
ad-at, TTEv&iKcbg exsi-v, e/.eeiv and olicTEipEtv (A^ath Acc. of person and Gen. of 
thing) ; — (d) opyi^eaT^ai (with Dat. of person), ;\;a/l£7r6>f ^i-peiv ; — (f ) d^avpa^Eiv, 
a,yua-^aL, (^t]7mvv, tvdaipovi^ecv, ETzatvelVj ij,Efj.(l)£ad-ai. (all with Acc. of person and 
Gen. of thing). 

Oidslg Ti or ov ett cd-v /u.el, u/Jm XPV '^^ ov tt o t o v, Kal ov airov, aTJ.h 
XPV ^ ~ '^^ (yirov- -rrdvTeg yap apa rcbv aya-Q-uv k tt f&v pov (7 iv, no one 
desires drink, hut wholesome drink, etc.; for all desire what is good. To avopoiov 
&vouolcJv E'TTf&v/xEl Kfd k p d, dcsircs und loves tlic unlikc. IleLvyv tcjv 
aiT cjv, r o)v TTor cjv, r ov ETraivov, to long for food, drink, praise. 01 v6- 
uoi r ov KO Lv ov dy a-Q-ov c tt i p e X o v ~ a c, the laws care for, liave a regard for 
^he public good. 01 yovslg -k £v& CKug eIxov tov Tzaidog Te-&V7}K6Toq^ 

216 SYNTAX. GENITIVE. [§ 158. 

tlie parents gneved for their dead child. JloosiScJv KvK?.(j7iog EKexoXuro, 
Neptune had been angry loith the Cyclops. 01 Kami (j>t3^ov ovac rolg dyad^olg 
T7] g a o(t> tag, the evil envy the good on account of tlieir wisdom. 'Ayafiaiae 
Trig uvdpelag, I admire you on account of your bravery. QavfidCofiev rdv 
lid Kparr] ttj g a o (j) i a g, toe admire Socrates for his wisdom. Zt^/Icj ae tov 
TiTiovTov, I admire you for your riches. 'Evdaip.ovi^co ae ruv uya-d-uv, 
I consider you happy on account of your blessings. Alvu a e rrjg ■Kpo'&v p-iag, 
I praise you for your readiness. 

Rem. 6. The verbs dyaTrav, (ptXelv, ar epy etv, to bve, and iro'&elvy 
to long for, do not govern the Gen., but the Ace. — M eXs l, as impersonal, takes 
the Dat. of the person caring, and the Gen. of the person or thing cared for ; 
e. g. Me?iei 1X0 i rivog, 1 care for some one. If the thing cared for is expressed by 
a neuter pronoun, it may stand in the Nom. as the subject of the verb, which 
then becomes personal ; e. g. Tavra t^-ecj jieXTjaec, God will take care of these things. 
— The verbs -d-avpa^etv and ayac'&ac have the following constractions : 
(a) the Ace. of the person or the Ace. of the thing alone, when the wonder or 
admiration extends to the whole person or thing, or to the whole nature of a 
person or thing ; e. g. d-avf^d^o) { tov aTparrjyov — -d-avfid^cj ttjv ao(j)tav ; 
— (b) the Gen. of the person and the Ace. of the thing, when we admire some 
action, external manifestation, or single circumstance in a person ; e. g. tovto 
^avfid^G) GOV — d-av/xd^o) {dyafiai) gov, dioTi ovk dpyvpcov Kal xpvf^iov irpoeiTiOV 
■drjcavpovg KEKTJjax^ai /u,d?i?iov tj aoiiiag. Comp. 5, (d) ; — (c) the Ace. of the per- 
son and the Gen. of the thing, when we admire a person on account of some 
quality; e. g. ■&aviud^c) {dyajuat) tov luKpdTT] Trjg aocptag. Comp. 6, 1. Instead 
of the Gen. of the thing, a preposition can be used here, commonly em with the 
Dat.; e. g. '&av/xd^o) tov HcoKpdTrj kirl Ty aoipia. — It wUl be seen that the relation 
of the Gen. with verbs of praising, admiring and the like, is expressed by the 
prepositions _/br, on account of. 

11. With verbs which signify to requite, to revenge, to punish, to 
accuse and condemn. The Gen. represents the guilt or crime as 
the cause of the requital, revenge, etc. 

Here belong the verbs Tificopetad-ai, TLvecr&at, ahida-d-ai, e7ratTtdG-&ac, dia- 
Kecv, elgdyeLv, v-ndyeiv, ypdcpEG^-ai, TTpogKaTiEla-d-aL, diKd^Etv, KpivELV, alpelv, to 
convict (aU with Ace. of person and Gen. of thing), Eire^iEvac, syKaXelv, kirtGKrj- 
TCTEG-^ai (all with Dat. of person and Gen. of thing), ^EvyEiv, to be accused^ aXCi- 
vat, to be convicted. 

'OdvGGEiig kTLGaTo ToiJg fivTjGTypag ttj g virEpfSaGiag, Ulysses punished 
the suitors for their wickedness. TipopEtG-d-ai Tiva <p6vov, to punish one, or 
take vengeance upon one for murder ''E'KaiTidG'&ai Tiva cpdvov, to accuse one 
of murder. 'ETnGK7}'7TTeG-&al tlvi tuv ipsvdofiapTvptcJv, to prosecute one 
for false witness. M.c2,Tcd67}v ol kx&pol sSi u^av tv pavvidog Trjg ev Xe^- 
pov7-jG(f>, prosecuted {pursued judicially) Miltiades for his tyranny in Chei'sonesvLS. 
T pd<l) EGd-ai TLva Trapavd/uuv, to indict or accuse one for unconstitutional measures. 
^ EvyE IV {to be accused) KloTrrjg, (povov, dGEJSEiag. KpivEG'&ai. {to be acaised) 
dGEJSeiag. AiKd^ovGLv ol ILipGai Kal ky kXt] nar og, .... dxcoptOTiag, 
ih^ Persians condemn as a crime, ingratitude, etc. 'A ?t, o v a i /c A o tt 7 f , to be con- 

§158.] SYNTAX. — GENITIVE. 217 

victed of theft. Also the punishment of the guilt is put in the Gen., hut this Gen, 
is to he considered as the Gen. of price, § 158, 7. (7); e. g. ^avurov, Kptveiv, 
Kpi.vea-&at, to condemn., to be coruderaned^ to death. 

Rem. 7. 'Ey/caZfiv besides the above, has the following constructions: (a) the 
Pat. of person and Ace. of thing, to ckcxrge something upon some one; — (b) the Dat. 
of person followed by a" clause with otl or by the Inf ; — (c) the Dat. of person 
alone, to accuse (§ 161, 2. cj : — (d) the Ace. of thing alone, to brirtg as a charge. 
KaTTjyopelv, to acaise, is construed, (a) with Gen. of person, sometimes vtith 
Kara and Gen. ;— (b) with Gen. of person and Ace. of thing, to lay something to 
one^s charge ; — (e) with Gen. both of person and of thing, sometimes with Trepi 
and Gen. of thing ; — (d) with Ace. of thing alone. — Tijuav, rL[j.uG-&ai, to fine or 
punish one with., take the Dat. of person with Gen. of punishment; e. g. Ti/idv 
Tcvt diKa raAuvTuv, rov ■uavarov, to fine one ten talents., sentence one to death. 

Rem. 8. The causal Gen. is used with the adverbs ev, naAur, jierpio^ 
and some others, connected with the verbs ex^ tv, ?} ke tv, and sometimes elvai, 
to denote the object by which a particular condition is caused ; e. g. ev rov 
Plov TjKetv, to be well off as to the means of living ; ovro rpoTvov ex^tg, 
you are thus in respect to circumstances = you are in such circumstances ; cjg rd- 
Xovg eKaaro^ elx^v, as quick as each one could. 

c The Genitive denoting certain Mutual Relations. 

7. The third division of the causal Gen., includes the Gen. by 
which certain mutual relations are expressed. In these mutual re- 
lations, one idea (e. g. that of superiority or inferiority) necessarily 
supposes the other, and thus in a measure calls it forth and occa- 
sions it. Hence the Gen. is used : 

(ct) With expressions of ruling, preeminence, excelling, promi- 
nence, and the contrary, viz. those denoting subjection, yielding to, 
and inferiority. 

Here belong the yQvhs.apx^Lv, Kparelv, SeaTro^eiv, rvpavvelv, rvpavveveiv, 
arpa-TjyeLV, t~LTpo7revetv, eTnararElv, I3aat?i,eveiv, TjyejioveveLv, fjyelcrd-at, Ttpoe- 
X£t,v, Trepteivai, '7repcyiyve(J-&at, irpogTarelv, iTrep^dXksiv, VTrepcpepecv, dcaipepeiv, 
irpurevecv, Tzpea^EveLV, TrpoKpcvEiv, Trporifzav, irTieovsKTElv, i]TTda'&ac, varEpelv, 
-tCei'V, TyELTTsa'&ai, a.Tro/^.ECTTeG'd-ai, k7.aTTova'&ai., fietovcr-d-at, fietovEKrelv, varepov 
elvac, TjTTOva eIvul ; the adjectives aKpari^g, eyKparijg. 

'O Xoyog rov epyov ek par el, the report exceeded, the thing itself. Ta [j.ox&ri-' 
ph, avd-ocjiria iraauv, olfxat, ruv ^tt c&v fitcbv iiKparr] ecrriv, depraved men 
are subject to [not able to control) all their passiojis. HoT^mklc ^u—t? vt: Ep^d/./.e l 
rh dSiKElv rov u 6 1 ic e Z a ■& a t, the doing an injury often exceeds in g^'ief the being 
injured. 01 irovijpol ijrr uvr at tuv kTrfd-v/xtuv, vncJced men are slaves to 
{inferior to) their passions. 

Rem. 9. 'HyeuovEVEcv and f/yeicrd-ai in the sense of to go before, ■with 666v ex- 
pressed or understood, to shov: tM way, goYem the Dat. ; KparEcv in the sense of 
to conquer, regularly gorems the Ace., but in the sense of to rule, the Gen. 


218 SYNTAX. — GENITIVE. [§ 158. 

(/3) With the comparative and with adjectives in the positive, 
which have the force of the comparative, e. g. numerals in -aaiog 
and -Tzlovg, etc., the object by which the comparison is made, is put 
in the Gen, 

*0 vldg fiei^cjv earl rod Tvarpog, greater than his father. Xpvabg KpeiTTOv 
fj,v piuv Xoycov fSporolg, gold is better for men than a myriad of words. Td 
''ETJirjVLKov (jrpaTEVfia ^aiverai 'k o^'ka'K'kaG lov ecea'&aL tov jjjueTepoVf 
many times larger than ours. Oi 6 ev o ^ Sevrepog, vgt epog, inferior to no one, 
T uv up Kovv T uv TV e p LTT a KTT/aacr&aL, to acquire mx/re than enough. 

{y) With verbs signifying to hay and sell, exchange and barter^ 
and with expressions of valuing (d^iovv, a^iog), of being worthy or 
unworthy ; and generally, the price of a thing stands in the Gen. 

Such verbs are uvelad-ai, dyopd^stv, rrplaa-d-ai, Krdcrd-ai, TrapaTuajulSdveiv, ira- 
XeIv, diTO-, irepiSidoa'&aL, dcdovai, d?JMTTStv, -ecr'&ai, dianeifSec'&aL, ?i,vec7>, ri^aVy 
Tifj,dad-ai, TvoiecG-d-at. 

01 QpdKsg uvovvT at rag yvvalKag irapd ruv yoviov XPV I^^t<^v /^eyaAwv, 
buy their wives from their parents at a great piice. T dv ttov ov n cdXov a cv rj/ilv 
^dvra rdydd-' ol d-eoi, the gods sell all good things to us for toils. 01 dya'&ol ovdevbg 
av Ke p d ov g rrjv rrjg ■Karpidog e2,EV&epiav avraXXd^aiVTO, the good would 
exchange the freedom oftlmx country for no gain. 'larpbg n o7\,XC)v d'7\.7\,cdv dvr d- 
^ log eanv, a physician is worth as much as many others. ''Eyuye ovdev dviacoTepov 
vofjii^o) Tuv kv uv&puTroig slvai rov t cov la ov rov ts nanbv kol dyad-bv d^ lov- 
a'&at, I think there is nothing more unequal among meji than that the evil and the good 
should he honored equally. "A^ lo g r cfiij g, worthy of honor. Ho gov 6 l 6d a- 
Ks l; tzevte fiviJv, for how much does he teach ? For five minae ; dpyvpiov, 
ULG-&0V kpydi^EG'&aL, to work for money ^ for hire. 

LXXXIII. Exercises on §§ 157, 158. 

The soul must be restrained from evil desires. It is mournful and grievoua 
to be deprived of the good- will of men. The soul, if {hdv, w. subj.) it depart 
from the body polluted and impm-e, is not immediately with God. As the body, 
bereft of the soul, sinks away { = faUs), so also a state, bereft of laws, will be 
dissolved. He who {bgrig) does not consider the liighest good (= the best), 
but in (e/c) every way seeks to do that which is (= the) most agreeable, how 
can (§ 153, 2. c) (he) diflfer from the irrational brates 1 The battle has deliver- 
ed us from shameful slavery. We esteem the old man happy, because he is 
free from passions. Epaminondas sprang ( = was) from an obscure father. 
From Telamon sprang {yiyvEG^ai) Ajax and Teucer, from Peleus, Achilles. 
It is the business of the general to command, but the duty of the soldiers, to 
obey. Stags were sacred to Artemis. Of all friends, the first and truest is a 
brother. Socrates generously proffered Avhat was his to all. The hired labor- 
ers, who {ogTLg) for the sake of a subsistence performed slave-labors and parti- 
cipated in no office, were the poorest of the Athenians. A good king allows the 
citizens to enjoy { = participate in) a just freedom of speech and action. The 
word takes hold upon the spirit. Hold fast, young men, to instruction, and di» 

§ 158.] SYNTAX. — GENITIVE. 219 

rect yourselves to [irpog, w. ace.) that which is ( = tlic) more excellent (plur.). 
The virtues of good men obtain honor and fame even with enemies. The young 
(comp.) must {xpVi w^- <^cc. and inf.) aspire after the good {plur.) and abstain 
from evil actions. The pains of the sick are more violent at night than by day. 
In winter, men desire summer, but in summer, winter. Hercules cleared ( = 
tamed out) Lybia, which was {part.) full of wild beasts. The good lack not 
praise. Those ( = the) natures, that seem {pari.) to be the best, most need ed- 
ucation. The earth is full of injustice. Virtue leads us (in) a rugged and 
toilsome ( = full of sweat) path. Aetna is filled {ytfiei.) with valuable firs and 
pines. We contrive much, whereby {Sl' uv) to ( = we may) enjoy the good 
{plur.) and avert the evil. Milo, the Crotonian, ate twenty minae of flesh {phtx.) 
and as much bread {plur.)., and {Se) drank three flagons of wine. Men derive 
many advantages from sheep, horses, cows and the other animals. It is writ- 
ten in the laws, that both the plaintiff and the defendant sliould be heard alike 
( = to hear alike both, etc.). It is fair and right, to be mindful of the good {plur.) 
rather than of the evil. It is pleasant to the unhappy to forget, even for a short 
time, present evils. Since {jxirt. ) thou art young, be willing to hear thine { = 
the) elders. He who is unacquainted with the sciences, though he sees, sees 
not { = the unacquainted — seeing, sees not). Hermes had great experience 
in the medical science. It is better to die {aor.) than to exercise ( = make trial 
of) violence. Socrates considered with respect to philosophers, — whether (tto- 
rspa) they devoted { = turned) themselves to {hTzi, w. ace.) reflection {to (ppov- 
ri^eiv, w. gen.) upon the celestial, from the opinion {part, aor.) that they already 
sufficiently understood {inf. pres.) the human {j^Iur.)., or (whether they) supposed 
that they did what was befitting in neglecting {aor.) the human and ( — but) 
contemplating tlie divine. This we admire in Socrates, that even while banter- 
ing, he could instruct the young men, who {part.} associated with him. Socrates 
exhorted young men to aspire after the fairest and choicest %'irtue, by {dat.) 
which both states and households are wisely ( = well) directed. Pluto, who 
{part.) loved {aor.) Proseroine, stole her away secretly with the cooperation of 
Jupiter. That is a poor president, vv^ho {ogrig) cares for the present time, but 
is not (//^) also provident for the future. Do not n.eglect even absent friends. 
Be sparing of time. The. good (man) is more concerned for the common weal, 
than for his (own) fame. Many care more for the acquisition of money than 
for that of friends. The Athenian state (of the A.) often repented {aor.) of sen- 
tences passed ( = which happened, aor. part.) in {/j,eTa, iv. gen.) anger and with- 
out ( = not [//?/] with) examination. I pity thee for thy mournful fate. En%'y 
{aor.) me not the memorial. Demosthenes we admire for his (=the) 
greatness of nature and self-command in action ( = practice), and for his dig- 
nity ( = gravity), promptitude, boldness of speech and firmness. Anaxa- 
goras is said to have been condemned {aor.) for impiety, because he called the 
sun a red-hot mass. Mehtus accused {aor.) Socrates of impiety. Themistocles 
was accused, in his absence {aTrodrjficJv), of treason and condemned to death. 
All (things) everywhere are subject to the gods, and the gods rule alike over 
all. Apollo led the nine Muses, whence he was also called the Muse-leader. 
Why are the educated prominent above the uneducated 1 Cadmus of Sidon 
( = the Sidonian) reigned {aor.) over Thebes, but over the whole of-Peloponne- 

220 SYNTAX. — ACCUSATIVE. [§ 159, 

sus reigned Pelops, the (son) of Tantalus. Many are slaves {yrroveg) to money. 
Govern appetite, sleep and anger. The bravery of the Greeks triumphed over 
{-epLyiyvecr'&ai, aor.) the power of the king of the Persians. Nothing is more 
valuable to men, than the cultivation of the mind. No teacher of hunger, thirst 
and cold is better than necessity. Thou canst (§ 153, 2. c) not purchase virtue 
and nobleness of mind for money. Diphridas took Tigranes with his wife, and 
released them for a large sum ( = much) of money. The Chaldaeans enlisted 
for pay, because they were very warlike and poor. They only who (§ 148, 6) 
practise virtue, are worthy of honor. The benefactors of men are deemed 
(aor.) worthy of immortal honors. 

§159. II. Accusative. 

1. The Accusative Case expresses the relation whither, and de- 
notes, (a) in a local relation, the limit or poi7it to which the action 
of the verb is directed ; in prose, however, a preposition is regularly- 
used here ; e. g. eig aoxv iX&eiv ; — (b) in the causal relation, it de- 
notes the effect, consequence, result, of the action of the verb, as well 
as the object on which the action is performed. In this latter rela- 
tion, the object in the Ace. receives the action performed by the 
subject, i. e. is in a passive or suffering condition ; whereas, with 
the Gen., the subject is represented as receiving the action. Comp. 
§ 158, a. et seq. The Ace. also differs from the Dat,, in being the 
immediate or direct object of the verb, while the Dat. is the remote 
or indirect object. Comp. § 161, 2. 

(a) Accusative d e n o ti ng E f f ec t. 

2. The Accusative of effect is used as in other languages; e. g. 
yqdcfa l7iiOToli]v (IniOTolriv being the effect of the action of the 
verb). Li respect to the Greek, it is to be observed, that a verb 
either transitive or intransitive very frequently governs the Ace. of 
a substantive, which is either from the same stem as the verb, or 
has a kindred signification. An attributive adjective or pronoun 
commonly belongs to the Ace. This is commonly called the Ace. 
of a kindred or cognate signification. 

'ETTifisTiOvvTaL Tcdaav ett t [ii7i,e lav, they take care vnih all diligence. 
Aeo fiac v/nuv diKaiav 6 et] a iv, I ask of you a just request. So KaT^ag irpd^Eic: 
irpavTEtv, — Epyd^Er&at epyov ica?i,6v, — upx£tv apxvv, — 6ov/i,eiav dovXevECv,- — tto- 
?\,efiov 7T0?.e/it£tv, — vocrov voaslv. "OpKovg btivvvai, to sivear oaths ; da-&£V£lv vo^ 
cov, to he sick of a disease ; Cw /3io^> to live a life. 

§ 150.] SYNTAX. ACCUSATIVE. 221 

(b) Accusative of the Object on which the action is 
performed, i. c. the suffering Object. 

3. Only those verbs will be mentioned here, which, in Latin, 
take some other Case than the Ace., or are constructed with prepo- 
gitions. They are :• 

(1) The verbs (6q}aX£iv, ovivdvai, ovivaad^ai Q.vaiztXeiv, however, 
with Dat.), to he useful ; Pmtztuv, uduEiv, v^QiXtiv, IvpiaivEG&ai, 
Ico^aod-ai ; eme^eiv, dae^eiv ; Xoyav^ IvadQevuv, insidiari ; tijioj- 
OEiG&ai; '&8Qa7r£V£iv, doQvqjoQSiv, iTTitQOTZEveiv, to he a guardian; 


respondere and remunerari ; (pvldtrsad^ai, EvXa^Eiod^ai ; [iii4,si()&ai, 

Q e p ciTz ev e Tovg a-& av ar ov g, serve the gods. 'A.7mi(3lu6t}q £7reii?e rh 
ttXtj'&o g, Al. persuaded the multitude. TLX e la t a p xov, rbv Aeuvcdov, ovra (3a- 
sikia Kot vsov tri, ere erpoir ev ev 6 Uavaaviag, Pausanias ivas the guardian of 
Plista7-chus, etc. M^ KoXaKev e roi)g (pi2,ovg,do not Jiatter friends. 'Q (p i- 
7\,e i Tovg <pHov g, kol firj [SXcnrT e rovg ex'& povg, assist fnends, and do 
not injure enemies. M^ aScK e c r oi) g <piXov g. Mr] v (3 pi^e rovg Tvai- 
6 ag. Ilo?i?.aKtg Kat 6ov?ioc r i fiu p ov v r a i t oi) g aSiKovg deawoTa^, 
often even slaves take vengeance on their unjust masters. 'AfieifSetj'&ai r iv a 
fivd-Qcg, ?.6yoLg, to answer one ; a. fj.e t jS e (y& a i x^P '■'^^ evepyeaiavorafiei 
3 ea'& at r iv a x^pi-^h to return a favor to one. 

(2) Verbs which signify to do good or evil to any one, by word 
or deed. Such are eveq^eteTv, xay.ovQyEiv, xa'AonomVy EvXoyEiv, aa- 
noXoyEiv, cv, aaXwg, xaxcog liyEiv, eItzeiv, aTTayoQEVEiv. 

'Av&poTts, uTj 6 pa T ov g red-vijuorag k a ic u g, do not injure tlie dead. 
M^ KaKOV py e L roi) g <pi?.ovg, do not harm your friends, ^vepyerei, 
TTjv TTar piS a, do good to your country. Et; not e i rovg ^i.?.ovg, confer 
favors on your friends. 'Ev.ley e rov ev Tieyovra, kol ev iroiei rbv ev 
TT t V V T a, speak well of him ivho speaks well, and do well to him who does well. 
Instead of the adverbs ev and Kaicug with ttoucv, etc., the Greek also uses the 
coiTesponding adjectives : Ka?.u, KaKo. notelv, Xeyetv r i v a, to do or say 
good or ill to one. See under double Accusative (§ 160, 2). 

(3) Verbs of persevering, awaiting, ivaiting for, and the con- 
trary; e. g. iiEVEiv, d-aoQEiv; (pEvyEiv, dTzoSidQaaxEir, dQaTiSTEvscv. 

M^ (bevye rbv klv dvv ov, do not fee from danger. "Kprj ■& a ^ ^ e I v -d- a- 
V aT ov, it is necessary to meet death hravdy = not to fear death. 'O 6ovlog c tt f- 
6 p a rbv 6 e gtz 6 ttj v, the slave ran away from his master. 01 tuv Trpayfidruv 
xatpol ov fiev ov a t t7)v t] fier e p av (3 p a 6 v r y r a, the favorable opportunities 
for action do not wait for our slothfulness. 

(4) Verbs of concealing and heing concealed, viz. Xavd^dvsiy, 
HQmtEiv (celare), nQVTrtEG'&ca; — also the verbs q)-&dv£iv {to au' 


222 SYNTAX. ACCUSATIVE. [§ 159. 

ticipate), IsiTtsiv, sTt iXe i7i s iv, to fail ; — verbs of swearing and 
the like. With verbs of swearing, the object sworn by is put in the 
Ace. Hence also adverbs of swearing are followed by the Ace. ; 
«». g. /icc, ov fi.d, vai ua, vq. 

Q eov g ovre 2,avd- dv e lv, ovre jStdaacr&aL Svvarbv, it is not possible to be 
oncealed from, to escape the notice of the gods, etc. 0/ Tvolepcoi e(p-&7]aav rot)f 
Kd-Tjv aiov g d^moiievoL eig to daw, anticipated the Athenians in coming into the 
city, i. e. reached the city before them. 'lETriXecTre t fie 6 xpovog, i] rjaepa, the 
time, the day fails me. 'O fivv fit irdvrag Tovg '&eovg, I swear by all the gods. 
ISal fid Ala, yes, by Jupitei^ ! M.d r ovg ■& eov g, by the gods. 

(5) Very many verbs denoting a feeling or an affection of the 
mind; e. g. qjo^siod-ai, deiaai; aiayyvead'aiy ai8ET6d-ai\ a^'O'EGd-ai; 
dvg/8Qaivsiv ', iaTzX^tzead-ai, HatanXi^rTSG'&ai; oixtEiQSiv, iXssTv, 
6Xoq)VQS6&ca, etc. 

Xp^ alSelcr-d-ai t ov g ■& e o v g, it is necessary to reverence the gods. Alcr- 
XV V op. a c rbv ■& eov, I am ashamed before the god. '07i0(l>v pov roijg tvs- 
vrj rag, pity the poor. 

(6) With verbs of motion, the space or wai/ is put in the Ace, 
these being the objects on which the action of the verb is perform- 
ed; so also the time during which an action takes place, in answer 
to the question, Hoiv lo7ig ? so too measure and weighty in answer to 
the question, How much f 

B aiv e cv, tt e p av, e pit e c v, tt o p ev e a-& a i b 6 ov, to go a toay, like itque 
reditque viam. Kp ov ov, rbv xpov ov, a long time, vv kt a, i] pe pav, dwr- 
%ng the night, day. 'H llv(3aptg jjKfta^e rovrov rbv xpovov fidXtara, was 
flourishing during this time. "Jaxvadv n Kal Qtj^uIol rovg reXevraiovQ 
Tov T ov al X P ov ov g uerd ttjv ev AevKvpoig pdxv'^i during these last times. 
Mi7iTtddT]g d7re7r?.£i lidpov jroliopK^crag ef Kal eIkoglv i] pe pag, having besieged P. 
twenty-six days. To Ba[3v?Mvcov Td7i,avTov dvvarai Ev[3otdag £j3 6op?JKov- 
r a uv dg, the Babylonian talent is uviih {weighs as much as, amounts to) seventy 
Euboean minae. So Svvapat, signifying to be woiih, regularly takes the Ace. 

(7) Finally, the Ace. is used with intransitive or passive verbs 
and intransitive adjectives of all kinds, to explain them more fully. 
Here, also, the Ace. represents the object as acted upon or suffering^ 
since it denotes the object to which the intransitive action of the 

erb or adjective refers or is directed. This is the Ace. of more 
jiefinite limitation, or, as it is often called, the Ace. of synecdoche. 

Kufiveiv rovg b 6-& al pov g, to be pained in or in respect to the eyes; rd^ 
(hpivag vy Laive IV, to be sound 171 mi/id ; d^jyelv rovg Tvodag, rd aupnra, 
to have pain in the Jeft, body. Acaipepei yvvrj uvdpbg rrjv <J)vglv, troman differs 
in {in respect to) her nature from man. 'O uv-dpioirog tov SaKTvXov d2,yEi, the ■ 
man has a pain in his finger {is pained in respect to). *Aya^bc rex^rfv rev a. 

§ 159.] SYNTAX. — ACCUSATIVE. 223 

distinguished in some art. Aceijj&ap/ic.vog tt/v ipvxvv, corrupt in spirit, ^avrjr 
Koi yv 6 /X7j V iKavog, aal ret tt o X t: fj. i a u?.Kifj.og rjv, Phanes tvas competent in 
counsel, and brave in battle. 'Avecttj ^epav?Mc to gu /la ovic u(l)vr/c kuI tt/v 
ipv xv'^ oi'K uyevvel uvSpl koLKu^. The English commonly uses prepositions 
to express the force of this Ace., viz. in, in respect to, of; or when it stands with 
an adjective, the English sometimes changes the Ace. of the thing into a perso- 
nal substantive and makes the adjective agree with it ; e. g. uya-&og Tixvrjv, a 
good artist, or the prepositions ofov unfh are placed before the substantive denot- 
ing the thing, and the attributive adjective is made to agree with that substan- 
tive ; e. g. veavtag KaTiog ttjv iJjvxvv, a youth of or with a lovely spirit. 

Remark. In this way many adverbial expressions are to be explained, as, 
evpog, v-ipog, /usye-d-og, (ia-&og, iiriKog, 7v7iri-&og, apid-fj-ov, yevog, bvojia, (iipog ; also 
Ti, TOGovTov, fieya, ttuv, iravTa, to ?.onr6v, etc.; e.g. KMavSpog yevog r/v ^c- 
ya?>.ei)g ut:' 'ApKaSlag, a Phigalian by descent. Mera TavTa d<pi,K0VT0 kizl Tdv 
ZafSaTOv TroTafibv r d ev po g TSTTapcjv Tclsd-puv, four hundred feet in vndth. 

LXXXIV. Exercises on § 159. 

He who is enslaved {part.) to pleasures, submits to (= serves) the most shame- 
ful ser\atude. The laws not only punish the wrong-doers, but also benefit the 
virtuous. If thou wishest to be beloved by friends, benefit (thy) friends ; if thou 
desirest to be honored by a state, be useful to and benefit the state. Hiches of- 
ten injure both the body {plur.) and the mind {plur.). He who (§ 148, 6) flatters 
friends, does them much (Trol/la) wrong. Eevenge not thyself upon thine ene- 
mies. Those who {part.) injure a benefactor, are punished by God. "We wor- 
ship no man as lord, but the gods. Sedentary trades injm*e the body {plur.) and 
enfeeble the mind {plur.). The himter lays snares for the hares. Endeavor to 
repay benefactors with gratitude. Beware most of all of meetings for {kv) ca- 
rousal. Imitate wise men. Pmdent men {sing.) take heed to the danger^ from 
i which they have once been rescued {aor.). We must {xpsc^v) emulate works 
iand acts, not words of virtue. It is said, that {ace. w. inf.) Xerxes threw down 
'((Zo?\) fetters into the Hellespont in order to revenge {part, fut.) himself upon 
;the Hellespont. A slave, who has run away {aor. part.) from his master, de- 
serves stripes. Shun a pleasure that afterward brings pain. The general must 
{XPVj '^- <^cc. and inf.) demean himself kindly towards {Tcpog, w. ace.) his soldiers, 
that they may have confidence {■&ap^Eiv) in him. TeU me, what {d-rrolog) pun- 
ishment the betrayer of his country will expect after {fiera, w. ace.) death. Con- 
ceal {aor. mid.) from me nothing, (my) friend. To deceive {aor.) men is easy; 
Ibut to remain concealed from God (is) impossible. Provision {(^log) failed the 
anny. I swear to you by all the gods and aU the goddesses, that I have never 
j injured any one of the citizens (= to have injured no one, etc.). Yotmg men 
must {6el, w. ace. and inf.) have respect, in {kTzi, w. gen.) the house, to parents, 
in (ev) the ways, to those who meet {part.) them, in soKtude {plur.), to themselves. 
The beginning of msdom is to fear God. Have compassion {aor.) upon me, 
who {part.) am unfortunate beyond desert. The Lacedaemonians had not less 
reverence for old men than for (their) fathers. Shrink not from going (inf.) a 
long way to {Trpog, w. ace.) those who (§ 148, 6) profess to teach anything iisefuL 
For a long time the Lacedaemonians had {aor.) the supremacy of Greece by 


(Kara, w. ace.) land and by sea. Thcoplirastus died {aor.) after (part.) he 
had lived (aor.) eighty-five years. Phanes was of sufficient pmdence {= sulSi- 
cient in prudence), and brave in battle. Men seem to be well in body (jdur.) 
after (utto) many labors. Cyrus was very beautiful in person, of a humane 
heart, (and) very fond of learning and very eager for lionor. Larissa was built 
of (dat.) earthen tiles; undemeath was a stone foundation of twenty feet in 

§160. Double Accusative. 
In the following instances the Greek puts two objects in the Ace , 
with one verb. 

1. In the construction mentioned above, § 159, 2, when the verb^ 
has a transitive signification, e. g. cpiliav qjilalv, then the idea of 
activity consisting of the verb and substantive, with which an ad- 
jective usually agrees, being blended into one, may at the same time 
be extended to a personal object; e.g. gxlw ^lEyalriv (fiXlav; 
(== fiiya g)doa) tov 7t aid a, Hove the hoy with great love (greatly) ;* 
•aalco G E 1 ovr to ovoiia, I call you this name or by this name, j 
Here cpiXlav and ovoiia are Accusatives of cognate signification,. j 
having a sense similar to their respective verbs. 

2. Expressions of doing or saying good or evil, which may contain 
an Ace. of the thing said or done, take the object to which the good 
or evil is done in the Ace. The Ace. here also, denotes the object 
acted upon ; e. g. tioiblv, ttquztslv, i()yd^8G&ai, etc., XsyEiv, eiTtsTv, 
etc., ay aS-d, xand riv a, to do good or evil to any one, to say 
good or evil of any one. 

Tore Srj 6 Qe/uaTOK?J]g ekeIv 6v re Kal roi) g Koptv&iovc 'n-o2,Xa re 
Kot KaKu, £/.eyev, Themistodes said much evil of him and the Corinthians. Ov- 
6e7:6)Tcore eTravovro TroAAd r] flag -xo lovvt eg KaKO,, never ceased to do 
much evil to us. 

Rem. 1. Instead of the Ace. of the object acted upon, the Dat. is sometimea 
used, wliich is to be considered as tlie Dat. of adcantage or disadvantage ; e. g. 
■KpogKOnEL, tI c I 7T0L?)<70VGLv ol apx6[j.svoL, cousider what you?' subjects shall do 
FOB you; but with ai, what they will do to you. 

3. Moreover, verbs take two Accusatives, which signify to make, 
to choose, to appoint, to nominate, to consider as anything, to de- 
dare, to represent, to regard, to hnow, to say, to name, to call ; e. g. 
TTOiEiv, zi-uEvai (to appoint), y.a&iGzdvai, aiQETG&ai, vofii^Eiv, TjyEiGd-aif 
7JyEiv, ovoud^Eiv, xalEiv, etc. — One of these Accusatives is the ob- 
ject acted upon, or the suffering object, the other is the predicate, 
and hence may often be an adjective. 


'O Kvpo^ Tov^ (piXovc kiToirio e irXovaiovr, made his friends rich. 
U.ac6 Evscv rtva (to(1>6v, to educate one ivise, i. e. make unse l/y educaiion. 
A-lpetv TLvu [xeyav, to make one great. 'N o/xi^eiv, rjy ela'&ai riva 
avSpa a,ya-d-6v,to think, to consider some one a good man . 'Ovo/iu^ecv t ivd. 
co(j)i(jT7]v,to call one a sophist. Xlpela'&ai r lv a gt p ari] y 6v,to choose one 
a commander. Tdv T ufSpvav avvSeiTrvov irapelafi ev, he mode Golrnjaa 
his companion at supper. Il67ieo)g 7r?i, ovtov 7/yov/ av/j,fiuxovg, rriu- 
T IV, evv tav. 

Rem. 2. In the passive construction, this explanatory Ace. is changed into 
the Nom. and agrees witli the subject ; e. g. TLaiSevetv rtvu ao(p6v, but Pass, rig 
eiTaidev-&r] aocpog; alpela'&ai nva arpaTr/yov, but Pass. rZf ype'&rj ar pa- 
rr] y 6 g. 

4. With verbs, {a) of entreating, beseeching, desiring, inquiring, 
ashing, e. g. alreiv, TiQattaiv (to demand), TTodztEG'&ai, SQcozaVy 
i^STa^Eiv, iazoQsTv ; (/3) of teaching, e. g. dibdaxeiv, TzaideiJEiv ; (y) 
of dividing, cutting in pieces, e. g. diaiQslv, tEfzvEiv, d(av£(X£iv ; (d) 
of depriving, taking away, e. g. dcpaiQEla'&ai, areQeiv, aTtoazegeiv, 
cvlav, etc.; («) oi concealing or hiding from, e. g. y.QV7tte.iv ; (t) of 
putting on and off, e. g. ivdveiv, ixdveiv, df^qjisvvvvai. 

Ui/iiipag Kafij3va7]g elg AlyvrcTov KtjpvKa, ijT e l "kfiaa lv ■dvyarepa, ashed 
Amasisfor his daughter. Kvr ov g ekutov t (lAavr a STtpa^av, demanded of 
them a hundred talents. 'Apyvpiov tt parr e lv t lv a, to exact money from one. 
IIo/lAa 6 idaa KoL fie 6 TvoXvg [Siorog, teaches me many things. Uacdevov- 
GL Tovg iracSag rpia ft ova, they teach the boys three things only. TXtJr- 
T av re rj)v 'ArriK^/v Kal r porr ov g rCov 'K^rjvaluv kdidaaKov r oi) g Tral- 
Sag, they taught the boys the Attic tongue and the Athenian customs. T p elg [xoi- 
pag b Aep^VQ edaaaro Tvdvra rov Tce^ov arparov, divided all the 
land-army into three divisions. Teuvsiv, Siatpelv r i [i e p ri, p. o i p a g, to di- 
vide anything into parts. 'O "Kvpog ro ar par ev p,a Kar ev e ip e 6 6 6 e Ka 
fie p T], divided the army into twelve parts. Tbv p.6v ov pot Kal (piXov rralda 
k^eiXero rrjv tpyxv"^, deprived my only child of life. Tijv rLprjv airoa- 
r e p EL p e, he robs me of honor. T a i] pir e pa i] pag inv oar epel b $i- 
"kLTTTzog. KpvTrro) a e rb dr'y;t;j7//G, / conceal the misfortune from you. Ualg 
ueyag ir e pov nald a /j. t ic pbv p,£y av x'-''' ^'^ (^ s ^ e 6v a e, Kal rbv xi-- 
r uv a pev kavrov h keIv ov 7j p(j)L e a e, a large boy stripped another small boy of 
his large tunic, and put his oivn tunic on him. 

Hem. 3. 'ATroarEpelv and a(paLp£Lad^aL, to deprive, to take away, are construed (a) 
with Ace. of thing alone ; — (b) with Ace. of person alone, but rarely; — (c) with 
Ace. both of person and of thing, very often ; — (d) with Gen. of person and Ace. 
of thing, less often ;^ — (e) dwoarepelv with Ace. of person and Gen. of thing, very 
often (§ 157.), cKpaipelad-aL veiy seldom, and then means to prevent; arepslv 
\8 constnied both as in (c) and (e). 

Rem. 4. When the active verbs mentioned under No. 4, are changed into the 
oassive, the Ace. of the object receiving the action, becomes the Nom., but the 
A-Cc. of the thing remains (according to § 1 50, 4) ; e.g.'Epurupai r^v yvu- 

226 * SYNTAX. — ^D^TIVE. [§ 161. 

[17] V, I am asked my opinion. ILatSevofiai., 6 loug KOfxai iiovaiKrjv, 1 
am taught, I learn music. Tv 6s Kal oUrjaeig t a avra fj,epv S tav e firj-Q-^Tu, 
let the land and its habitations he divided into the same number' of paHs. 'A^aipe- 
d-TJvat, a7toGTsp7]-&yvai r^v a p XV v, to he deprived of office. KpvTrro- 
uaL TOVTo TO Ttpdyjua, this thing is concealed from me. 'Kfi(pLevvv(iai 
XiTuva, lam clothed with, or Tpvi on a tunic. 

Eem. 5. Even some verbs j which in the active are constructed with the Dat 
of the person and the Ace. of the thing, in the passive change this Dat. of the 
person into the ISTom., while the Ace. of the thing remains. The following are 
recfularly so constructed : ETnraTTELV, k-KLTpsTzsLv, hv:LGTE7J\,ei,v r ivi r l, to com- 
mit, to entrust something to some one, e. g. 'ETrirpETro/xai,, ETTLraTTOfxai, ETCLcrrillo/xai 
TTjv (l>v\aKT]V, I am entrusted with the guard, or the guard is entrusted to me. 

Rem. 6. The oxvp^a Ka-d-' okov koI [ispog occurs with the Ace. as well as with 
the Norn. (§ 147b, Eem. 2); e. g. 0/ 7ro?i£fj.LOL rovg TroXirag roi)g fisv 
aTTEKTetvav, t oi)c de hdovTiuaavTo, as for the citizens, the enemy killed some, and 
enslaved others, or the enemy killed some of the citizens, etc. 

LXXXV. Exercises on § 160. 

When Pyrrhus had twice conquered (aor.) in engagements {avfMJBaXkeLv, aor. 
part.) with the Eomans, having lost {am:) many of his friends and leaders, he 
said: Although [hav, w. siibj.) we have conquered (aor.) the Eomans in battle, 
we are ruined. Critias and Alcibiades occasioned (aor.) very many evils to the 
state. The gods have coiiferred (aor.) many blessings upon human life. Esteem 
labor as the guide to (gen.) a pleasant life. Plato called (aor.) philosophy a 
preparation for [gen.) death. Misfortune makes men more thoughtful. Socrates 
did not exact from those who (§ 148, 6) had intercourse with him, (any) money 
for (gen.) his conversation. Apollo, who was {yijvEG^ai, aor. part.) the inven- 
tor of the bow, taught men archery. The Greeks, in the Median (wars), took 
{aoTi part.) the supremacy from the Lacedaemonians and gave it to the Athe- 
nians. The public square of the Persians sun'ounding (= around) the gover- 
nor's residence, is divided into four parts ; of these, one is for boys, another for 
youths, another for adult men, another for those who (§ 148, 6) are (yiyvEad-ai, 
perf) past (=over, beyond) military years. Many, who {port.) have mean 
minds, are adorned (= invested) with fine persons and fine lineage (plur.) and 
wealth (plur.). Wisdom was taught to many young men by Socrates. After 
{part.) the power was taken from {aor.) Croesus, he lived with Cyrus. The sol- 
diers, to whom {part.) the guard had been intrusted, had fled. 

§161. III. Dative. 
1. The Dative Case expresses the relation where, and hence is 
used, first, to denote, (a) the place in which an action is peiformed ; 
in prose, however, prepositions are commonly joined with substan- 
tives expressing this relation, e. g. iv 6 q e i, in monte ; — (b) the 
time when or in which an action is performed, e. g. ravtrj ry 

§ 161.] SYNTAX. DATIVE. 227 

^fiSQCCfthis day; rri aviri vv 'a 1 1, the same night; noXXoXg 
'it E6 IV, many years ; r q it (p fitjv i; r ^ avz ^ oo ^ « ; here also 
the preposition iv is often used ; — (c) the heing with, associating, 
accompanying, (a) the Dat. singular of collective nouns, or the Dat. 
plural of common nouns, connected with a verb of going or coming, 
e. g. Ji&r^vaioi i]l'&ov tzX'^'&si ovx oXiycp, noXlaXg vavciv, 
at Q at (p, atQaticotaig, etc., came with a large numher, with 
many ships, with an army, with soldiers, etc. ; (^) the Dat. connect- 
ed with avt 6 g which agrees with the substantive in the Dat., to 
express the idea, at the same time with, together with, e. g. 01 noXi- 
fiioi EveniixTtQaaav tijv nokiv av t oig t oig Isgoig, burnt the city 
together with the sanctuaries. 

2. The Dat. is used, in the second place, to denote an object, 
which is indeed aimed at by the action of the subject, but which is 
not, as with the Ace, attained, reached or accomplished, but only 
'partici'pates and is interested in it. Hence the Dat. is used : 

(a) With expressions of association and union ; here belong, (a) 
expressions denoting intercourse, associating with, mixing withy 
communication, participation ; — (^) verbs and expressions signify- 
ing to go against, to encounter, to meet, to approach, to he near to, 
and their opposites, e. g. to yield to, to submit ; — (j) to fight, to quar- 
rel, to contend, to vie with; — (8) to follow, to serve, to ohey, to trust 
and to accompany ; — (t) to counsel, to incite, to encourage. 

Here belong', (c) the verbs didovaL, Trapexstv, ofiilstv, fir/vvvac, -vcr&ai, koi- 
vovv, -ovad-ac, noLvovelv, 6i-, KaraTJMTTELv, -ec&ai, ^evovcr&ai,, GTtevdety&aL or 
Gizovdag Troiela'&ai, Trparrecv, vmaxvelcr&ac, eItceZv, ?JyEtv, diaXeyecrd-ai, ev- 
Xs<T&ai, Karapaad-ai, also adjectives and adverbs and even substantives, as koi- 
voq, avvrpocpog, avfx^^avog, avyyevrjg, neraiTLog and others compounded "with cvv 
and //era;— ((3) the verbs vKoarTjvac, vcpcaraa'&ac, cnravrav, vrcavrav, vTravTtd- 
^eiv, TTATjcTtd^eLv, TreXcfeiv, eyyl^eLv, eIkslv, i}TretKecv, ;\;6;pfiy, the adjectives ttXtj- 
aicq, evavTcog, the adverbs eyyvg, 'askaq ; — (7) the verbs epi^ecv, iidx£C-&aL, izoAe 
{lelv, dycovt^ead-ai, 6cKa.^e(j-&ac, diKpiGprjrelv ; — [6) the verbs ETrecrdac, uko7^ov 
■&£lv, 6ia6£X£(y-&ai [to succeed), TTEid-EG'&ai, vrraKOVECv, dnefd-Eiv, iricrTEveiv, tte 
iTOL^Evai, the adjectives and adverbs ciKo/.ov&og, -cog, diddoxog, e^v^, e^e^f ; — 
(e) the verbs T^pog-, ETTLrdTrecv, irapaivElv, TrapaKeXeveGd-ac. 

'O fitXet Tolg ay a ■& oig av&p6)7rocg, associate with good men. E v- 
X£(^'d-£ ToZg d-eoig, pray to the gods. 'ATravrdv, tcT^tj g id^etv, kyyi- 
(^ecv Tivc, to meet, approach, come near to one. M^ siKsre rolg ttoXe- 
fxio tg, do not yield to the enemy. OL "E/HrivEg Kalug k[iaxE<JO-VTO rolg 
n e p (T a t f , fought with the Persians. 01 GrpaTtuTat avrj Kovarrjaav rolg 
GT pari] y oig, disobeyed the commanders. Hei-d-ov rolg vofiotg, obey the 
laws. Ty apery dKo7.ov&el do^a, glory follows virtue. JleTrof&Evai r iv'i, 
to trust one. "Y dare fiefiiy/ievog rijv fxd^av, having mixed the maize with toater. 

228 SYNTAX. — DATIVE. [§161. 

(b) With expressions of similarity and dissimilarity, of likeness 
and unlikeness, of agreement and difference. Under those of like- 
ness is included o avzog, signifying the same. 

Such are kocKevai, d/xotovv, -ovc&ai, ofj.oioc, -u^, laog, -«f, ej^diepTjg {similar), 
TrapaTTAijacog, -ug, afta, dtd^opog, 6ca<po)voc, and very many words compounded 
with dfiov, cvv, pLera ; e. g. dfiovoelv, ofiojXarTog, av/LKpuvelv, etc. 

Oi 7i aldeg e /j,^ ep ear ar o t Tjaav r g) Tvar pi, the children were very mwch 
JiJce their father. 'Q7r2,Lafievot TravTeg }]aav ol Tvepl tov Kvpov rolg avrolg r^ 
Kvpo) oTrlotg, all Cyrus' soldiers ivere provided with the same arms as Cyrus. 

(c) With verbs and expressions signifying, (a) to assent to, to 
agree with, etc. ; — {§) to uph^aid, to reproach, to he angry, to envy ; 
— (y) to help, to he useful to, to avert from, and verbs compounded 
with avv, expressing this idea ; — (5) to he hecoming, to he suitable, 
to he ft, to please, and with many others, the personal object is put 
in the Dat. In addition to the Dat. of the person, these verbs fre- 
quently govern the Ace. of the thing. The Dat. is also used with 
verbs signifying to rejoice at, to he pleased with, and the like. In 
many cases, however, the Dat. with such verbs may be regarded as 
the Dat. of came. Comp. § 161, 3. — In general, the Dat. is used, 
when the action takes place for the benefit or injury of a person or 
thing. This is called the Dat. of advantage or disadvantage, and 
often includes what is termed the limiting Dat., or the Dat. express- 
ing the relation of to or for. 

Here belong, (a) biioKoyzlv ; — (/3) iii\i^z(r^ai (with Ace. it means to blame), 
2,oioopeca-d-ac, eTTLTifzav, kjKaXelv (§ 158, Eem. 7) and kTrcKaXelv {tcvc ti), eirc- 
•srTjfjTTELv, dvecdl^eiv, kvox^^lv, d^vfiova'&at, (SpLfzovcr^ai, ;\;a/le';T-aiveiy, cpd-ovelv, 
BacKaivEiv [to envy) ; — (y) aprjyeiv, dfzvveiv, ake^eiv, ri/xupelv, (3o7}'&Eiv, k-KiKOV- 
peZv, dTToloyelcrd-ac, Ivacrelelv, tTcapKelv, XP'^'-'^H-^^'^^ av[i(pepELv, av/nrpdrrsiv, 
avvepyelv, and adjectives of similar signification, e. g. xpV'^^f^'Og, <pHog ; and those 
of an opposite signification, e. g. hx^P^^^ iS'Aaf^spog, etc.; — (S) TrpeTretv, dpfioT- 
TELv, TTpogrjKELv (with Inf. following), eUog kart, dpeaKELv, the adverbs irpEirov- 
Tug, aTrpETVug, Einorug. 

TLoGEiSuv a<f)66pa kfi.evEaiv£v 'OdvaaEt, icas very angry with Ulysses. 'E tc t- 
tt'X^tte iv, dvEidi^ECV, ky Ka'Xelv r lvl Tt,to reproach one for something, 
to charge something on one. Ov rolg apxEiv (SovXofiEvoig fi i fi (p o fi a i, 
dlTia rolg vrcaKovELv k r o c fzor s p o i g ov a lv, I do not reproach those wishing 
to nde, but those, etc. 'Hvox^ei 6 ^ilLTnrog rolg 'Ad-7]v aio ig, Philip gave 
trouble to the Athenians. ^■&ov eIv t lv l, to envy one. 'kfivvu rip vofiu, 
I will defend (the idea of aiding) the law, etc. 'OpEarrjg j}-&£2,i]aE TifiapElv 
'rrarpl, Orestes ivished to hdp his father, etc. 'A;t'iX/lf i)f krifiiopTjae Harp 6' 
%2,(f) Tip iratpCf) tov <p6vov, avenged the murder of { for) his friend Patxoclus. 
'H dpETT) apioKEi T olg d.y a-d-olg, virtue pleases the good. 'EUoTug aot 
Xaipovaiv ol AaK£(^aifx6viot, rejoice in, are pleased ivith you. "HSea^ai 
r IV I, to be pleased with a thing. 

§ 161.] SYNTAX. DATIVE. 229 

(d) Finallj, the Dat. is used to denote the possessor with the 
verbs elv ai, vnaQ'/siv and yiyvea-O-ai, these verbs then be- 
ing translated by the verb to have, and the Dat. as the Nom. ; e. rr. 
Kv Q 0) 1JV {.leyuX?^ ^aaileia, Gyrus had a great kingdom ; and in 
general, the Dat. is used, where an action takes place in respect to, 
in relation to a person, or an object considered as a person ; e. g. 
2^coxQdtT]g roiovrog cov Tturjg a^iog tjv ry Ttolzi fia).Xov, rj 'Oavu- 
Tov, Socrates heing such, deserved honor in respect to the city rather 
than death. Hence the Dat. is also frequently used with the pas- 
sive, and regularly with verbal adjectives in -xiog and -tog, instead 
of vno with the Gen. ; e. g. (ag iioi tzqoteqov dtdi^lojTai, as has 
been before shown by me. Aa^rirm lazi o a t y dqerri, virtue must 
be practised by you. On the construction wdth the verbal adjective, 
see § 168, 1, 2. 

3. In the third place, the Dat. is used like the Latin Ablative 
(Abl. of instrument), to denote the cause, means and instrument 
(hence with iQijad^ai), the manner and way, the measure (by which 
the action is limited, particularly with comparatives and superla- 
tives), conformity {according to, in accordance with), often also, 
the material. 

01 iTo7i£fi.coL (pOfSc) iiTzTjA-d-ov, Went back through, on account of fear (the fear be- 
ing the cause of the action). 'AjuXXo/iaL ry viKy, I exult on account of victory. 
Irepyu, uyaTrd rolg VTrdpxovacv ayad-olg, I am pleased with those who 
are good. 'O d'&alfiolg opufiev, oolv uKovofiev, we see with our eyes, we hear 
with our ears. 'Icxv^i-vtC) a u [i, art , to be strong in body. 01 (jrparitJrat av /z- 
(po pa fiey d^ri kxpv <^ o-vro, experienced {used) great misfortune. 'Ale^avdpog 
StdaaKaXo) sXpv^^aTO ' KptCToreXeL. 01 TtoAeiiiOL (3 la elg rrjv tzdXiv el^yecav, 
entered the city by force. Oc 'A-&ijvaioc rbv M.i?^Ttdd7]v TTsvrrjKovra t aXavroig 
h^TJiiiuaav,' fined Miltiades fifty talents. 'H ayopa Jlaptu lid^u ^(tktjjisvtj ^v, 
the Agora loas adorned with Parian marble. Ilo/l/laj, d2,i.yo) fiei^uv, greater by 
much, little (the Dat. measuring the degi-ee of difference between the things com- 
pared). T^ dlij-d- eia Kplvecv, to judge according to truth. 

4. The Dat. of the thing often stands with verbs, substantives 
and adjectives, to denote in what respect their signification is to be 
taken ; e. g. VTtsQ^dXXeiv r 6X firj, to excel in or in respect to boldness ; 
Kvdvog 6v6 flat I, Cydnus by name; tayyg no 61, swift of foot. This 
Dat., however, is often the same as the Dat. of means or instrument, 

5. The Dat. stands as the indirect object or complement of very 
many verbs, to denote the relation expressed in English by to or 
for ; e. g. didcofu a oi to ^i^Xiov, I give a booh to you ; KvQog avr (p, 
slTtev, Cyrus said to him; ov cog cpiXoi 7iQogeq)SQOvto y i^tv, they did 


230 SYNTAX. — PREPOSITIONS. [§ 162. 

not conduct towards us as friends ; atQazeviia avreXsyszo Kv q cp,an 
army was collected for Cyrus. 

5. (a) The Dat. is also put after adjectives to denote the object to 
which their quaUty is directed. The relation of this Dat. is usually 
expressed by tc ov for, e. g. tt da i dijlov syEVEto, it became evident 
to all ; avt(^ ol dyad^ol evvoi ^cav, the good were well disposed to- 
wards him ; ix&Qog dvO- QcoTioig, hateful to men, 

Remabk. The rules 5 and 5, (a) are mainly incladed in 2, (a), (b), (c), but are 
stated here in a more specific form, for the benefit of beginners. 

LXXXVI. Exercises on § 161. 

Cyras resolved {am\) on this day to engage with the enemy ; after the battle 
he marched {aor.) the same day twenty stadia. The Athenians made an expe- 
dition {arpaTEVELv) with thirty ships against the islands of Aeolus. When the 
Persians came [aor.) with (their) entire {7TafZ7T?i,7}-&7jc) force {aroAog), the Athe- 
nians dared {aor. part.) to encounter (aor.) them, and conquered them. The 
Athenians conquered the enemy and took then* ships together with the men. 
Associate not Avith bad men, but cleaye ever to the good. Thamyiis, who was 
distinguished {aor. part.) for beauty and for (skill in) harp-playing, contended 
{aor.) with the Muses for (the superiority in) {Ttspi, w.gen.) music. Human na- 
ture is mingled with a di\dne energy. Truth discourses with boldness {ftsTd, 
w.gen.), and therefore men are displeased with it. It is easy to advise {aor.) 
another {erepog). The general exhorted the soldiers to fight bravely. Life is 
like a theatre. Most of the Roman women were accustomed to wear (= to 
have) the same shoes as the men. Actions are not always like words. Homer 
compares the race of men to leaves. The mind mined by wiae is in the same 
case as (= sufi"ers the same as) chariots, that have lost {part, pres.) their 
charioteers. Some object to the laws of Lycurgus, that they are indeed suffi- 
cient to call forth (Trpof, iv. ace.) bravery, .but are insufiicient to maintain ( = 
for) justice. To please the multitude is to displease the wise. Esteem those as 
true friends, who (§148, 6) censure faults. Quails have a pleasant song. Hu- 
man destinies (= the human, plur.) have been deplored by many wise men, who 
believed {part.) that life is {inf.) a punishment. The gods rejoice in the virtue 
of men. The bull wounds with the horn, the horse with the hoof, the dog with 
the mouth, the boar with the tusk. The Thessahans practised {xpv<yd-ai) law- 
lessness more than justice. Helen was very (= much) distinguished {aor.), as 
well by bhth as for beauty and fame. Wisdom is far (by much) better than 
riches. One can (= it is possible) neither safely use a horse without bridle, 
nor riches without consideration. 

§162. Pr epositions, 
1. As the Cases denote the local relations whence, whither andj 
where, so the prepositions denote other local relations, which desigt 

§ 163.] SYNTAX. — PREPOSITIONS. avtt, TtQO. 231 

nate the extension (dimension) of things in space, viz. the juxta- 
'position of things (near to, before, by, around, with), and the local 
opposites, above and helow, within and without, before and behind, 

2. The Case connected "with the preposition shows in which of 
the three above-named relations — whence, whither, where — the local 
relation expressed by the preposition, must be considered. 

Thus, e. g. the preposition tt a p a denotes merely the local relation of vicinity, 
the near or hy ; but in connection with the Gen., e.g. ^Ai9^e nap a r ov ^aai- 
leug, it denotes the dhection tvhence (he cavae from near the king, de chez le roi) ; 
in connection with the Ace, e. g. yei izapa rdv (3 a a t ?l e a, the direction 
whither (he went into the vicinity or presence of the king) ; and in connection with 
the Dat., e. g. ecrri reap a t€) fSaaiXel, the where {he stood near the king) 

3. The prepositions are divided according to their construction • 

(a) Into prepositions with the Gen. : avrc, utto, ek, 7rp6, eveKa ; 

(b) Into those Avlth the Dat. : ev and gvv ; 

(c) Into those with the Ace. : dva, elg, ug ; 

(d) Into those with the Gen. and Ace. : 6;.a, Kara, virep ; 

(e) Into those with the Gen., Dat. and Ace. : d//0i, irepi, km, jiera, Trapa, 
Trpof and vtzo. 

4. The local relation expressed by prepositions is transfeiTed to 
the relations of time and causality (cause, effect, etc.) ; e. g. vtzo 
zrjg yrj g ehat and vtzo cpo^ov cpEvyeiv, to be under the earth, to 
fiee for, on account of, fear ; i y, ttj g TZoXeoag dneX&Eiv and 
E I rijii Q ag ccnEld^elv, to depart out of the city, to depart imme- 
diately after daybreak. 

A. Prepositions with one Case. 

§163. I. Prepositions with the Gen. alone. 

1. Jivti, Lat. ante, original signification, over against, before, 
opposite ; then for, instead of, in the place of, e. g. Gzrjvai dvz I 
t IV og, to stand before one ; dovXog dvti ^ aa iXb co g, a slave in- 
stead of king ; dvti ^ fzs q ag vv^ iytvsto, instead of day there was 
night ; dv'&' ov, wherefore, because. 

2. Uqo, pro, prae, before, for, agrees with avrl in all its rela- 
tions, but is used in a much greater variety of relations ; e. g. Gtij- 
vac n Qo Tzvlav, to stand before the gates ; tz q 6 ^ ^s q ag, before 
day {dvti is not used of time) ; ^diEa&ai, dno-O'avdv tz q 6 t^ g 
n at Qid og, to fight, to die for one's country ; dovXog tzqo deaTzotoVf 
a slave instead of master ; tz go t mv d s, for these things, therefore. 

232 SYNTAX. — PREPOSITIONS. — aTTo, in, svsxa. [§163. 

o. An 0, ah, original signification, fron}, e. g. aTto trig n o- 
Jleca? TjXd-ev; — of time: from, since, after, e. g. aTto dsiTtvov 
ilia'^iaavro, after the meal ; — ahai, jiyvea&ai a. it 6 tivog,tohe de- 
scended from some one ; — T(p a no tcjv nole^imv (po^co, on ac- 
count of fear of {froin) the enemy, like metus ah aliquo ; — of the 
means : hy, with, e. g. ZQ8q)8iv to vavriaov an 6 nQogodcov, to 
&uppoH the fleet hy revenues ; — a no z ivog xalsiad^ai, to he called 
hy something. 

4. 'Ea, i^, ex, original signification, out of, e. g. in zrj g noXamg 
dnr^l&ev ; — of time immediately following : after, e.g. i^ ^ fisgag, 
ex quo dies illuxit, as soon as it was day ; ix n aid cov, from 
childhood ; i^ aid- q lag rs xal vijv e^iag GwidQUfiev i^anivj^g 
vtcprj, after the clear weather clouds suddenly collected. — '0 6og na- 
trjQ iv T'^ds zy fiia rn^iQCi i^ uq) Qovog GcocpQcov jayivritai, your 

father in this one day, from a senseless man has heconie discreet ; 

&2vai, yiyveo&ai s x t iv o g, to he descended from some one ; — accord- 
ing to, hy virtue of, after ov for, e. g. £ x t i/ g 6ip ecog tov oveiQav,. 
according to the appearance of the dream. — 'Ovofid^aa&ai sn z ivog,. 
to he named after or for some one. 

5. "EvEyia (placed before or after the Gen.), on account of, for 
the sake of; — hy means of. 

Remark. Also some adverbs and substantives are very often used as prepo- 
sitions, and are tberefore called improper prepositions (see, however, § 157, et 
seq.) ; e. g. tc poa-d- ev and ejiTz poa-& ev, before.^ ott La-& ev, behind, avev 
and x^ pi-^i ivithout, T:7.r]v, except, fiera^v, between, /lixp h until, x^P'-'^ 
(usually placed after the Gen.), gratia, for the sake of. Instead of the Gen. of the 
personal pronouns, x^P'-'^ regularly takes the possessive pronouns agreeing with 
it in gender, number and case \ e. g. eiirjv, arjv x^P^-^f wiea, tua gratia. 

LXXXVII. Exercises on § 163. 

No one would (§ 153, 2. c) take {aor.) a blind leader in place of one who could 
see (= a seeing one). It is beautiful to exchange {aor. mid.) a mortal body for 
immortal fame. Those who (§ 148, 6) have made proficiency (aor.) in philoso- 
phy; become free instead of slaves ; tinily rich instead of poor ; considerate (^e- 
TpitJTepoL) instead of unintelligent and stupid. Before action dehberate. A 
(art.) friend often does for his (art.) friend, that [plur.) which he did not do [aor.) 
for himself Ephesus is distant a three days' journey from Sardis. The Helle- 
spont was named from Helle, who there lost her life ( = who died [/?aj-f.] in it). 
When [part.) Socrates brought (= offered) small ofierings from (his) small 
(means), he believed (himself) to be no less meritorious {/xewvcr&at) than those 
who (§ 148, 6) from (their) many and great (means) bring many and great (of- 
ferings). Socrates Hved very contentedly with very httle property. We may 
not judge the best (men) by (= from) (their) exterior, but by (their) morals. It is 

§§ 164, 165.] SYNTAX. — PREPOSITIONS. — EV, GUV, OLVU. 233 

easier to maJce (= place, aor.) evil out of good, than good out of evil. The 
character reveals itself especially in (= out of) the actions. From the fruit 
I know the tree. After the war came peace. Men plot against each oiher 
for the sake of gold, fame [plur.) and pleasures. Semiramis reigned until 
old age over the Assyrians. A beautiful action is not performed without 
vii-tue. The gods bestow upon men nothing good {plur. gen.) and beautiful, 
without labor and care. Tempe lies between Ol3^mpus and Ossa. Conceal 
good fortune, lest it excite envy (= on account of envy). 

§164. 2. Prepositions with the Dat. alone.- 

1. 'Ev denotes that one thing is in, upon, hy or near another; it 
indicates an actual union or contact of the two objects spoken of, 
and hence is the opposite of £>c, vijac^, iv yv„ iv J^Ttdg- 
t Tj ; — i V OTzXoig, iv x o^oig 8iaymvi(^eG&ai ; iv TtQOfidxoig, 
'iv IB S-sois y>cu dv&QaTznig {among); hence, before, coram ; 
upon, iv oQSGiv, iv iTZTioig, iv S- qovoig ; — at, hy, near to, 
so especially of the names of cities, and particularly in describing 
battles ; e. g. ^ iv M avr iv eia fidyj], the battle near Ifant. — Of 
time, iv t ovr op z cp xqov cp, iv w, in or within this time, while, 
during the time that, iv tz ivr e ^ {a,sq at g. — Of the means and in- 
strument with the expressions d7]lovv, dijXov slv ai, Grjiiai- 
VEiv sv r ivi, to show by something ; e. g. oxi at ■&eoi Ge llecp ib 
aai £V[i8vsTg TiifxTZovGi, 'xai. iv IsgoTg dijXov aal iv ov q avi- 
ig G rj {I e I i g, it is evident both by the victims and the signs from 
heaven, that, etc. 

Kem. 1. With several verbs of motion, the Greek commonly uses h with tlie 
Dat., instead of eig with the Ace. ; e. g. rf&evai, Kararc'&evac, avari-d-hai (to 
wnsecrate) and the like. 

2. 2vv (^vv, mostly old Attic). The original signification of 
Gvv corresponds almost entirely with the Latin cum and the English 
with, e. g. GZQatrjog gvv t oig gt (j ar lar ac g; — of assistance 
\iv help, e. g. gvv S^e^, by the help of God; — gvv zd^ei, gvv 
8i a TtoieTv zi. 

Rem. 2. Here belongs ajxa, at the same time with, with, one of the adverbs 
used as improper prepositions. 

§165. 8. Prepositions with the Ace. alone, 

1. .Avd. Original signification, up, on, upon. It forms the 

strongest contrast to y.azd with the Ace. As y.azd is used to de- 

Dote motion from a higher to a lower place, so dvd to denote motion 

Prom a lower to a higher place ; e. g. dvd z ov tt o z a fi 6 v, dvd 


234 SYNTAX. PREPOSITIONS. — £(V, (ag. [§ 165. 

Q 6 ov nXeiv, to sail up the stream (the opposite being y^ at a Ttot a* 
^6v, down the stream). It commonly serves to denote local exten- 
sion from a lower to a higher place, from bottom to top : throughout^ 
through ; av a t tjv 'E XXdd a — dv a t ov 7i oXs f^ov r ov t ov, 
{per, during). Thus dvd Ttciaav triv ruiigav, through the 
whole day, dvd ndv to szog, during the whole year; hence 
without the article, dvd n da av '^ fi s q av, dvd ti dv 'it o^, 
every day, every year, daily, yearly, dvd vv at a, per noctem, dv d 
■^Q ov ov, in course of time ; — to denote the manner and way ; e. g. 
dvd a Q dt g, up to the full strength, vigorously, dvd ^li q og, 
hy turns ; — in a distrihutive sense with numerals ; e. g. dvd n ivts 
7t aq a6 dy y ag ttjg ^{isgag, five parasangs daily ; also with 
numerals, like the English about (Lat. circa) ; e.g. dv d diaKoaia. 
at ad I a, about two hundred stadia. 

2. Eig (sg, old Attic), corresponds almost entirely with the Lat. 
in with the Ace. ; e. g. isvai Eig trjv tt 61 iv, into the city ; — in a 
hostile sense: contra, e. g. lotqdtevaav eig tijv ^ttixt^v, into, 
against Attica ; — with numerals : about, e. g. vavg s ig t dg ts- 
t Q a a 6 L a g, about four hundred ships ; — in a distributive sense 
with numerals ; e. g. € t g' sy. at ov, centeni, by hundreds, each hun- 
dred, 8 Ig dv 0, bini, two by two, two deep ; — in the presence of, co- 
ram, yet with the collateral idea of the direction whither ; e. g. Xo- 
yovg noiu6&ai eig t ov d?] {ao v, to speak to or before the people. — 
Of time : until, towards, upon, s ig s o tt 8 q av, towards evening, 
sig tTjv vatSQaiav, upon the following day, eig t Qit ?/ v ri^ji i~ 
Q av,to or on the third day. — To denote purpose, object, respect ; e. g. 
Eyoiqaato toig iQr^ixaoiv sig tyv tt oXir, he used the 7noney for the 
city ; eig x e q d o g ti dgdv, to do something for gain; diacpiqeiv ti- 
vog s ig dq St ^v,to differ from one in respect to virtue ; sig ndv- 
t a, in every respect. 

3. i^ g, ad, to, is used only with persons, or objects considered as 
persons, to denote direction towards them ; e. g. uvai, TtsixTzsiv co g 
^ aa iXaa, ^xsiv (a g tr^v MiXt^t ov (to the Milesians) » 

LXXXVIII. Exercises on §§ 164, 165. 

(He) is the best (man), who [ogrLc) is nurtured amid the greatest necessities 
(to. civayKaLOTara). Said Diogenes: A friend is one soul, that {part.) dwells 
(=lies) in two bodies. My sons, do not deposit {aor.) my body either in gold 
or in silver, but restore it as quickly as possible to the earth. The Grecian ar- 
mament conquered the barbarians at Salamis. TVith the help of the gods let 
OS go against the unjust. The acquisition of true friends is by no means 

§ 166.] SYNTAX. — PREPOSITIONS. — 8idj xatd. 235 

made by (— with) violence, but rather by beneficence. At daybreak (= with 
the day) the soldiers began tlicir march (= marched out, off). The Car- 
duchians dwell on the mountains and are warlike. The vessels could not 
sail up the river. The deeds of Alcibiades were celebrated throughout all 
Greece. During the whole war the greatest harmony prevailed (= was) 
among the generals. The three daughters of Phorcus, having (but) one eye, 
made use of it alternately. The enemy pressed into the middle of the city. 
Apollo was sent (aor.) out of heaven to the earth. Time, revealing everything, 
brings (it) to the light. The Athenians peifonned (= displayed, aor.) many 
beautiful actions before all men, as well in a private as in a public capacity. 
The Lacedaemonians made an expedition against Attica. Employ the leisure 
of (=in) life in listening {inf.) to beautiful discourses. God brings like to 
like. Agesilaus sent ambassadors to the king of the Persians. 

§166. B. P7-epositions with the Gen. and Ace. 

1. z/ la, original signification, through. A. With the Gen. through 
and out again, e. g. tov arQarhv 8 id ZTJg Ogaxyg iiii 
rrjv 'EXldda, through Thrace; — through, e.g. 8 id Tzediov, per 
campum, 8 id 7ToXs[xi'ag TZOQEVEad-cu, to march through a hostile 
country. — Of time to denote extension through a period : through, 
after, properly, to the end of the period, through and out, e. g. 8i' 
'ir ovg, through the year ; did tzoXXov, f^ay.Qov, ollyov XQO- 
vov, after (through) a long, short time ; d id tz avr og t ov voo- 
vov roiavza ova iyevero, throughout the whole time. So also of an 
action repeated at successive intervals, e. g. 8 id tqitov erovg 
GvrrjtGav, every third year, tertio quoque anno, ahvays after three 
years; 8ia 7zs(X7trov stovg, 8 id nivt^. It av, quinto quoque 
anno; 8 id rQiTTjg '^ us gag, every third day. — To denote the 
means, e. g. 8i 6q)x> a X f.i cov 6q a v, to see icith, hy means of, the 
eyes; — the manner -^iiidi way, e. g. 8id O7tov8ijg, luith earnestness, 
earnestly; 8 id tdyovg, with speed, speedily. — B. With the Ace, 
of time, e. g. 8id vvxra, per ?ioctem ;— to denote the cause, means, 
Q.g.8id. rovTo,ravz a, therefore, because of this ; 8 id §o v X a g, 
f>y means of counsels ; 8 id iiijv i v. 

2. Kara, original signification, from ahove doiun (desuper). 
A. With the Gen., e. g. loQimovv iavzovg xat d rov zsixovg 
Karco, threw themselves down from the wall; — down into, e. g. xara- 
de8vA8vai y.azd rijg xf^ aXdmjg, to go down into the sea ; — ^m- • 
ier, e. g. v. at a yrjg. — To denote the cause, author: de, concerriing, 
?. g. 7Jyuv y.atd tivog, dicere de aliqua re, especiallj in a hos- 
ile sense, e. g. Xiyuv y.atd tivog, against one ; x(jsv8ea&ai yard 
tov &80V, to lie against God. — B. With the Ace, yard forms a 


strong contrast with ava, in respect to the point where the motion 
of the action begins, but agrees with ava, in denoting the direction 
to an object and the extension over it, the one being down through^ 
the other up through. The use of clvd in prose is not so frequent 
as that of 'Aazd.— -To denote local extension from above downwards :. 
throughout, thi^ough, over, e. g. y^ad'' EXldd a, xar a Ttdaav' 
•zrjv yrjv, it often signifies, over against, opposite to, e. g. asTrai ^ 
KeqjaXhivia xar d Av.aQV av lav, opposite to Acar. — Of time, to. ^ 
denote its extension or duration : during, through, e. g. '/.ard tov 
avtov yqovov, during, or i7i the course of the same time ; d 
tov TiQoreQov 7i6?.8fio r. — To denote purpose, ohject, e. g. x a- 
id S- 8ai> tJxsiv, spectafum venisse ; conformity (secundum), respect, 
reason, e. g. y, at d v6 iiov, according to, agreeahle to law ; y,ard 
loy oy, ad rationem, pro ratione, agreeahle to reason ; y, at d yv(6- 
[i7]v zijv i ^^r; yatd r ovt o, hoc respectu, hence propter hoc, 
Kar d g)v a IV, secundum naturam ; yard 8vv aiiiv,to the best of 
one^s ability ; y at d y.Q at og, with all one's might ; yat d [iixr 
Qov, nearly, by degrees ; yat dv& qwitov, according to the man- 
ner or standard of man; — to denote an indefinite measure, e. g. 
y.a^ s^7jyovta 8ti], about sixty years; — to denote manner and 
way, e. g. y at d t d'/o g, swiftly, y at d Gvvtvj^iav, by chance ; 
— in a distributive sense, e. g. y at d ycofxag, vicatim; yatd fiTJ- 
V a, monthly, ya^^ ?] fis q av, daily, yat it o g, yearly, yaS-' STi' 
t d, septeni, by sevens. 

3. '^Tnig, super, over. A. With the Gen., e. g. vtzsq yTJg. — 
To denote the cause : for, for the good of, in behalf of, e. g. ^a- 
X^ad-ai v7t8Q ftjg ^atQidog, to fight for one's country, as it were 
to fight standing over it ; 6 v tzI q 1 7] g 'El7.d8og -O-dvatog, death 
in behalf of Greece. — B. "With the Ace. : over, beyond, e. g. Qintuv 
vtzIq tov 8 6 fiov, to throw over the house ; v tz s q ElXrignov- 
tov oiyeTv, beyond, i. e. on the opposite side of; vtzsq tijv i^Xi- 
yiav, VTZSQ dv v afiiv, vTtsg a v -& q (a tz ov, beyond the nature OT 
strength of man, iiizsQtdtsttaQdyovtastT]. 

LXXXIX. Exercises on § 166. 

There is a middle path that leads neither through dominion nor through sla- 
very, but through freedom. Socrates conferred the greatest benefits {tu jieyLOTa 
y^eAfiv) upon men, by teaching wisdom to all who "wished (it) (§ 148, 6), 
The river Euphrates flows through the middle of Babylon. The presidents of 
the cities come together every three years. Those who (§ 148, 6) learn every- 
thing by their own efforts (=by themselves), are called self-taught. Apollo 

§ 167.] SYNTAX. PREPOSITIONS. Uf^Xpl, TZSQl. 237 

benefitted the human race by oracles and other services. He who (§ 148 6» 
is indolent for the sake of pleasure, may (§ 153, 2. c.) very soon be deprived (aor.) 
of that, charm of inactivity, for the sake of which he is indolent. PraLsc not a 
worthless man because of- (his) wealth. Some rivers penetrate into the earth 
and flow (= are borne) a long way, concealed under the earth. The island At- 
lantis sank {part, aor.) under the earth and disappeared (aor.). He who {^ U8 
6) contiives a snare against another, turns {TTepiTpeiTsiv) it often against him- 
self. During the period of the holy war, great (= much) disorder and dissen- 
sion prevailed (= was) over all Greece. Do not impose upon others a greater 
(cBarge) than their abilities permit (= than according to ability). It is neces- 
sary that {ace. w. inf.) men live according to laws. The city was in danger of 
being (= to be) taken {aor.) by force. A bad man who \part.) obtains°( aor.) 
power, is not wont to bear good fortune as man ought (= suitably to man). 
The Athenians annuaUy sent to Crete seven boys and seven maidens (as) food 
for the IVIinotaur (= to the M. as food). God has given {aar.) us the powers, 
by which we are to bear {fut.) aU the events of destiny. The sun passes over 
the earth. Overhanging (= over) the city is a hiU. Arsamus governed the 
Arabians and Aethiopians dwelling over Egypt. Alcestis, the daughter of Pe- 
lias, was desirous {aor.) to die {aor.) for her husband. It is very dishonorable to 
shun {aor.) death for (one's) country. Clearchus waged war with the Thracians 
dwelling beyond the HeUespont. It is foUy to attempt (= to do) something 
above (one's) capacity. Numa PompHius, the most fortunate of the Roman 
kings, is said to have lived above eighty years. 

§167. C. Prepositions with the Gen,, Dat. and A<s6, 

1. ^f^cpi denotes that one thing is around another {on loth sides), 
near, close to, another. A. With the Gen. seldom used of place, e. g. 
aiiq}i zijg TZoXeoig oixsLVjto dwell around the city. — Of cause : 
about, for, for the saTce of, e. g. \iay^G^ai cl^icpi tivog, to fight 

\ahout,for something, — B. With the Dat., as with the Gen. — C. With 
: the Ace, e. g. « /^ 9 / tijv no 1 1 v. — To denote time and number 
indefinitely, e. g. a 11 (pi iantoav, about evening; dfi^qji zovg 
jiVQiovg, about ten thousand. 

2. He q I signifies all around, round, containing the idea of a cir- 
cuit or circumference, and in this respect differing from dfiq)i, which 
, signifies properly on both sides. A. With the Gen.— In a local re- 
lation it is not used in prose, but the more frequently in a causal 
sense: concerning, for, about, on account of, e. g. fidxeod-ai, duo- 
■d-avsi'P TTSQi rijg TiazQidog, to fight, die for one' s country ; Is- 
\jeiv TtBQL xivog,to speak about something ; q)o^ETa&ai tzsqI na- 
.ZQidogi — to ^QnoiQ value, in the phrases Tieql noXlov, tzsqI 
nleiovog, tteqI Ttleiatov, tieqI oXiyov, Tzegl ov.dsvog 
TioicTad-ca or 7]ysTa<>a( zi, to value high, higher, etc. — B. With the 

238 SYNTAX. — PREPOSITIONS. — eW. [§ 167. 

Dat. : around, on, near, e.g.Ttegl taig y.scpalalg eJxov Tiaqag, 
around, on their heads ; tzsqI t§ X^^?^ xQ^covv daxrvhov (psQsiv ; 
— in a causal sense: about, for, on account of, e. g. dedievai- ttsqI 
TiVL, to fear for, about o?ie. — C. With the Ace. : about, near, by, 
throughout, e. g. (§y.ovv (Poinxsg tzeqi ndaav trjv ^ixEXiav 
(about, throughout). — To denote time and number indefinitely, e. g. 
stsqI t ovrovg r ovg xqovovg, about these times ; Tteqi iiv- 
Qiovg GtQatiQOTag. — In a causal sense to denote respect, e. g. 
GcoqjQOVsiv tzeqI rovg '&8ov g, in respect to the gods. 

S. "Efii signifies primarily, upon, at, near. A. With the Gen., 
e. g. ik ai&J] 01 fdv avSgeg etti tojv xEcpaXcav qioQOvoiv, at ds 
yvvaixEg etz), zap co fxcov, the men carry burdens on their heads, the 
women on their shoulders ; fis'vEiv etz i rijg aQy^ijg, E7t i tTJg yvm- 
fA,t]g, to remain in ; at etz i r mv ttq ay iidrcov, those intrusted 
with business ; — towards, if the idea is that one is striving to reach 
a place, e. g. tiXeiv etti 2Jdfiov [according to § 158, 3. (b)].— In 
relation to time, to denote the time i?i or during which something 
takes place, e. g. etzI Kv qov ^ aa iIev ovt og, during, in, under 
the reign of Gyrus. — To denote the occasion, the author, e. g. xcc- 
7.sT(J'&aL E7ZL t IV og, to be named after, for one; conformity, e. g. 
XQLVSiv ti ETzi tivog, to judge according to something. — B. With 
the Dat. : upon, at, by, e. g. etz i r oTg d 6 q aa i, Qoidg Eiy^ov ygvadg, 
upon the spears; oiheTv etzl S' aXdzzri, by the sea, upon the sea- 
coast. — To denote dependence, e. g. etzl rivi Eivai, to be in the 
power of any one ; yiyvEa&ai etii tiv i, to come into the power of 
any one ; — condition, purpose, object, motive, e.g.ETtt r o vr q^, hoc 
conditione, on this condition ; eizi "/.av,^ av'&QcoTZOV oidr^Qog avEV- 
Qr^tai, in perniciem hominis ; — cause, occasion, e. g. yaiQEiv etzl 
rivi, to rejoice at something. — -C. With the Ace: upon, on, over, 
toivards (difFerent from fWwith the Gen., since with the Ace. mere- 
ly the direction to a place is denoted), to, e. g. dva^aivEiv Ecp In- 
71 ov, Eli dv'& Qc6 77 ov g (among). — Of time : until, iq)' ectz e- 
Qav, for, during, per, etzI TzoXXdg ruiEQag. — To denote pur^ 
pose, object, e. g. etz i d^riQ av iivai, venatum ire ; in a hostile sense: 
against, e. g. azQazEVEod^ca etzI IlEQaag, to make an expeditioti 
against the Persians. 

XC. Exercises on ^1^7,1, 2, 3. 

The poets have uttered such language (= words) about the gods themselves, 
as no one -would dare {aor.^ § 153, 2, c) to utter about (his) enemies. Consider 
first, how {oTTuc) the adviser has managed {aor.) his own (aifahs) ; for he who 


(§ 148, 6) has not (jj.^) reflected (aor.) upon his own (concerns), will never de- 
cide well upon another's. Carthage waged war with Rome for Sicily, twenty- 
four years. All men value (their) kindred more than strangers. With reason 
dost thou esteem the soul more highly than the body. Gyges found a corpse 
that had on the hand a golden ring. Some of the Persians had both necklaces 
about the neck, and bracelets about the hands. The motion of the earth around 
the sun makes the year (evcavroc), but the motion of the moon around the earth, 
the months. The Spartan boys (= of the S.) as (part.) they went round the 
altar of Orthia, were scourged by law. Be (yiyvo/xai) such towards thy parents, 
as {olog) thou wouldst (§ 153, 2, c) wish (aor.) thy children to be {ace. tu. inf.) 
towards thee. No human pleasure seems to lie (= elvai) closer at hand {^^yyv- 
ripo, lu. gen.), than joy on account of honors. The enemy, despairing of {aor \ 
their cause, about (a//^i) midnight abandoned the city. There are said to be 
about one hundred and twenty thousand Persians. Each of the Cyclops had 
one eye in the forehead. In Egj^Dt, the men carry burdens on their (= the) 
head, but the women on their shoulders. The soldiers returned home. After 
the battle Croesus fled to Sardis. Under Cecrops and the first kings until The- 
seus, Attica was inhabited in cities. All the childi-en of the better {sup.) Per- 
sians were educated at the court {al ■&vpai) of (the) king. Strive not after that 
which (§ 148, 6) is not (fi^) in thy power, Macedonia was in the power of 
the Athenians, and brought tribute. Dost thou consider that which {ra, w.paH.) 
happens for thy (= the) advantage, as the work {plur.) of chance or of intelK- 
gence ? For epic poetry we most admii-e Homer, for tragedy, Sophocles, for 
statuary, Polycletus, for painting, Zeuxis. We ought {xpv) not to be displeased 
at (the) good fortune of others, but rejoice for the sake of {dta) our (=the) 
common origin. The Nile flows (==is borne) from south to north. Xerxes 
collected {part, aor.) an innumerable army and marched against Greece. So- 
crates not only exhorted men to virtue, but also led them onward {Tzpoayeiv, aor.) 
to it. Jupiter permitted {aor.) Sarpedon, the king of (the) Lycians, to live for 
three generations. 

4. Met a (from fisaog) denotes the being in the midst of some- 
thing. A. With the Gen. to denote association, connection, and 
participation with ; e. g. j-isz' dvd-QiOTZcov eh at, to be among men. 
Ehai jiEX a rivog, to he with, on the side of one. 'T^Tv oi nqoyo- 
vol TOVTO to yi()ag ixTijoa'PTO %al 'AaTiliTzov (leta nolXodv xal 
ueyalcov y.ivdvvcov, with many and great dangers ; — to denote 
"conformity: fiEra tmv vouojv, fist a tov Xoyov, in confor- 
\riity ivith the laws, with reason. — B. With the Dat., only poetic : 
Wnong, e. g. irtz ad-avdioig. — C. With the Ace, in prose it is used 
klmost exclusively to denote that one thing follovrs another in space, 
\ime and order ; e. g. ETisG&at fisTci riva, after ; ^et d r ov §ioVy 
fterlife; TTozafxog [jJyiGZog ^jez a "Igz qov, the greatest after the 
^ster, and in the phrase iiez a '/(^Eiqag 'i^Eiv ti, to hold something 
ttween, in the hands. 

240 SYNTAX. ^PREPOSITIONS. — TtaQoi, [§ 167. 

5. Uaqa signifies the being near something: hy, near, hy the side 
of. A. With the Gen. to denote a removal from near, from heside 
a person: from, e. g. iXd-eiv TzaQoi rivog, to conie from some one. 
— To denote the author, e. g. neiicpd-ijvai Ttaqd Tivogjto he sent 
hy some one (§ 150, Rem. 4), ayyEloi, nQta^eig Tragd rivog, en- 
voys from any one ; dyysXXeiv ttciq a t ivog, tol TzaQci r ivog, 
commissions, commands, etc. of any one ; — yMvd'dveiv naqd t: ivog, 
dy.oveiv Tiaqd r ivog, to learn, to hear from. — B. With the Dat. to 
denote rest near a place or object, e. g. sazT] Ttaqd r c^ ^ aa iXs.T. 
— C. With the Ace. to denote direction or motion so as to come 
near a person or thing, e. g. dcpiyJad-ai n aqa KqaXa ov,to Croe- 
sus; — direction or motion along hy a place: along near, hy, beyond, 
Q.^.Ttaqd rriv JB a^vXoSv a TtaQiivai, to go by Babylon. Hence, 
TtaQ a d 6^ av, praeter opinionem ; Ttaq ilTZid a, contrary to 
hope; Ttaqd q)V(Jiv, naqcc z6 diKaiov, naqd tovg o q- 
'Aov g, 7T aqd dvv afxiv, beyond one's power ; also, besides, praeter, 
naqd ravza, praeter haec, besides these things; — to denote local 
extension near an object : along, q. g. n a q d tov Aomnov, along 
the A. — To denote the extension of time, e. g. Tzaq ruiigav, na- 
qd tov ttoXeiiov, during the day, the war ; Tzaqd zrjv tzog iv, 
inter potandum, while drinJzing, So also of particular, important 
points of time, during which something takes place, e, g. naq a v- 
tov tor y,iv 8vv or,in ipso discrvmine, hi the very moment of dan- 
ger. — In a causal relation to denote a comparison, e. g. r[kiov ly^Xat- 
ipsig TzvxvotSQai i](jav naqd td in tov tzqiv ^qovov fivyfio- 
vsvo fiev a, eclipses of the sun were more frequent compared with 
(thari) those mentioned in former time. 

XCI. Exercises on § 167, 4, 5. 

Strive (pursue) after reputable pleasures. No one deliberates safely in ( = 
with) anger. It is noble to fight with many and brave allies. The good after 
death (= dead) lie not in (= with) oblivion, but ever bloom in memoiy. The 
Athenians, amid very many hardships and vexy famous contests, and dangers 
very honorable, liberated Greece, and highly exalted {iieyiaTTjv dirodeiKvvvai, 
aor.) then- native country. The judge ought to render judgment conformably 
to the laws. After life the wicked await then- punishment {plur.), but the vir- 
tuous are forever happy (= abide in happiness). After the sea-fight at Sala- 
mis, Sophocles, who (paH.) was stUl a boy, having been anointed, danced naked. 
The Chians, first of the Greeks after the Thessalians and Lacedaemonians, made 
use of slaves. Of all things {KTfjfta) in life, after the gods, the soul is most di- 
vine. A messenger came from Cyaxares, who (part.) said that an embassy ot 
Jews had arrived {= was present), and brought a veiy dress from him 

§ 167.] SYNTAX. — ^PREPOSITIONS. — TlQog, 241 

to Cyrus. Prometheus stole (part, aor.) fire from the gods and brought (aor.) 
it in a reed to men. The praises of good men are very pleasant. The gods 
rejoice most in honors from the most pious men. What is not (/x^) manifest to 
men, it is allowable (for them) to ascertain from the gods by divination. It is 
said, that (ace. to. inf.) the. invention of the sciences was given [aor.) by Jupiter 
to the Muses. In (/cara) the war against the Messenians, the Pythia gave as a 
response (a:p"<J, aor.) to the Spartans, that they should ask (=to ask, aor.) a 
general from the Athenians. Minos pretended to have learned his (= the) laws 
from Jupiter himself. The Persian boys (= of the Persians) are educated not 
with (the) mother but with a ( = the) teacher. The good are honored among gods 
and men. Cyrus sent ambassadors to the king of the Persians. Osiris is said 
to have travelled from Egypt through Arabia to the Red Sea. The river Seli- 
nus flows by the temple of Diana in Ephcsus. The Amazons dwelt (aor.) on 
the river Thermodon. A word unseasonably (= against season) thrown out, 
often destroys {= subverts) life. Paris, contrary to all justice (6iKaiov, plur.), 
carried off (aor.) the wife of his (= the) host Mcnelaus to Troy. The Roman 
lawgiver (= of the Romans) gave (a<yr.) to (art.) fathers full power over (nara, 
w. gen.) their (= the) sons during their (= the) whole life-time (= time of life). 
No man (=no one of men) will be fortunate during his (=the) whole life. 
In comparison with (ai-t.) other creatures, men live as gods, since (part.)hj (their) 
nature, body and mind, they are superior (Kf^aTLarevu). 

6. ITq 6 g (arising from tzqo) signifies before (in the presence of). 
A. With the Gen. to denote direction or motion from the presence 
of an object, especially in reference to the situation of a place, e. o-. 
oixeTv TZQog voxov uvsiaov, towards the south, like ah oriente. 
Sometimes it is to be translated by in the view of, in the eyes of, etc. 
(properly before one), e. g. o ri dizaioratov TiQog ^ewj; 
TiQog dvd-Q0d7T(ov, TOVTO 7T()d^03, in the eyes of, in the judgment 
of gods and men; — also, /or the advantage of any one, on the side of 
for some one, e. g. do'Aeig {xoi tov Uyov nqhg ifiov )Jyeiv, to speak 
for me. — To denote the cause, occasion and author, hence with pas- 
sive and intransitive verbs, e. g. dziiid^^ad-ai Ttqog TIsiGiGrQa- 
rov,to be dishonored by Pisistratus ; — in oaths, e. g. nqog '&£av, 
ver deos, by the gods, properly before the gods.— B. With the Dat. to 
denote local rest before, near or by an object, Q.g.Tzqog zfj tioXsi, 
before, by the city, TtQog roig yqiralg, before the judges, ahaiy 
pyvtoxyai TtQog Tivi, to be earnestly engaged in somefJiing, e. g. 
"ZQog TZQay jAao I, nqog t: (a Xoyqj, Z7i business, in conversation, 
Then, in addition to, besides, e.g.TiQog tovzco, Tzoog zovToig, 
oraeter ea.—C. With the Ace. to denote the local limit, direction or 
notion before an object, both in a friendly and hostile sense, e. g. 
'Xd-i:iv nqog riva,to, dno^Xeneiv TtQog tiva, upon, Isyeiy nqog 
IV a, to, 6viiiiailav TZomad-ai nqog rivagj with^ ^dxea&ai, tzo- 


242 SYNTAX. — PREPOSITIONS. — vno, [§ 167. 

Xe\iuv TZQog tivaj against^ TiQog ^Eaijfj-^QtaVi towards, adeiv 
TTQog avloVfto sing to the flute, i. e. to the flute's accompaniment. 
— To denote indefinite time, e. g. TtQog ruisQav, towards day- 
break. Also in reference to indefinite number. — In a causal sense 
to denote purpose, e. g. Tiavtodana evQfjfxeva raXg TtolEOi TtQog 
q)vXaK^v 6(07:7]Qiav, various schemes were devised to guard 
and save the cities; — conformity, conformable, according to, e. g. 
TtQog rr/v oipiv r avtyv rov yaiiov zovrov eoTtEvca, according 
to this view. So y.Qiveiv ri irqog rt, to judge according to some- 
thing. Also, TtQog ^lav, hy force, against Okie's will, TtQog dvay- 
>i7]v, necessarily, forcibly ; — hence, on account of, propter, e. g.TiQog 
tavr a, properly, in conformity with these things, hence, on this ac- 
count, therefore; — hence to denote a comparison, usually with the idea 
of superiority (^prae) : in relation to, in comparison with, before, e. g. 
Ji^Qog iari Ttqog Kivija lav, he is mere talk, nonsense, compared 
with Ginesias ; — in general to denote a respect, e. g. CAOTtHv, ^Xsttslv 
TZQog ti, diaqieQSiv nQog dgsryv, to differ in respect to virtue, 
7. "Tno, sub, original signification, «72c?er. A. "With the Gen. to 
denote motion from a depth out: out from under, forth from, e. g. 
in OLTirivrig Xveiv Innovg, to loose the horses from the chariot ; — to 
denote rest under an object, e. g. vtto yrjg oI-aeTv. — To denote the 
author, with passive and intransitive verbs, e. g. xteivead'ai vno 
t: ivog, dnod'avEXv vtto z tvog, to be put to death by some one ; — 
the cause, occasion, active influence, e.g. vtto %av ^xat og, for, on 
account of because of the heat, vn 6 gy^g, from, out of anger ; — to 
denote the means and instrument, particularly with reference to the 
accompaniment of musical instruments, e. g. iarQaravovto vno cr a X- 
niyycov, they marched by the sound of trumpets ; vii avlov ;fO- 
QEveiv, to dance by the music of the flute. — B. With the Dat., e. g. 
vno y'q ehai, etc. as with the Gen. — C. With the Ace. to denote 
direction or motion towards and under, e. g. Uvai vno yjjv; exten- 
sion under an object, e. g. vneativ oixijfjiaTa vno yrjv, are under the 
earth. — To denote time approximately, e. g. vno vvxz a, sub noc- 
tem, towards night ; — to denote extension of time, e. g. vno t^if 
VVKT a, during. 

Remark. When the article (alone or with a substantive) in connection with 
a preposition, expresses a substantive-idea, and the preposition kv ought to be 
used, then this preposition is attracted by the verb denoting the direction loJierux, 
and is changed into a 7:6 or e/c; e. g. Oi e/c ttj g ay op a g av&pcoTzoL cnrii^v- 
yoVf the men belonging to the market-place Jled, instead ofo^ ev r^ ayopg dp- 
^pairoL kK rrjg cbyopdg d7re<j>vyov. 


XCII. Exercises on § 167, 6, 7. 

Rharapsinitus, a king of Egypt, erected (= placed, am.) two statues, of which 
the Egyptians call the (one) standing {■perf.) towards (the) north, summer, t!ie 
(one) towards (tlie) south, winter. Arabia is tlie most remote of the inhabited 
countries towards the south. (It is) time for us to deliberate about ourselves, 
that we may not (that not = //^), in the judgment both of gods and of men, ap- 
pear {a7ro(j)acv£(j-&ac) very mean and dishonorable. The Persians were deprived 
{ao7\) by the Lacedaemonians of the supremacy of Asia. It is not for the ad- 
Tantage of your reputation, to sin against the public (= common) laws and 
against our (= the) ancestors. By the gods, abstain from injustice. Stesicho- 
rus, the poet, was magnificently interred (aor.) in Catana, near the gate called 
from him (the) Stesichorean. Near the dAvelling of the king, a lake affords an 
abundance of water. Socrates was zealously employed in discourse. Alcibia- 
des was beautiful, and more than this, also very brave. Aristippus, the Thes- 
salian, comes to C}tus. and asks of him about two hundred mercenaries. 
The Megareans buried their (= the) dead, turning them towards the east, but 
the Athenians towards the west. Nicocles demeaned himself (aor.) towards the 
citizens with (fiera) veiy great (=much) lenity. The Greeks fought (aor.) 
against the Persians. Towards evening the enemy retreated. Socrates was 
very much hardened (—very enduring) against winter and summer and all 
hardships. (All) estimable men have the same disposition towards their ( = 
the) inferiors as their (= the) superiors have towards them. The Thracians 
danced to the flute with their (= the) ai-ms. The exercise (phir.) of the body 
is useful for the health. Let us not judge happiness by (= according to) money, 
but by virtue and wisdom. Socrates despised everything human, in comparison 
with (art.) counsel from the gods. A very beautiful fountain flows under the 
plane-tree. Hector was slain by Achilles. Already many masters had been 
violently (= with violence) put to death {a7To-&vf]GKeLv, aor.) by the slaves. Ai-- 
chestratus travelled over [aor.) all lands and seas from a love of pleasure. The 
rich often do not enjoy their (= the) prosperity from its (= the) unvarying 
pleasure. The soldiers go to the battle to the sound of trumpets. All (the) 
gold upon earth and under earth {ace.) is not equivalent to virtue. Dionysius 
foimded a city in Sicily just {avrog) at the foot of mount Aetna, and called it 
Adranum. Towards night the enemy retreated. Towards the end of the war 
there arose a violent famine. 

§ 168. Remarks on the construction of Verbal Adjectives in -xeog, 
-xia, -TEOV, and on the construction of the Comparative and Su- 

1. Verbal adjectives derived from transitive verbs, i. e. from such 
as govern the Ace, are used either like the Lat. verbal in -diim^ 
impersonally in the neuter, -riov or -tic/. [§ 147, (c)], or personally^ 
like the Lat. participle in -dus ; but verbal adjectives derived from 
intransitive verbs, can be used only impersonally. 


2. The verbal adjective when used impersonally takes its object 
in the same Case as the verb from which it is derived. The per- 
son acting stands in the Dat., called the Dat. of the agent [§ 161, 

2, (d)]. 

'kcKTjreov [or -rea) earl aoi ttjv aperrjv or aaKrjTea kari gol f] aperrj, 
you must practise virtue, or viiiue must be practised by you. 'E7tf&v/j.7]Tiov kari 
GOi TTJc apcTTJc, you must desire virtue. 'ETTLxecpijreov egtl gol rch epyoi, 
you must attempt the ivork. KoAaoreov (or -Tea) egtI gol tov av&puirovor 
KoTiaGTEog eGvi go l 6 uv&pcdTzog, you must punish the man. So "svith. deponent 
verbs; e.g. 'M.lh7]T£ov (or -ria) egtI gol rovg aya-d-ovg (from /xtfieiG'&ai 
TLva) or /iiLjU7]T£0t ELGi GOL ol ayad-oc, you must imitate the good. 

3. "When two objects are compared, the one by which the com- 
parison is made, is put either in the Gen. [§ 158, 7, (|3)], or is con- 
nected by the conjunction ij (than) ; e. g. o nazt^Q fxei^mv iorl tov 
vlov or 6 71. \i. iazlv, tj 6 viog, is greater than the son, 

Eemaek. When two qualities belonging to an object are compared with each 
other, both are expressed by the comparative adjective and are connected by ^ ; 
e. g. ■&dTT(i)v, 7 GO(j>o)TEp6g egtlv, celerior, quam prudentior, he is more swift than 
■prudent. So also with adverbs ; e. g. tovto ■&dTT0v, ?} Gocpurepov ETToirjGag, cdc- 
rius, guam prudentius, you did this with more dispatch than prudence. 

XCIII. Exercises on § 168. 

We must shun a (= the) dissolute friend. The citizens must obey the laws. 
We must attempt noble actions. We must despise dangers for the sake of vir- 
tue. We must avoid (= keep ourselves from) him who {part, pres.) is governed 
by {art.) evil passions. We must put the hand even to difficult undertakings. 

§ 169. i?em«r^s on the use of the Pronouns* 

1. The subject, predicate, attribute and object are expressed by 
pronouns, when the parts of the sentence containing the pronouns, 
are not to represent the ideas of objects or quaUties, but when it is 
merely to be shown, that an object or quality refers either to the 
speaker himself or to anotlier (second or third) person or thing (§ bb), 

2. All the rules which have been given on the substantive and 
adjective, apply also to substantive and adjective pronouns ; still, a 
few remarks are here necessary on the use of the personal pronouns. 

3. The substantive personal pronouns in the Nom., viz. lyM^ avj 
avrog, -?/, -o, ijudg, etc., and the adjective (possessive) pronouns as 
attributives, e. g. i g narijQ, are, in Greek, as in Latin, expressed 
only when they are specially emphatic, hence particularly in anti- 
theses ; e. g. a v ravra inQa^ag > xat aog narijQ antd-avsv ; — 


« y 00 fi€v uTTEifAi, a V d^ fitve. But where this is not the case, thev 
are omitted, the substantive pronouns being supplied by the endinga 
of the verb, and the adjective pronouns by the article prefixed to 
the substantive ; e. g. jQuqim, yodcpug, yqdqjH — 37 H'V^'t]Q tlni (xoi 
{my mother) — oi yovEig oztQyovGi r k r ditv a (love their children). 
See above, § 56 and § 59, also § 148, 3. 

Eem. 1. AvTog in the Xom. is not generally used as the subject of the verb, 
but for the most part as an intensive pronoun {self, very), agi'eeing with another 
pronoun expressed or understood, or with a substantive. In some instances 
however' it seems to be used as the simple subject of the verb, though even then 
retaining something of its intensive force ; e. g. 6 Tzarr/p avro^ (:<pof3T/-&Tj ; ai) 
avTog ETvipdg fie; avrbg e<pj]. It has its intensive force also, when it agrees 
with a pronoun or substantive in any other Case than the Kom. — The demon- 
strative ovTog (hie) and ode, usually refer to what is near, he, this man, this 
thing ; the demonstrative eKeZv og {ille), on the contrary, properly refers to what 
is more remote, the person or thing there, that person or thing, but sometimes to what 
immediately precedes. Hence when eKslvoQ and ovrog are used in opposition 
to each otlier, the latter refers to what is nearer, the former, to what is more re- 
mote, though the reverse is sometimes the case, as with the Lat. hie and ille. 

Rem. 2. The difference between the accented and enclitic fonns of the perso- 
nal pronouns, e. g. sjJiov and [lov, lies in the greater or less emphasis with which 
they are pronounced in discourse. Thus, the accented foi-ms are always tised, 
c. g. in antitheses ; e. g. e/xov /uev KareyD^aaE, asde k-nyveaev, he derided me, 
but praised you. — On the use of the Gen. of substantive, instead of adjective (pos- 
sessive) pronouns, see § 148, Rem. 8 and § 59. — On the possessive pronouns 
taking the word in apposition, in the Gen., e. g. ^[leTepog avruv narrjp, see Rem. 
4, below. 

4. The reflexive pronouns always refer to something before 
named, this being opposed to itself as an object (in the Gen., Dat., 
Ace, or in connection with a preposition) or as an attribute. 

'O co^og kavTov Kparel, tJie ivise man rules himself, liv aeavTu apecrKeig^ 
you are pleased icith yourself. 'O Tcalg kavrbv sTraivEi, the boy praises himself. 
01 yovelg ayaTcCiGL rovg eavr tJv iralSag. Tvcbd^L asavrov. Ovrog b uvTjp 
TTuvra be eavTOv fiefLu-&T]Kev. '0 CTparrjybg virb ruv eavTOV crpariuTuv 
aired-avev, vxis killed by his own soldieis. 

5. The object before named, to which the reflexive pronouns re* 
fer, is : 

(a) The subject of the sentence, as in the examples of No. 4 ; 

(b) An ohject of the sentence, e. g. KvQog diijvsyxs rav aXXmv 
^uGiXscov, Twv ciQidg di savtav yar^oa^Bvcov, C. differed 
from other hings, who acquired sovereignty hy themselves. Mi- 

aovfisv rovg dvO^QcoTtovg rovg cp&ovovvtag s avt oigj we hate 


men who hear ill-will towards themselves. Anh a avrov iym 

6. In Greek, as in Latin, the reflexive pronoun may be used in 
the relations above named, with the construction of the Ace. and 
the Inf., or of the Part., and even when it stands in a subordinate 
clause. In this case, the English language often uses the persona 
pronouns him, her, it, instead of the reflexive pronouns. 

'O TV paw og vojuiCst Toijg Tvo/urag imrjperelv eav ru, the tyrant thinks thai 
the citizens are subject to him. lioHCov k-d-vibv vp^ev 6 Kvpog ov-&' iavri^ 
oLioyTiUTTuv bvTuv, ovte hXkr]'koiq^ Cyrus governed many nations, not speaking the 
same layiguage with him nor with each other. 'O Karrj-yopog e^Tj rbv ^uKpdrTjv 
uvaTTEtd-ovTa rovg vEOvg, uq avrbg elt] ao^uraroQ re Kal uWovq luavuTaTog noir]- 
cai (ro<pov(;, ovtcj dtaTL'&Evai Toi)g avrcp avvovrag, ugvE fj.?]6afj,ov Trap' avrolg 
roijg alXovg Ecvac Tvpbg i avr 6v, the accuser said that Socrates, by persuading 
the youth tliat he himself was the wisest of men, and most capable of making others 
wise, so influenced the minds of those who associated with him, that others were of no 
account, in comparison with him. 

7. On the contrary, the oblique Cases of the pronoun avtog^ 
-ri, -0 : viz. av t ov, -ij g, av t (^, -?/, avr o v, -rj v, -a, avt a v, etc., 
or of a demonstrative, are universally used, when an object is not 
opposed to itself, but to another object ; e. g. '0 natrjQ avr c^ sdayxs 
to ^ipXiov, gave the book to him (the son). ^rsQyco avrov (him). 
Aniioiiai avr ov, I abstain from him. The pronoun avrov, etc. 
is here nothing else than the pronoun of the third person. 

Rem. 3. The personal pronoun ov, ol, etc. has commonly a reflexire sense in 
the Attic writers. But in this case, it is regularly employed, only when the re- 
flexive relation has respect, not to the nearest, but to the more remote subject ; 
e. g. 'O Tvpavvog vofii^Ei, rovg 7To?UTag vtztjpeteZv o I (but not Tvpavvog xf^pK^^ai 


8. In the instance mentioned under No. 6, the corresponding 
forms of avr 6 g are very frequently used instead of the reflexive 
pronoun ; and this is always the case, where a member of a sen- 
tence or a subordinate clause, is not the expression or sentiment of 
the person to whom the pronoun refers, but the expression of the 
speaker (writer). 

Yivpog eSelto tov 2a/ca Tcavrog crj^aivELv avru, ottote kyxcopoir] EigcEvac 
Trpbg rbv Tra-Kirov, C. rogabat Sacam, ut indicaret siBi, quando tejnpestivum esset. 

01 TtoTiEixLOL EV'&'bg cKpTjCFOvat TTjv "kELav, ETTEidav ISudL Tivag kit' avToi)g e?,av- 
vovrag, the enemy will stop plundering, as soon as they see any coming against them. 
Ttjv kavTOv yvufir/v a,TTE(paLVET0 liUKpdrTjg rrpbg rovg bpiJ.ovvTag avrCi, Socrates 
expressed his views to tJiose who associated with him. J^oKpdrTjg Eyvu tov etl Cjjv rb 
TEd-vdvai avTu KpslTTOv ELvat, S. knew that death was better for him tJian a longer 
period of life. 


9. In the compound reflexive pronouns, avzog either retains its 
exclusive force or it does not, i. e. it is sometimes emphatic, and 
sometimes not. 

(a) AiKaiov koTL (piTiovg [itv Troulad-ac Tovg u/xolug avrolg re (or C(piat 
T£ avTolc) ical rolg aTJkotg ;);p(j//£vot)f , <po(3elad-ai 6e Kot dedievac Toi>c Tzpbq 
c<j>ag fiev airovg (or kavrov g) olKeiorara SiaKetiievovg, Trpbg 6e rovg ak- 
?Mvg a9i?iOTpio)g, it is proper to make friends of those who treat themselves and others 
alike, but to fear those who are very friendly to themselves, hut hostile to others ; here 
the reflexives avrolg and G6dg avrovg, each being compounded of avror, are em- 
phatic = se ipsis and se ipsos. — (b) Oi uTparLcJTat napelxov iavrov g (or a (pUg 
avTOvg) avdpetoTdrovg [se), showed themselves very brave. 01 TroMjiioi rrapido- 
cav eavTovg {or a <pdg avrovg) rolg "'E?vl7iaiv {se), delivered themselves to the 
Greeks ; in these two examples, the avrog contained in the reflexives is not em- 

Rem. 4. The reflexive possessive pronouns are either used alone, e. g. fieradi- 
Sufit cot ruv EficJv xPVfJ-^'^f^'^j I share with you my effects; diKaLorepov eari 
ra 7] jiET epa ijiidg ex^tv ?} rovrovg, it is more just tliat we should have our omn, 
than that they should have it ; -bfielg aTvavreg ro'i)g vfierepov g nraldag djaTrdTe ; 
ol TTo/Jrat rd g(I) er e pa cul^eiv erreipuvro ; or with the addition of the Gren. 
of ai r 6 f (according to § 154, 3) ; or instead of the possessives, the Gen. of the 
compound substantive-reflexives is employed ; and indeed in the common lan- 
guage, the last form is always used with the singular pronoun, and more fro 
quently than the possessives with the third Pers. PL, but the Gen. of avrog ig 
usually employed with the plural of the possessives (except the third person). 

S. 6 tfiavTov {aeavTov, kavrov) Trarrjp not o i/nbg {abg, bg) avrov ir 

T^v e/LiavTov {(Tsavrov, iavrov) [MTjTepa not rrjv ejiriv {cttjv, tjv) avTOV fu 

rolg kfiavTOv {(jeavrov, kavrov) "kbyoig not rolg efiolg{aocg, olg) avTOvX. 

P. 6 Tjiierepog avrcJv irarr/p extremely rare 6 rifiibv avruv tt. 

rriv vjLieripav avTuv fiTjrspa extremely rare ttjv vfiuv avrwv fi. 

TO. Tffierepa avruv dftaprijuara extremely rare rd f/fiuv avrdv d. 

6 a(f)eTepog avruv nar/jp more frequent 6 eavrcjv irarifp, but not 

6 (r(pcJv avrQv ir. 

Here also, avrog is sometimes emphatic, sometimes not: (a) 'O iralg ifSpi^et 
Tov kavrov warepa, suum ipsius patrem, his own father, v/zslg vjSpl^eTe Toi)g 
iifzer epov g avr uv rraripag, vestros ipsorum patres, your own parents, ol Tral- 
deg vlSpi^ovac rovg kavruv izarepag, suos ipsorum patres ; (b) 'ZrparovtKTjv, t^ 
kavrov d6el<p7Jv, SiSoxn Itev-d-r), suam sororem, his sister; — ^in the examples un- 
der (a), avrog retains its emphatic force, in the one under (b), it does not. 

Rem. 5. Avrog with a reflexive meaning, regularly stands after the substan- 
tive and adjective pronouns ; e. g. Tjftuv avruv, vjuv avrolg, 6 v/ierepog avrcJv 
rrarf/p, etc. But when the personal pronoun is used with the reflexive sense, 
then airog, used in its exclusive sense, may precede or follow the personal pro- 
noun; e. g. avrov e/j.ov {p-ov), ahrCi hpoi {/J.oc), avrbv kpe (fis), or epov avrov, 
tpol avru, etc. 

Rem. 6. For the sake of perspicuity, or rhetorical emphasis, a demonstratiYO 
pronoun, particularly avrog, is frequently put in the same sentence after a pre- 


ceding substantive or pronoun, when a long intermediate clause separates the 
Case from the verb which governs it. This pronoun again resumes the preced- 
ing substantive or pronoun; e. g. K?^eapxog Ss To?i,fj,i67]v 'HTielov, bv 
krvyxO'Vev ex(^v Trap' tavrC) nf^pvua upiarov rtJv Tore, tovtov uvenrelv eKe- 
levae, Clearchus commanded .Tolmides of Elis, whom he happened to have with him, 
and who was the most distinguished herald of his time, that he should make proclama- 
tion. 'Eyu [lev ovv [3 aa i?i.E a, (5 7ro?Jia ovrug earl ra av/ipaxa, eiirep Ttpo'Ov-' 
IJ-elrac rjaug airoTiEcaL, ovk olSa, o rt del avrov bp.6(jaL Kal ds^tav dovvai. 

XCIV. JSxercises on % 1Q9. 

The dissolute (man) makes himself the slave of himself. Care for all, but 
most for thyself. The passions {i^Sovai), implanted in the soul, do not persuade 
it to be considerate, but forthwith to render servdce both to themselves and to 
the body. I should (§ 153, 2, c) be ashamed (ao?:) if I cared more for my re- 
putation than for the common welfare. (Those) whom {ovg av, w. suhj.) we 
esteem [aor.) as better than om-selves, those we are willing to obey and (that) 
without compulsion. To those who (§ 148, 6) do not (//^) command them- 
selves to do right (= the good), God assigns others (as) masters (= comman- 
ders). The Chaldaeans came and prayed {part.) Cyrus to make {aor.) peace 
with them. The Athenians thought they ought {inf.) not to thank others (ere- 
pog) for {art.) deliverance, but the other Greeks them. In the Peloponnesiaa 
war, Grecian cities were destroyed {aor.), some by (the) Barbarians, others by 
themselves. Enrich thy (= the) friends ; then thou wilt enrich thyself Phrixus, 
as soon as {part.) he learned {aor.) that his father was about {fieXXeiv, opt.) to 
sacrifice him, took {part, aor.) his sister, and mounting {aor.) a ram with her, 
came {aor.) through the sea into the Pontus Euxinus. The Persians went 
through the whole country of the Eretrians, binding {aor.) their (= the) hands, 
that they might be able {ex^tv) to tell {aor.) the king, that no one had escaped 

§ 170. Th e Infi nitive. 
The Infinitive represents the idea of the verb as an abstract sub- 
stantive-idea ; but it differs from the substantive, in retaining so 
much of the nature of the verb, as that, on the one hand, it exhi- 
bits the nature or quality of the action, viz. duration, completion 
and futurity, e. g. yQccqieiv, yeyQacpivai, ygdipai, ygdipsiv, while on 
the other, it has the same construction as the verb, i. e. it governs 
the same Cases as the verb ; e. g. yQciqjsiv i 7i i a t o X i^ v, sTii&vfxeiif 
Trig dQerTJg, Ivavriova&ai r oig tzoXs f^io ig. The attributive 
qualification of the Inf. is an adverb, and not, as in the case of an 
actual substantive, an adjective ; e. g. xaXoj g aTzo&aveiv (but y.aXog 
-d-dvatog). The Inf. will first be considered without the article, 
and then with it. 

j§ 171, 172.] SYNTAX. THE INFINITIVE. 249 

§ 171. A. Infinitive without the Article, 

1. The Inf. without the article is used, in the first place, as the 

Ov KaKov jSaatXevetVytobea king is not evil. 'Ael r/ftg, Tolg yepovaiv ei 
lad^ Etv, the ability to learn always remains young even to the old. Mox^og ue- 
VLGTog yrjg narpiag ar e p eg'& at. 

2. In the second place, the Inf. is used as the object in the Ace, 
;o express something effected, wished, aimed at, the purpose, object 
)r result, with the following classes of verbs* and adjectives ; 

(a) With verbs which denote an act or expression of the will ; 
B. g. to wish, to desire, to long for, to dare, to ask, to command, to 
counsel, to permit, to fear, to delay, to prevent ; — (b) with verbs which 
lenote the exercise of the intellectual powers or their manifestation ; 

3. g. to think, to intend, to hope, to seem, to learn, to say, to deny ; 

;^c) with verbs which contain the idea of being able, effecting, of 
\)ower or capacity ; — (d) with many other verbs and adjectives to 
express a purpose or object, a consequence or result. 

BovXofiai, U£X2,c} y pd(p e iv. 'Ett f&v /xu tt o p e v e ad a i. ToTiud 
b'nro/iEveiv rbv klv6vvov. UapaLvu aoi y pd(p e cv. Ovrog rovg SovXovc 
^iretaev btt f& ea-&at rolg deaTToratg. Ty crparLg. dixa napecFKeva- 
'ero (3 07]'& eZv err' avTovg. KuXv cj ae ravra iro t slv. ^ofSovuaidie- 
ieyxstv ae. l:^o/j.t^co d/iapr elv. ''EXiri^o) EVTVxv(^e cv. 'H tto- 
itg k KLvdvv £V a E iraaa 6 ia<p-&ap7jv ai. "E^jy slvai (jrparTjyog. A e- 
/w ElSivat ravra. Mav&dv u iTTTrsv e tv. A iSdcr ku ge ypdSecv. 
\vvafiai TTOiELv ravra. Hoiu ge ysXav. 'A^Log egtl ■&avud^e- 
T-Q-ai,. "Hko/llev fiav&dvEiv. 

Remaek. It is a peculiarity of the Greek, that with these adjectives, it com- 
nonly uses the Inf., Act. or Mid., instead of the passive Inf Such Infinitives 
nay be translated both actively and passively into English ; e. g. Kalog egtiv 
Secv, he is beautiful to see, or to be seen, a^iog hari ^aviidaai, worthy to he admired 
ioyog dvvarog EGrt KaravorjGaif able to he understood. 

} 172. Nam., Gen., Dat» and Ace, with the Infini-^ 

tiv e» 
1. Most verbs which take an Inf., have, in addition to this object, 
also a personal object, which is put in the Case that the principal 

* The verbs which take an Inf. after them, are usually such as do not express 
1 complete idea of themselves, but require an Inf or some other construction, 
X) complete the idea. The Inf therefore, is the complement of the verb on 
B^hich it depends. Comp. what is said on the Part, as a complement of the verb, 
\ 175.-TK. 


verb requires; e. g. dso^ai cov iXd-£iv, I ieg you to come, 
^v jx^ ovXev CO 6 1 acoq)Qoraiv, I advise you to he discreet. 'E n o- 
rQvv(o G8 ^ayEa&ai, I urge you to Jight. KeXsvoj a s yQccqjsiv. 

2. But when the principal verb is a verhum sentiendi* or decla- 
randi, governing the Ace, and the subject of the principal verb is at 
the same time its object (or in English, when the subject of the 
principal verb is the same as the subject of the dependent clause, 
e. g. I think that I have erred), then the Ace. of a personal pronoun 
is not joined with the Inf., as in Latin, but is wholly omitted. 

OlofzaL d/xapr eIv (instead of olofiai ejiavrov d/uaprelv), I think that I have 
erred, credo me errasse; out d/Ltapr elv (instead of oIcl aeavrbv dfiaprelv), you 
think that you have erred, credis te errasse ; olerai d/iapr etv (instead of oierai 
eavTov dfx,apTelv), he thinks that he has erred, credit SE errasse. 

S. When adjectives or substantives are joined with the Inf., as 
explanations of the predicate, they are put, by attraction, in the 
same Case as the object of the principal verb, viz. in the Gen., 
Dat. or Ace. ; and when the subject of a verhum sentiendi or decla- 
randi is also its object, i. e. when the subject of the principal verb 
and of the Inf. is the same, the explanatory word is put in the Nom. 
by attraction. 

Nom. with Inf. 'O uTparrj-ybg e<^7] irpo-d-v fio^ elvai eTnfioTj'&elv, the commaH' 

der said that he was zealous to render aid. 
Gen. with Inf. Aeo/nai aov irpod-v/xov elvai, I wish you to be zealous. 
Dat. with Inf. 'Lvfi^ov^^Eva a o i ir p o ■& v /n cp elvai. 
Ace. with Inf. 'ETTorpiivw <7£ 7rp6-&v /xov elvai. 'E^^ ae eidaifiova 


Rem. ] . When the subject of the principal verb and of the Inf. is the same, and 

the subject of the Inf. is to be made emphatic, which is the case particularly in 
antitheses, then the subject of the Inf is expressed in the Ace. ; e. g. Kpolaoc 
evofii^e kavTov elvai -Kavrcov oTipiurarov, Croesus thought that he toas the most 
happy of all men. 

Rem. 2. Very frequently the predicative explanations which are joined with 
the Inf., and refer to the object of the principal verb, are not put in the same 
Case as this object, but in the Ace. ; this is explained by considering the object 
of the principal verb, at the same time as the subject of the Inf 5 e. g. 6eo[iai 
ifiuv {v flag) j3 07}'&oi)c jeveo'&ai. 'A'&tjv atuv k6erj-&7]aav (T(piai j3 orj'&ovg 
yevEcrd-ai, they requested the Athenians to assist them ; here the word 'A-&7jvaio}v 
stands in a two-fold relation, first as the object of ede^-&7j(jav, in the Gen., and 
second, as the subject of yevea'&ai, in the Ace; aevia 7jKeiv -TrapTjy-yeile Aa- 
3 ovra rovg uvdpag ; e^eari 6' v/iiv, el (3ov?ie(rd-e Xa^Svr ag bnTia elg Kiv- 
dvvov k/ifSaiveiv. 

* Verba sentiendi are such as signify to believe, thinh, see, perceive, hope, hear, and 
tho like ; — verba declarandi, such as signify to say, affirm, show, announce, etc. — Tr, 

§ 173.] SYNTAX. — THE INFINITIVE. 251 

Eem. 3. "When the Inf. is used as the subject {§ 171, 1), and has a subject of 
its own or predicative explanations, connected with it, both the subject of tho 
Inf. and the predicative explanations are put in the Ace. ; e. g. 'Tnlp rr/r ttu- 
rpiSog [laxo [levov g a7:o-&avelv koKov iariv, it is hoiiorahle to die Jigiding for 
our country ; here awod^avelv which is the subject of Icrl, has for its own sub- 
ject the Ace. rtvag or Vfidg -understood, and for its predicative explanation, /xa- 
XOfievovg, also in the Ace. 

XCV. Exercises on §§ 171, 172. 

Critias and Alcibiades believed that, if thej should associate {acyr. opt.) with 
{art.) Socrates, they might {§ 153, 2, d.) become very competent both to speak 
and to act (= in speaking and in acting). Endeavor to be a lover of labor with 
thy (= the) body, a lover of wisdom -with thy mind, that {Iva, w. suhj.) thou 
mayest execute thy (=the) purposes [ra So^avra) -ndth the one, foresee that 
which is for tliy advantage ( = the advantageous) with the other. The Persians 
thought they were invincible by {Kara) sea. Thou wilt find many tyrants who 
(part.) have been destroyed by those who (§ 148, 6) seemed most to be (their) 
friends. Socrates said, that those who (§ 148, 6) consult an (=the) oracle 
(for that) which the gods have given (aor.) men (the ability) to learn (part, aor.) 
and to decide, were insane. It becomes every ruler to be discreet. I believe 
that men have (art.) riches and (art.) poverty not in their houses (sing.) 
but in theii' minds. Their (=the) common dangers made the allies kindly 
disposed towards each other. Some philosophers (= of the philosophers) be- 
lieve {doKel, w. dat.) that everything [plur.) is in motion (= moving itself), 
but others that nothing can ever move (§ 153, 2, d.), and some, that everything 
is coming into existence (= becoming) and peiishing, but others that nothing 
can ever cither (= neither) come into being [aor.) or (=nor) perish {aor.). 
Men, when they are sick {part.), submit (= present) their bodies both to be am- 
putated {act.) and cauteiised {act.) amid {[xeTu) sufferings and pains. Cyrua 
ordered the enemy to deliver up {aor.) their arms. It is better to learn late 
than to be ignorant. 

§173. B, Infinitive with the Article, 

1. The Inf. with the article (ro) is treated in all respects as a 
substantive, and is such, since by means of the article, it can be de- 
clined, and is capable of expressing all those relations, which are 
indicated by the Cases of the substantive. On the contrary, it here 
also, as in the Inf. without the article, retains the nature of a verb ; 
e.g. TO 871 la T oXtjv yQacpeiv, zo 7i aX^g yQaqjEiv, etc., z6 y. aXoj g 
a7io-&vri6y,eiv, an honorable death, xo vttsq trjg TiazQidog aTto&avuv, 
death for one^s country. 

2. When the Inf., whether used as a subject or object, has a sub- 
ject and predicative explanations belonging to it, then both these, 
las in case of the Inf. without the article (§ 172, A.), are put in the 

252 SYNTAX. — THE PAETICIPLE. [§ 174. 

Acc. When, however, the subject of the Inf. is the same as that 
of the principal verb, it is not expressed, and the predicative expla- 
nations are put by attraction in the same Case as the subject of 
the principal verb, i. e. in the Norn. (§ 172, 2 and 3). 

To aTTo-d-av eZv Ttva vTrep TTjg narpcSog Ka7i.r] rig rvxVi t^t one should die 
far Ms country is a happy lot. To dfiaprav e iv av&pcJTzovg ovrag ov- 
dsv, olfzai, ■&av/j,aaT6v, that those who are men should err, I think, is not surprising, 
or it is not surprising that, etc. KMapxog [iLKpbv e^e^vye rov KaraTrerpu- 
■&7jvaL, C.harely escaped being stoned to death. HuKpdrTjg TzapeKoket eTCLp-elel- 
(T&aL rov ug (p pov ifj-urarov elv at Kal d<ps2.ifi6TaTOV, Socrates ex- 
hrrted each one to make it his object to be {to have a care for being) as ivise and o^ 
useful as possible; here ^povtiiCyraTov, etc. agrees with eKaarov understood, which 
is the subject of the Inf. elv at, while the whole clause is used as a substantive. 
(Very often rov or rov /nf/ with the Inf. is used to denote a purpose or object; 
e. g. Avva^Lv -TrapaaKevd^erai rov fir/ adcKsla'&at, heis preparing a force in 
order that he may not be injured). 01 av^puiroc rcavra firjxavcjvrat ettl rw evtv- 
Xelv, use every expedient in order to be prosperous. 'O Kvpog did rb <j)iAo- 
fia'&r] g elv a c TroAPud rovg Tzapovrag dvrjpioTa, Kal baa avrog vif dXkc^v (sc. 
dvJjpuTaTo), did to dyx'i-vovg slvai rax'v dneKpiveTO, on account of his 
fondness for learning, Cyrus was in the habit of proposing 77iany questions to those 
about him, and whatever he himself was asked by others, he readily answered, on ac- 
count of his quickness of perception ; in this sentence, the subject of the Infinitives 
being the same as that of the principal verb, the predicative explanations ^iAo- 
fia-&i]g and dyxivovg, are put in the Nom. by attraction, agreeing with the im- 
phed subject of the Infinitives. So in rovro kTToiet kK rov ;j; a A e 7r d f elvat, 
this he effected by being severe. 

XCVI. Exercises on § 173. 

The huntsmen cheerfully toil in hope of game {7i.afi(idvetv, fut.). Prome- 
theus was bound in Scythia, because (^^a) he had stolen fire. The Spartans 
are proud of (eTti) showing (= offering) themselves submissive and obedient to 
magistrates. Avarice, besides (Trpof) conferring no advantage (:= benefiting 
nothing), often deprives even of present possessions.' In order that the hares 
may not escape from the nets, the hunters station scouts. So far from {dvTi) 
corrupting young men, Socrates incited them, in {e«) every way to practise vir- 

§174. The Participle, 
1. The Participle is used, in the first place, as the complement of 
verbs and adjectives, e. g. xaiQ(o rov q)iXov cocpsX^aaCj I rejoice that 
I have assisted a friend, where the Part. (oq)e}.^<ya9 explains or com- 
pletes the idea of the verb, which is imperfectly expressed without 
it ; in the second place, the Part, serves not merely to denote an 
immediate attributive qnaUfication of a substantive, e. g. to d^d X- 

§ 175.] SYNTAX. — THE PARTICIPLE. 2it3 

Xov Qobov or Tfl q68ov to {)• a X X V, the blooming rose, but it can 
also express the adverbial relations of time, causality, inanner and 
way, and, in general, every explanatory circumstance, as well as a 
more remote attributive of a substantive. 

2. The Part, represents the idea of the verb as that of an adjec- 
tive, and is like the adjective both in its form and in its attributive 
use; but, in the same manner as the Inf. (§ 170), it exhibits the 
nature or quality of the action (jQucpav, ytyQuqxog, yQoiipug, ygd- 
ipcov), and retains the construction of the verb {youcfwv tTziGzo- 
Xriv, aaXdjg yqaqjav). As the Part, has an attributive form 
and signification, it can never be used independently, but always 
depends on a substantive, agreeing with it in gender, number and 

§ 175. The Participle as the complement of the Verb. 

1. As the Part, is an attributive, and therefore represents the ac- 
tion as already belonging to an object, only such verbs can have a 
Part, for their complement, as require for a complement an action 
which, in the character of an attribute, belongs to an object, — the 
object being in some state of action, or in some condition. Hence 
the following classes of verbs have a Part, for their complement, 
(a) Verba sentiendi, i. e. such as denote a perception by the senses 
or by the mind, e. g. ^o hear, to see, to observe, to know, to perceive, 
to remember, to forget ; — (b) Verba declarandi, e. g. to declare, to 
show, to make manifest, to appear, to be hnown, to be evident; — 
(c) Verba affectuum, i. e. such as denote an affection of the mind, 
e. g. to rejoice, to grieve, to be contented, happy, to be displeased, to 
be ashamed, to regret ; — (d) Verbs signifying to permit, to endure, to 
persevere, to continue, to be weary (TteQiOQav, eTzitQSTTSiv, aTtjea-d'aif 
y^aQTEQEiv, y,aiJiveiv, etc. ; but mv always with the Inf.) ; — (e) Verbs 
signifying to begin and cease, to cause to cease, to omit, to be remiss 
in something ; — (f ) Verbs signifying to be foHunate, to distinguish 
one's self to excel, to be inferior, to do well, to err, to do wrong, to 
enjoy, to be fidl of something. 

Reji. 1. The Part, used with the preceding classes of verbs, is often equiva- 
lent to a subordinate clause introduced by otl or el, and in English, must often 
be translated by that or if or by the hif. 

2. The construction is here evident. The Part, agrees in Case 
with the substantive-object of the principal verb, this object being 
in the Case which the principal verb requires. But when the sub- 



ject of the principal verb is, at the same time, its object, as oi8a 
(iya) ^iJLavtoi> d-vijtov ovta, then the personal pronoun which rep- 
resents the subject as an object, is not expressed, and the Part, is 
put by attraction in the same Case as the subject of the principal 
verb, i. e. in the Nom. (comp. § 172, 2). 

'Op<5 Tov av& puiTOv rpsxovra, I see the man running. 016a d v- 
"d-poTTOV ■d-vriTov bvra, 1 know that man is mortal. 016a -QvYiTbg uv, 
I hnoio that I am mortal. 'Kkovu avrov TiiyovTog, I hear him say. 01 
'A.-&7]vacot efaivovTo vrrepax'&^cr'&EVTeg ry MlTititov dlcdoei, the Athe- 
nians seemed to have been exceedingly grieved at the capture ofM. ''Pa6iidg fkeyx- 
V fj G1J "ip EV 6 6 [lEv Q, you will easily he confuted if you falsify. 01 d-eol x^^' 
f ov G L r ifj.c) fj,ev I i}7rb tuv av&puircjv, the gods rejoice, if they are honored, 
at being honored. "Kaipco <jo t kTi'd-ovri, I rejoice tJiat you have come. 01 
iroTuraL tt e p c eZ 6 ov rrjv yrjv vtto tcjv noTiefj.iuv t [irj-d^ sla av, the citizens per- 
mitted the country to be laid waste by the enetny. Tiavo) ce d6[,KovvTa, I make 
you cease to do torong, or doing wrong. Uavo/zai. ae a6LKC)v, I cease to injure 
you. "Apxo/J-ai 2,eyuv, I begin to speak. Eii eiroirj aag acpiKOfievoc, 
you have done well that you have come. 'Afiaprdv e ig ravra ttolcov, you err in 
doing these things. HXr/ prjg elfxl ravra -d-eufxevog, I am satisfied vnth seeing 
these things. 

Rem. 2. Yet attraction is omitted, and the Ace. of the personal pronoun, as 
the object of the principal verb, is expressed, when the subject as an object is 
emphatic ; e. g. TzspiEldov avr ov g yfjpa d6vvdTovg yevofiivovg, they permit- 
ted themselves to become enfeebled by old age. 

Rem. 3. With avvo c6a, avyy tyv ua k(o sfiavr^, the Part, can either 
refer to the subject contained in the verb, or to the reflexive pronoun which 
stands with the verb ; if it refers to the subject, it is put in the Nom., if to the 
pronoun, in the Dat. ; e. g. avvoi6a {avyycyvtoaKu) E/iavrC) ev Troirjaag or avvoi- 
6a kfiavTGi EV TTOLyaavri, lam conscious that I have done well. But when the sub- 
ject is not at the same time the object, but is different from the object, then the 
object with its Part, is either put in the Pat., avvoc6d not ev noi^aavri, lam con- 
scious that you have done well; or {though i\ore seldom) the substantive is put in 
the Dat., but the Part, in the Ace. ; e. g. ^} tj aot ovvoi6a ev iro LTJaavra. 

Rem. 4. Some verbs of the classes above mentioned are also constructed with 
the Inf., yet with a different meaning. 

(a) aKovELv, with the Part., implies an immediate perception by one's own 
senses ; with the Inf., one not immediate, but obtained by hear-say ; e. g. 
d Kov (0 avrov 6 ia2,Ey o fis v ov, i. e. ejus sermones auribus meis perci- 
pio; but 16eIv ette^vixel b 'AaTvdyrjg tov Kvpov, ort 7j Kcve'(ex aliis au- 
diverat) KaXbv Kayad-bv avrbv eIv at; 

(b) el6£vai, k iz i o r a a ■& a i, with a Part., to know , with the Inf , to know 
how to do something {to be able) ; e. g. oZda (kTrcGTafiai) •&eoi)c ffsfSo- 
fiEvog, I knoio that I reverence the gods, but a£(3EO-&ac, I know how to 
reverence the gods ; 

(c) (lav&hvEiv, with the Part, to perceive; with the Inf., to learn; e. g. 


[xavd- uv 0) a 0(1) or Cjv, I perceive that I am tvise, cocphc; eIv a i, I learn 
to be vnse; 

(d ) y lyv da KELv, with the Part., to know, to perceive ; with the Inf., to leam^ 
to judge, to conclude; e. g. y i y v cj a k u aya-d-ovg ovt ag toIq crrpaTiu- 
raig Tovg ayuvaq, I know that the prize-fights are useful; but aya-&ovg 
elvai, I judge that, etc. ; 

(e) /J,E /ivyai^ ai, with the Part., to be mindful, to remember; with the Inf., to 
contemplate doing something, to intent\ to endeavor ; e. g. pefivriTacev 
77 Lfj aag rovg Tcolirag, he remembeis that he did good to the citizens; e v 
TTO CTJ (yac, lie strives [toishes) to do good; 

(f) (paivead-ac, with the Part., to appear, apparere, to sfiow one^s self; with 
the Inf., to seem, videri ; e. g. e (j) a i v e t o Klatuv and K'Aaie lv; 

(g) ayy e2.\e iv, with the Part., denotes the annunciation of actual events ; 
with the Inf , the annunciation of things still uncertain, merely assumed; e. g. 
6 'AcavpLog elg rrjv x^P^"^ e fijS d?i?.ov ayyeXlerat, it is announced 
that the Assyrian has made an irruption into the country {a fact) ; but e//- 
(3 a?.?iE cv ayyE7>.XeTat (whether he has made an actual irruption or 
not, is not certain) ; 

(ii) 6 E iKvvv a L or utto (pacv e lv, with the Part., to show, to prove ; with 
the Inf, to teach ; e. g. e6 ec^ a o e a6 lktj aavr a, I proved that you had 
done wrong ; but i] [SovItj Alaxivijv Kal Trpod ottjv elva c Kal KaKC, 
vow vjulv aiz E^ aLV Ev [docuit) ; 

(i) TToiEcv, with the Part., to represent ; with the Inf., to cause, to suppose 
e. g. TV CG) as y e ?. co v r a, I rejoresent you laughing ; but 'k o id c e y e- 
"Xav, I cause you to laugh, or I will suppose that you laugh; 

(k) aiaxvvEGTS-at and aid el a ■& at, with the Part., to be ashamed on ac- 
count of something which one does ; with the Inf, to he ashamed or afraid to 
do something, to omit something from shame; e. g. ataxvv opai koku 
Trpdrr uv rbv ^iXov, I am ashamed of doing evil to a friend; but aiaxv- 
V pa i KaKa Tcpdrr e iv rbv (piT^ov, I am asliamed to do evil to a friend; 

(1) dp;^e(7i9^ai, with the V&xt., to he in the beginning of an action; with the 
Inf, to begin to do something (something intended); e. g. ijp^avto rd. 
teIxv oiKodopovvTEg and oIko6 o pEcv. 

Rem. 5. Instead of the impersonal phrases, dij/iov sari,, (pavEpov egtl, (paivETai, 
it appears, it is evident, the Greek uses the personal construction, and makes the 
Part, agi-ee with the subject : such phrases, however, are generally rendered in- 
to English as if they were impersonal ; e. g. 67j?i,6g elpc, (pavspog slpc, (paivopai 
rfjv TTaroida sv Troi^nag, it is evident that I have done well for my country. 

3. Finally, the Part, is used as a complement with the following 
verbs : (a) r i; y / a y oo, ^o happen ; (b) Xav'& dv(o,tobe concealed, 
unobserved; (c) d lat sla, diayiyvofiai, diayco, which ex- 
press a continuance ; (d) (pd' dv co, to come before, to anticipate ; 
(e) oixofia I, to go away, to depart. With these verbs, the English 
ofter changes the construction, the verbs being frequently rendered 
by ai adverb, and the Part, connected with them by a finite verb. 


KpotcToc ^ovia rov -rratSdr e ?i,uv& av e i3 6 a k o)v, Croesus nounsJied the muT' 
derer of his son unwittingly (without knowing it). Aiuycj, 6 car sAu, 6 la* 
yijvo/xac Ka?M tcoluv, I always, continually do what is honorable. 'Q t« 
X £ T ^ ev y cjv, went away qjiickltt, or fieiv aiuay, (pX^ v r o arc ojr'kEovr e ^, 
sailed away^ ocxo fia i (j) e pco v, cderiter abstuli. 'Ervxov oTrAirai ev ry ayopa 
Kad- e V 6 ov T e g (hg TvevTrjKovTa, about fifty heavy armed soldiers were then, just 
then, by chance, sleeping in the market-place. {Tvyxavu is always used, where an 
event has not taken place by our intention or design, but by the accidental co- 
operation of external circumstances, or by the natural course of things ; it may 
sometimes be translated by just, just now, just then, by chance, but often cannot be 
translated at all into English). XaAeTrdv Jjv uXkov ^-d^aaai tovto iroiij- 
a avTa, it was difficult for another to do this before him, or to anticipate him in do- 
ing it. 

XCVII. Exercises on §§ 174, 175. 

I hear [w. gen.) that some are commended, because they are men observant 
of law. It is pleasant to learn {w. ace. ) that a friend is prosperous. I once 
heard Socrates discoursing upon friendship. No one repents {aor.) of having 
been silent {curr.), very many of having talked. Remember that thou art a man. 
(They) will fight more boldly against the enemy, who [ol av) are conscious 
that they are well trained. Socrates was well known to be humane. The man 
had been competed of having deceived [aor.) us. It is evident that the enemy 
will besiege the city, at the same time, by sea and by land. Industrious pupils 
rejoice to be commended. Xerxes repented of having scourged {aor.) the Helle- 
spont. The citizens repented that they betrayed the city. It is hard to suffer 
friends to be ruined. Be not weary {aor., § 153, Rem. 3) of benefiting a Mend, 
Socrates never ceased both to seek for and to learn the good. The enemy left 
off {aor.) besieging the city. Endeavor to surpass thy friends in kindness. I 
was conscious of having done no wrong {aor.) to my friend. The Persians learn 
betimes, while {part.) they are still children, both to govern and to obey (= tc 
be governed). A kindly-disposed friend understands (how) to alleviate (the) 
grief 9S a friend. If {part.) thou art rich, remember to do good to the poor 
Let us not be ashamed that we learn that which is useful from a stranger. The 
Lacedaemonians, believing {aor.) that war would benefit them, resolved {am.) to 
render aid to Cyinis. Philip seems to have enlarged his dominion by gold ra- 
ther than by arms. Death is (the) greatest of all blessings to man. The sol- 
diers were at this very time drawn up (in order of battle). Canst thou tell me 
what thou thinkesf? He who {ogrig) fears others {erepog) is, without knowing 
it, himself a slave. Callixenus, the Athenian, who {part.) had been confined 
{aor.) in the prison (of the state), secretly dug through {aor.) it and escaped to 
the enemy. Socrates did good continually {part.). Benefactors are always be- 
loved. If {hav, w. subj. aor.) we first kill {aou) the enem^, no one of us will die. 
After death the body indeed will be dead, out the soul immortal and never 
growing old, will soar swiftly upward {aor.). The prisoners dug through (part, 
aor.) the prison and speedily escaped. 


§176. B. The Participle used to express Adverbial Relations and 
Subordinate Explanatory Circumstances. 

1. In the second place, the Part, denotes the adverbial relations 
(a) of time : when, after, while ; — (b) cause : si7ice, because, as, inas- 
much as; — (c) conditionality and concession: if, although; — (d) 
manner and ivay ; — (e) purpose, object: to, in order to, for the pur- 
pose of; — (f ) and, in general, both every explanatory circumstance 
which we translate by who, which, and a more remote attributive ot 
a substantive. 

(a) ^Hv 6e ottots kol avrolg rolg av a(S dcr t ixoXkh TcpuyiiaTa Tzapelxov oi 
0ap(iapoi TTokiv KarajSaivovcFLv, sometimes also after they had ascended, tfie 
barbarians again annoyed them much, while descending; a Kovaaa t ravra rolt, 
GTpaTTjyolg to ev&v/x7]fia x°P'^^^ eSoKEC elvai, wJien the generals heard this^ihey 
thought the device ingenious ; — (b) i/fiecg 6' enl rrjg yrjg (3 e j3?j Koreg tto7.v lgxv- 
porepov TraiaoixEv, but we, inasmuch as we stand upon the ground, will be able to strike 
a more severe blow; 'lepuvvfiog, Trpea^vrarog bv tCjv loxaycjv, ^pxero AeyecVf 
because he was the oldest of the captains ; ra eTrtTTJSeta exoiev en rrjg x^^P^iC, ttoTi- 
2,fjg Kal dyad-Tjg ovgtj g, they might obtain supplies from the place, because it was ex- 
tensive and fertile; — (c) (po fi ov [lev o t ti]v 66dv ofxcog ot nroTiTiol <7VV7jko2.ov-&7} 
cav, although they feared the journey, yet many followed; rovg fDi-ovg evepye- 
TovvT eg kx'Q-povg 6vvr]aea-&e Ko7M(,eiv, if you confer benefits on friends, you will 
be able to punish your enemies; — (d) ye2,cJv eljrev, he spoke laughing; ri ova 
iiroiTjae TcpeajSeig tt e fnruv, Kal 7rapex<^v to, eirtTT/deia egre aTrovdiJv etv- 
Xev, ivhat did he not do, by sending envoys and by furnishing supplies, until he obtain- 
ed a truce 1 — (e) rovro epxo/itat ^ pa gov, I come to (in order to) say this ; Grpa- 
Ttav TToXkrjv ayuv ugjSorj'&yGuv (SaGiXel, leading a large army to assist the king; 
— (f ) M^o) Tovg rrpbg e/ie Xeyovrag dg, etc., I will mention tlwse wlu) say to me, 

2. Here two different constructions of the Part, must be distin- 
guished. The Part., like the attributive Pai't., either agrees with 
its subject (i. e. the word to which it belongs) in gender, number 
and Case ; e. g. o KvQog y eXav eIttsv ; zoig TIsQaaig dg tj^v yrjf 
EiQ^ aXov (5 IV 01 ElhjvEg iivavrioddr^oav, etc. ; or the Part, and 
its subject are put in the Gen., called the Genitive Absolute ; e. g. 
t ov 7t aid 6g y sXavz og, 6 KvQog EiTtev, the child laughing, O. 

Rem. 1, In English, the explanatory Part, is more seldom used, than in 
Greek, the place of it being supplied either by subordinate clauses introduced by 
the conjunctions when, since, after, because, inasmuch as, if although, etc. ; or by a 
substantive with a preposition ;e.g. drro'&avovTog r ov Kvpov, after t\€ death 
of C.,^Evyuv, in flight ; or by an adverb, e. g. ravTa iroLTjGag, thereupon, then. 
Very often also, we use the finite verb, where the Greek uses a Part. ; e. g. oi 



'KolifiLOL (pvyovTeg eStux^/jcrav, fled and ivere pursued. But, where several 
actions are combined into one whole, the Greek very carefully distinguishes the 
principal action from the accompanying subordinate circumstances, by express- 
ing the former by means of the finite verb, but the latter by the Part. 

UoXlol ru xpVlJ-ara av aXd a av r e £, uv 7rp6(7-&ev utteIxovto KepSciv, alaxpa 
uofii^ovreg elvac, tovtuv ovk uTrexovrai, many after having squandered their 
wealth, have recourse to tJwse means of gain, which before they did not resort to, because 
they thought them dishonorable. Tov eapog k7^-&6vTog, ru uv&t] -d-dllei, when 
the sjonng comes, the fiowers blossom. Arjl^ofievoL ^uglv, raptu vivunt, live by 
plundering. Ilol?i7J rexvr} xpf^^^voc; tovc TioXe/uiovc; evcKyaev, he conquered the 
enemy 6y using much stratagem. E/f Ael^ovg iropsverat xpV(^o/iievog ru xpV 
UTTjpio), orocuLum consulturus. 'Advvarov rrolXa rsxvujuevov avd-puirov -nav- 
ra Kalug ttoulv, it is impossible for a man who devises m.any things, to do all well. 
The particles fiera^v {during, while), a/ua (at the same time), Kai, KccTrep 
(although), are sometimes joined with the Part, to express its force more fully. 

3. Instead of the Gen. absolute, the Ace. also is used, but for the 
most part, only when the Part, has no definite subject, consequently, 
where the verb from which the Part, comes is impersonal, e. g. 
i^ov (from s^ean, it is lawful, possible), or with impersonal phrases, 
e. g. aiaxQov ov (from ataxQov lotiv, it is shameful). The sub- 
ject is sometimes expressed by a neuter pronoun. 

nap ov avTcp (SaaiUa ysvsad-at, al^o Tcepie^rjKe to Kparog, since it is pos- 
sible for him to be a ling, etc. 'K8el<l>oKrovog, ovSlv deov (quumfas non esset, fien 
nm deberet), yeyova, I slew my brother, although it ought not to have been done.' So, 
66 ^av ravra, when these things had been agreed upon; 66^av avrolq (quum iis 
visum sit, esset) lohen, because they thought best; doKovv (quum videatur, videretur) 
avaxcopelv ; jr p o f ?; /c o v, quum deceat, deceret, since, when it is ft, p^oper ; k^ov, 
quum liceat, liceret, since, when it is in one's power, when he can. Also passive par- 
ticiples : SeSoyfxevov, quum decretum sit, esset ; elpvfiivov, quum dictum sit, 
esset. In the third place, adjectives irith 5v ; e.g.alaxpdv bv, quum turpe sit, 
esset, since it is shameful ; ad-nlov bv, sitwe (as, when) it is uncertain ; dvvarbv 
6v, advvarovov. 

Eem. 2. The particle of comparison, wf , is joined with the simple Part., and 
also where it stands in the Gen. or Ace. absolute, when the idea expressed by the 
Part, is to be indicated as something merely supposed, as the subjective view ofths 
agent; hence where the view expressed is that of the agent, and not that of the 
miter or speaker. In English the force of the Part, with (bg can be translated 
by as if as tliough, since forsooth, because, thinking, intending, etc. The particle are, 
on the contrary, is used when a cause or reason is to be represented as an objeJ- 
live one, i. e. really existing, in oppositi(vi lo what is merely supposed. 

a. Simple Participle. 0/ upxovreg, kuv bnoaovovv xpbvov apxovreg diayevuv 
rat, ^av^a^ovrac, 6 g ao^oi re Kal evrvxHg y ey evv p-ev o t, are admired, being 
thought to have been wise and fortunate = v ofii^opevo i ao<}>oi re Kal eirvxelf 
yeyevva^at. ^kyavaKrovaiv, cb g /xeyalov rivibv utt e ar e prj ^ev o c (i e ^yov~ 
iLsvoi f,ey. r. arrearep7^n^at), they are displeased, thinking that therj have been de- 

§ 177.] SYNTAX. THE ADVERB. . 259 

pnved of some great things. 01 "KoAefiLOL are l^aifprrj^ It ltt e aov t e r uvdpa- 
TToda tto'Aau. £/m,3ov, took many slaves, because tJvey fell t/pon them suddenly. 

b. Genitive Absolute. Uap^-y-yeiAev avrotc 'KapacKEvd^ecdaL, u r jiuxv^ ha o- 
(levTjc (i. e. vajjii^cov [idxvv ecrsGd-ai), he ordered them to get in readiness^ as {in 
his opinion), thinking that, there icould he a battle. 'EKr/pvrrov l^iivat -navrag Qr/- 
^aiovc, cog TcJv Tvpdvvuv red-veuiTuv, they announced that all the Thebaris 
should cmne out, becaxise {as they thought) the tyrants were dead. "A r e ttvkvov 6 v- 
Tog Tov LLAcovg, oi'x tcjpcov oi evrog rovg tKTog, because tlie grove was thick, tliose 
vnthin did not see those ivithout (a fact). 

Rem. 3. A peculiar use of tlie Gen. absolute, in connection with C) g, occurs 
■with the verbs elSevai, erriaraa-d-at, voelv, ex^t^v ■yv6)fj.7iv, 6ca- 
K£Za-& ai T Tjv yvo)fx?]v, (p p ov tc^s tv, also sometimes with ?-e'y e iv, and 
the like verbs, where, instead of the Gen. absolute, the Ace. of the substantive 
with a Part, or the Ace. -R-ith an Inf , should stand as the object. The result of 
' the action of the Gen. is commonly denoted by ovtu joined to the predicate ; e. g. 
o)g e fiov ovv I 6v r o g, otttj uv Kal vfielg, ovtu ttjv yv 6) jxtjv ex £~ £, he 
assured that I ivill go ivherever you decide to go; here wf eiiov lovrog stands instead 
\of eue levaL. 

XCYin. Exercises on § 176. 

I The enemy burned {aor.) the city and immediately sailed to {eiri) the islands. 
If the body {plur.) is rendered effeminate, the mind {plur.) also becomes far 
weaker. If agriculture prospers, the other arts also flourish. Should we say of 
all unintelligent men that they were insane, we should (§ 153, 2, c.) speak ( = 
say) correctly. Be assured (= believe) that you would (§ 153, 2, c.) be able to 
live more securely, if there were peace, than if you were waging war. If thou 
dost not labor {aor.), thou canst not be happy. All things {sing.) may (§ 153, 
2, c.) happen {aor.), if God (so) disposes. Tyrtaeus, the poet, was given by the 
Athenians to the Spartans at their request (as) a leader. Alexander killed CH- 
tus while supping, because he had ventured {aor.) to praise the deeds of Philip. 
The soldiers break up their encampment in order to march against the enemy. 
These seem to be the actions of a man fond of war, who {ogrtg) while it is in 
his power to have peace without injury or (= and) disgrace, prefers to carry on 
war. While it was in his power to become {aor.) king himself, he gave the 
sovereignty to another. Although it was possible to have taken {aor.) the city, 
the enemy retreated. When the generals had resolved {6oKel, w. dot., aor.) to 
fight, the enemy hastily fled. The Athenians sent out colonies to Ionia, be- 
cause Attica was not sufficiently spacious (= sufficient). Socrates enjoined on 
men to endeavor to begin every action with the (approbation of the) gods, since 
the gods controlled all actions. Endeavor so to live as if thou weit to live a 
short as well as a long (= much) time. 

§177. The Adverb. 
1. The objective relation, finally, is expressed by adverbs. Ad- 
verbs denote the relation o^ place, time, manner and loai/ of a predi- 

260 SYNTAX. THE ADTERB. [§ 177. 

cate or attribute ; e. g. lyyvd-Ev T^l&av, Xveg aTzs^f], 'AaXag 

2. Besides adverbs of place, time, manner and way, there are 
still other adverbs, which do not, like those above-named, define the 
predicate more precisel}'', but they point out the relation of the pre- 
dicate to the subject. These are called modal adverbs. They de- 
note certainty or uncertainty, affirmation or negation. Only those 
expressing negation will be treated here, viz. o v and // >^. On av 
see § 153, 2. 

^. Ov (as well as its compounds, e. g. ov8i, ovts, ovdsigf 
etc.), is used when something is denied ahsohitely, by itself; ^v 
(and its compounds), on the contrary, when something is denied in 
reference to the conception or will of the speaker or some one else. 
Both are commonly placed before the word which is to be made 

4. Hence ov is used in all sentences containing a direct assertion, 
whether these are expressed by the Ind. or Opt.,e. g. ov yiyvBzaij 
ov y. iyavETo, o v yEvri6Bxai rovto — ov x av ylyvoLto ravra ; also 
in subordinate clauses with o t i, co g, that, e. g. ol8a, ozi zavrcc 
ov 'A iysvsjo ; in clauses denoting time, with ors, BTZEidrj, etc., and 
ground or reason, with o€i., 8i6ti, etc., and consequence, with cagrs 
and the Ind., e. g. ozs ov y. ijld^sv — ItteI tavta ov y, iyevETO ; 
finally, when the idea of a single word in the sentence is to be ne- 
gatived absolutely, e. g. o ^ x dyad^og, o v y.axojg ; in this last case, 
ov remains even when the relation of the sentence would otherwise 
require fi^, e. g. eI ov dcocEi (recusahit). 

0. Mrj, on the contrary, is used with the Imp. and with the Imp. 
Suhj., e.g. |W;} y^dcpE, fiij yQaxpug (comp. §153, Rem. 3); with 
wishes and exhortations, e. g. ft tj yQttcfoig, may you not write ; fi ?) 
yqdcpmixEv, let us not ivrite ; in all clauses denoting purpose, with Iva, 
etc. ; in conditional clauses, with ei, lav, ozav, ETzdv, ewg dv, etc., 
e. g. Ityoo, ira ^u?/ yQdcphg — Ei }ii] yQdq:Eig; in clauses denoting 
effiect or consequence, with xagzE and the Inf., e. g. ol noXlzai dv- 
dQEiag Eixayjaavzo, cogzs (a jj Tovg TZolEfiiovg elg ttjv ttoXiv Eig^alEiv, 
so that the enemy did not fall uponthe city ; in all relative clauses, 
which imply a condition or purpose, e. g. o g \i rj dyad^og iazi, tov- 
Tov ov cpilovixEv (i. e. ei rig fjij dy. i.), ivhoever is not good, if any 
one is not, etc. ; in interrogative clauses, which express anxiety on 
the part of the inquirer, and hence demand a negative answer, e. g. 
ft /) voGEig ; aqa firi voaeTg ; you are not sick, are you ? (in other in- 

§177.] SYNTAX. — THE ADVERB. 261 

terrogative clauses ov is used, and an affirmative answer expected) 
usually with the Inf. also ; and finally with participles and adjec- 
tives, which may be resolved by a conditional clause ; e. g. o firi 
711GTSV03V, si quis non credit, if any one does not believe (but o ov 
TTiGTsvcov = is, qui non credit, or quia non credit, he who does not 
believe (absolute), or because he, etc. 

6. When a negative sentence contains indefinite pronouns or ad- 
verbs, e. g. any one, any how, any where, at any time, ever, etc., 
these are all expressed negatively. The negatives must all be of 
the same kind, i. e. all compounded of ovx or \iri ; e. g. [ivAqa q)voig 
ovdlv fi8'/a ov 8 inor E ovdtva ovze IdicozT^v ovzs noXiv 
bqa, a mean nature never does anything either for any private in- 
dividual or for the State ; ruieXg ov d' iTZivoovfiEv o v d sv r o lov t ov, 
we do not intend any such thing ; avev yaq doxovzoov ov d sv uv 
ov z & xaXov, ovzs aya&ov ytvoizo ov d a [a.ov, for without leaders, 
nothing great or advantageous could any where be accomplished. 

7. After expressions of fear, timidity, anxiety, uncertainty, doubts 
distrust — denying — hindering — forbidding, prohibiting, the Inf. usu- 
ally follows with II T], instead of the Inf. without ^ ri. This jw jj is 
not expressed in English ; e. g. y^coXvco as firj zavza noislv, 1 
prevent you from doing this. AnriyoQSvov I^-avd^aig fi rj Im^aiveiv 
zmv (jqjezEQcov ovqcov, they forbade the Scythians to pass their boun- 

Eemakk. When expressions of fear, anxiety, doubt and the like, are followed 
by 1X7] with the Ind. or Subj. (Opt.), ixr] must be considered a3 an interrogative, 
numne, whether not, and may often be translated by that ; e. g. diSoiKa, // t/ ano- 
d-avri, metuo, ne moriatid; I fear whether he will not die = that he will die; ededot- 
KECV, fir/ u.TTO-&dvoi,, metueham, ne mm-eretur; de6oLKa, [xtj red-vrjKev, ne mortuus sit, 
I fear whdher he has not died, is not dead = I fear that he has died, is dead. On 
the contrary, fiv ov ■s\dth the Ind. and Snbj. (Opt), is used after the above ex- 
pressions, when it is to be indicated that the thing feared will not take place, or 
has not taken place ; e. g. dedotKa /z?j ov k cnrod^dvri, ne non moriatur, I fear that 
he. will not die ; ededoLKet-v (.ltj ov k inro'&avoi, ne non moreretur, I feared that he 
woidd not die ; 6i6oLKa, firj ov red-vr/Kev, ne non mortuus sit, that he is not dead. 

8. Mt] ov with the Inf. is used instead of the Inf. without nega- 
tion, with expressions of hindering, denying, ceasing, abstaining, 
distrusting and the like, when the negative ov, and in general, any 
negative expression precedes firi ov. 

Dvdev KuTivei ge fi?] ovk uTro-&avelv, nothing prevents you from dying ; ovdei^ 
upvtlTai, TTjV upETrjv I.L7] ov KaJ.Tjv Exvai, no one denies tliat virtue is lovely; ovk 
uTiEGxoitrjv fxr/ ov ravra ?JyECv, I did not refrain from saying this. — ^Also after 
lliC expressions 6elvov eIv ai, alaxpov, aiaxvvv^ elvai, alaxvve- 

262 SYNTAX. — THE ADVERB. [§ 177. 

cd-at, wiiicli contain a negative idea, the Inf. follows with // 7 ov, -rhen it is to 
be made negative ; e. g. ugre izdaLv alaxvv7]v elv a l, ^rj ovx^ Gvanovda- 
^Eiv, so that all mere ashamed not to be busy. 

9. Ov 111] with the Subj. or Fut. Ind., is elliptical, since with 
ovK a verb denoting anxiety or fear, which is sometimes also ex- 
pressed, must be supplied, and iiri must be referred to this verb. 
Hence ov ^rj is used, when the idea to be expressed is, it is not 
(ov) to he feared that dav/) something will happe^i ; e. g. ov 11 ri yi- 
vfiTCii tovro, non vereor, ne hoc Jiat, this cetitainlt will not happen, 

XCIX. Exercises on § 177. 

The truly Avise wiU never be the slaves of base desires. What might (§ 153, 
2, c.) not happen in a long period ? What evidence did they employ (to prove) 
that Socrates did not believe (in) the gods, (in) which the state believed. As 
{kTcei) the Persians did not hold out, the Greeks took the city. If {kav, 
w. subj.) thou hast not heard {aor.) from thyself, that what is right (= the right) 
is useful, then trust (aor.) not another, who so says. Let us not flee before the 
enemy. He who {ogrig) does not believe a man on his oath (= trusts [Tre'f&e- 
oT^ai] nothing to one swearing), can {hTxiaTaa-&aL) easily swear falsely himseF. It 
is a great misfortune not to be able to endure misfortune. No one is free, who 
(part.) does not control himself. Give {aor.) to friends, even if [jmrt.) they do 
not ask. The Sophists were not wdlling {e-^eIelv) to converse with those who 
(§ 148, 6) had no money to give. What is not manifest to men, they endeavor 
to ascertain from the gods by the art of divination. What one neither 
earned (= wrought out) nor saw, nor heard, nor executed for himself, friend 
often furnished {aor.) friend. I might (§ 153, 2, c.) affinn that no one gains 
{elvai, w. dot.) any cultivation from one who (§ 148, 6) does not please. 
You affirm that you need no man for {elg) any purpose (= thing). If 
(part.) thou doest (oo?-.) anything shameful, never hope to remain concealed 
(fut.). No envy at anything ever arises in (= to) a good (man). What is 
beautiful never anywhere appears to any one as deformed. The Thirty Ty- 
rants forbade Socrates to converse vnXh. the young men. Prexaspes denied that 
he killed (aor.) Smerdis. Clearchus then scarcely escaped being stoned (= to 
be stoned, aor.). AU laws prohibit insci-ibing (the name of) any liar in the pub- 
lic decrees. I fear that the city is already taken by the enemy. I am doubtful 
(=feaiful) whether it is not best for me to be silent. Neither snow-storms 
(sing.), nor rain, nor heat, nor darkness (= night) hinder the Persian couriers 
from most rapidly accomplishing {aor.) the journey (= course) before (= lying 
before) them. No fear shah prevent me from saying what I think. Be of good 
courage ; surely nothing unjust will be done (= happen, aor.), if there is ju itice 
at heart (= if justice is present). The bad you will certainly never make bet- 
ter. If (eai-) we conquer (aor.), the Peloponnesians will certainly never enter 
(avr.) the country. Socrates &aid: As long as {ecogTtep uv, w. subj.) I breathe 
and am ablC; I surely shall not cease \ wr.) to philosophize. 

§ 178.1 SYNTAX. — COORDINATION'. 263 



^ 178. A. COORDm^TION. 

1. When two or more sentences stand in an intimate connection 
with each other, there is a two-fold relation to be distinguished. 
They are either related to each other in such a manner as to form 
one thought, each, however, being in a measure independent of 
the other, e. g. Socrates was very wise, Plato also was very wise ; 
or they are wholly united, inasmuch as the one defines and explains 
the other, or appears as the dependent member of the other, e. g. 
When the spring comes, the flowers Uossom. The first kind of con- 
nection is called Coordination, the last, Subordination, and the sen- 
tences, Coordinate and Subordinate. 

I came, I saw, I conquered. — Coordinate. 
When I came, I conquered. — Subordinate. ^ « 

2. Coordination consists either in expanding or restricting the 
thought. The former is called copulative coordination, the latter, 
adversative. Copulative coordination is either a simple succession of 
words, or it is an enhancing or strengthening of the thought. 

3. A simple succession of words is made, — (a) by x a /, et, and, 
more seldom in prose by r i (enclitic), que, and, e. g. Zm-AQarr^g xal 
rD.dxcov, — (b) by -/.ai — y,ai, et — et, both — and, more seldom, 
ti — z /, e. g. dya&ol 'Aal y.azoi, both good and bad; — (c) by 
r s — 'A a t, both — ajid, as loell so — as so, not only — but also, e. g. 
y.a7.og T£ ctyaxtog, yq}]azoi zs noviiQoL 

Rem. 1. Ivai also signifies even, c-tictm, witli which the negative ov6e, not 
even, ne — qidch-m, corresponds ; e. g. koI av ravra D.eiag {etiam tu), even y«u scad 
this; ov6e gv ravra D.e^ar {ne tii quidem), not even you, etc. 

4. The enhancing or strengthening of the idea is expressed by 
the simple yai, but still more definitely by, — (a) ov \i6v ov — dX- 
Xa yen {cil)J ov8t); — (b) ov/^ ojl (oTZOjg) or firj ozi 
(o7T a g) [i. e. ov y eqw, o r i, fi rj Ir/F., o r f] — <■' A ^ « y. a l (dXX' 

264 SYNTAX. — COORDINATION. ["§ 178. 

ov d s), not only — hut also (hit not even), when either the more im- 
portant member j)reced€s the less important, or when two strongl;^ 
antithetic clauses are opposed to each other. 

Sw/cpuTT/f OV fjLOVOv (TOipog Tjv, u X X d, Kac ayad-oQ, not only wise, but also 
good. Kal [irjv iTrepaTVO-Q-vijaKetv ye [lovoi h'&Di.ovaLv ol epuvreg, ov /xovov 
6 T I uvdpec, iL/iAd. Kal yvvalKcg {non modo — sed etiam), indeed., only lovers are 
ready to die for each oilier^ not only men, hut also women. Ovx o it cog Toi)g Tro/le- 
fitovg erpiipavTo ol "EXTiTjvec, u?i?ia Kat ttjv x^P^'^ avruv eKciKcoaav,-! do not 
say that the Greeks = the Greeks not only put the enemy to flight, hid, even destroyed 
iheir country, klaxivrjg ovx otto g x^P'-'^ "^^Ig 'A-&7jvaiocg elxsv, uXXu /j-cad-u- 
jag eavTov Kara tovtcjvI £'KO?UTeveTo [non modo non — sed etiam). Mtj oiTcog 
'')pxel(j'&ac Ev ^v&fiC), a ?l, /i' ov6' 6p-&ov:7-&at edvvavTo {noji modo non), they were 
lot only not able to dance to the tune, but not even to stand erect. 

5. Adversative coordination consists in restricting or in entire abro-' 
jation ; e. g. he is indeed poor, hit hrave — he is not hrave, hit coW' 
ardly ; (here the clause hut hrave restricts the one preceding, anj 
but cowardly wholly denies the idea of hrave). Restriction is mo^^'f 
generally expressed by 6 i, autem. With this 8 a there usually cor- 
responds the connective fxsv, standing in the preceding contrasted 
sentence. Mav primarily signifies, ^?^ truth, truly, indeed, yet com- 
monly its force is so slight that it cannot be translated at all into 
English. Mav — 8 a is particularly used in divisions, e. g. ol fxav — 
ol da, some — others, ib fisv — to da', on this side — on that, partly 
— partly ; also where the same word is repeated in two different 
sentences, e. g. fj'oo avvsifii fisv d-eoig, avvsifAi 5' av&Qconoig roig 

6. The following words also are to be noticed, viz. a v, commonly 
in connection with da (d' av) rursus, on the contrary ; x a it a i, and 
yet, yet, verum, sed tamen ; [x a'vz o i, yet, however ; o \i(x) g, although, 
nevertheless; finally aXXa, hut, which according to the nature of 
the preceding member, denotes either the opposite of that which 
is expressed in the first member, so that the first member is abro- 
gated by the last, and one cannot exist at the same time with the 
other, e. g. ov^ ol nlovaioi avdaifiovag eiaiv, dXV ol dya&oi, not the 
rich are happy, hut the good; or it merely denotes something differ- 
ent from what is contained in the first member, so that the first mem- 
ber is only abrogated in part, i. e. it is only restricted (still, yet, hut), 
e. g. Tovro ro TTQayfAU coqjahfiov f.iav aariv, dlX ov xaXov. 

7. The succession of negative sentences is made hj ov r s — ov z 8 
{^rita — y-'^i'ta), nee — nee, neither — nor, e. g. ovrs &80i, ovzs 
^v&QcoTioi, neither gods nor men. Ov d a expresses either contrast 


{Jmt not)y or it serves to annex a new additional clause {and not, 
ilso not). 

EE3f. 2. Wlien a negative sentence follows a positive one, it is regularly 
brmed in prose hj Kal ov or kqI fi?j ; e. g. <^aLi-o/ x^P^'og rervxr/Koj^, 
cat ov fUfLipEuc, ovde rt/iuplar, / see7ti to fuive niet with favor^ and not 
ior punishnuM. 

8. Disjunctive coordination consists in combining into one whole 
sentences, the one of which excludes the other, so that the one can 
be considered as existing, only when the other does not. This re- 
lation (disjunction) is expressed by the disjunctive conjunctions, viz. 
) — ri.aut — autovvel — v€l,either — or; aiTS — aizs (with Ind.), 
Idvxe — icipts or ?]vze — ^Vre (with Subj.), sive — sive, whether 
— or, either — or; e. g. rj 6 narriQ tJ 6 viog dna&avEv, either the 
father or son died (the first ij can also be omitted, e. g. 6 nuzqq 
] 6 vlog an.) ; € it e xaivd s i'z e Tzalaid zavrd ianv, whether these 
ire neiv or old; idv zs TzaziJQ yQaipy, idv zs {iriztiQ, whether 
-ather or mother vnll write, 

9. Finally, those sentences also can be coordinate with each 
)ther, the last of which denotes either the came of the preceding 
ientence, or the conclusion, inference from it. The clause denotino- 
he cause is expressed by ydq, for, enira, nam, and that denoting 
he conclusion, by ovv, consequently, therefore, 'dqa, then, there- 
■ore, zoivvv, then, so then, zoiyao, ergo, therefore, zoiyaqzoi, 
"or that very reason and no other, therefore, zoiy aqovv, for that 
eason then, wherefore ; e. g. Oavf^dtofAav zov Zay.Qdzij • dvrjQ ydo 
V dialog dya&og. Z. dvrjg yv y.alog 'aoI dya&og • d-avfid^ofisv 
'. Q a avzov. 



§179. Principal and Suhordinate Clause, 
] . "When sentences, which together present one united thought, 
re so related, as to their import, that the one appears as a depen- 
fint and merely completing member of the other, tlien their con- 
:3ction may be expressed either by coordinate conjunctions, as Kai, 
?, ydn, dga, etc., e. g. zo iaQ rjlds, zd de Qoda dvdsT, the spring has 
ime, and the roses blossom ; or in such a manner that the sentence, 



which, as to its import merely completes the other, is manifestly in 
its outward form, a dependent, or a simply completing member of 
the other ; e. g. or e to 'a a q 7jX-& e, tec Qoda dv&ET, ivhen the spring 
has come, the roses hlossom. This mode of connection is called Sub- 

2, The clause to which the other as a complementary member 
belongs, is called the principal clause ; but the completing one, the 
subordinate clause, and the two together, a compound sentence ; e. g. 
in the compound sentence, ots to sag riXd-e, ta derdga d-dX^-ei, the 
clause td dsvdQa -d-aXXei, is the principal clause, and ots to euQ r^X- 
^s, the subordinate clause. 

3. Subordinate clauses stand in the place of the subject, the attri- 
hufe, or the object of a whole sentence, and hence must be regarded 
as substantives, adjectives or adverbs expanded into a sentence. 
Accordingly there are three classes of subordinate clauses : substan- 
tive, adjective and adverbial clauses. 

Thus, e. g. in the sentence, " The victory of Cyrus over the enemy was an- 
nounced," the subject may be expanded into a subordinate sentence, viz. " That 
Cyrus had conquered the enemy, was announced ;" further, in the sentence, " Sing 
to me, Muse, the far-wandering man," the attiibutive far-wandering, may be 
expanded into a subordinate sentence, wJio has icandered far. Comp., " He an- 
nounced the victory of Cyrus over the enemy," with " He announced that Cyrus 
lad conquered the eneniy ;" " In the spring the roses bloom," with " when the spiing 
has come, the roses bloom." 

§180. I. Substantive- Sentences. 

1. Substantive-sentences are substantives or infinitives expanded 
into a sentence, and, hke substantives, constitute the subject, as 
well as the attribute and object of a sentence. 

A. Substantive-Sentences introduced by on or dg, thai. 

2. Substantive-sentences introduced by the conjunctions oti 
and CO g, that, express the object (Ace.) of verba sentiendi and de- 
clarandi (p. 250), i. e. of such verbs as express either 2^ sensation or 
perception ; e. g. oqav, d'/tovecp, voeZv, fiav&dvsiv, yiyvcoanEiv, etc., or 
such as denote an expression of a sensation and perception ; e. g. 
Xsyaiv, dsi'Avvvai,, dyytXXaiv, dr^Xov thai, etc. 

3. The predicate of this substantive-sentence may be expressed, 
(a) in the Ind., 1(b) in the Opt., (c) in the Opt. with «y, (d) in the 
Ind. of historical tenses with dv. 


4. The Irid. of all the tenses is used, when what is affirmed is to 
be represented as 2k fact qy phenomenon, something certain or actual. 
In particular the Ind. is used regularly, when the verb of the prin- 
cipal sentence is a principal tense, viz. the Pres., Perf. or Fut. 

5. The Opt., on the contrary, is used, when what is affirmed, is 
bo be represented as a mere conception or supposition, hence, par- 
ticularly, when what is stated as the sentiment of another, is to be 
indicated as such. 

'E/ie/oi', OT L upiiTOi TTO/iXoL'r rj6r] TrXriGLuGavTar 6 1 e (pd^ e t p av, they said tliat 
bears lad already destroyed many. "Ore 67/ ravra IvE'&v/jiov/ieda, ovtuq tycyvu- 
CKOfiEV TTEpt avrCjv, d) f uv&pujTGi 7re<l)vii6TL TTuvTuv TcJv u7J.0)v paov eIi] ^OjOjV 
y dvd-pcjTrcov upx^i-v, ivhen we were reflecting upon these things, we comluded tluit it 
ivas easier for man, as he is, to rule all other animals than men. 

6. The Opt. with av \s used, when the affirmation is to be indi- 
cated as a conditional supposition, assumption, conjecture, or as an 
undetermined possibility (§ 153, 2, c.). 

Aeyw, OTL, eI ravra Aiyoig, d. [xa pr av tg uv, I say that if you say these 
things, you would e?r. Me/bii'7j/j.aL uKovaag ■nore aov, or l ecKorug a v Kat irapa 
&EUV TrpaKriKurepog eItj, log-rrep nal Ttapu avd^puizuv, bgrig [ii] {= £t rig fijj), 
OTTore kv aTrbpoiq eIt], rore ko?mk£voi, aA/i' ore ra uptora irpurroi, rore fiuXiara 
ruv dsuv /xe/ivuro, I remeviher once to have heard you remark, that he icould reason- 
ably be most likely to obtain ichat lie wished from gods, as well as from men, who 
should, etc. 

7. The Ind. of the historical tenses with civ is used, when the 
affirmation is to be represented as conditional, as one whose exist- 
ence or possibility is denied [§ 153, 2, a. («)] ; e. g. d/jl6v loTit\ 
ox I, at zavza 'ileyag, ri^aQtaveg av, it is evident that if you said this^ 
you erred, but you did not say it, hence you did not err. 

Remark. Impersonal fonns of expression are often changed into those which 
are personal; e. g. dijTiog slfiL {(j) av epo g el fit), or c ravra ev sTzpa^a, It 

is evident that I ; dJjTiot e la iv, or i ravra e?.£^av, it is evident that tJiey 

said this. Comp. § 175, Rem. 5. 

C. Exercises on § 180. 
We know, that the kings of the Lacedaemonians are descendants fi-om Her 
cules. The Athenians fortified the city in a short (= little) time, and it is even 
now evident, that the constniction was done (= took place, aor.) in (Kara) haste. 
I have often wondered [aor.) by what [ogng) arguments the accusers of Socrates 
convinced [aor.) the Athenians, that he was deserving {a^co-i thai) of death from 
(dat.) the State. Tissaphernes traduced Cynis to [Tzpog, w. ace.) his hrother, 
(saying) that he was plotting against him. Brasidas not only [rs) showed him 
Belf prudent (= moderate) in other (respects), but {Kai) in his speeches also he 


everywhere manifested that he was sent forth to liberate {part, fid.) Greece > 
Many of those who (§ 148, 6) pretend to philosophize, might (§ 153, 2, c.) per 
haps say [ck/t.) that the just (man) could never become (aw.) imjust, nor th( 
sober-minded arrogant. It is evident that we may be delivered {(wr.) far mor< 
speedily, if {part.) we say {aor.) nothing, than if we defend ourselves poorly. ] 
pray you to obsei-ve beforehand that, if {part.) Aeschines had not brought for 
ward {KaTTr/opelv, aor.) something foreign to (= besides) the indictment, neithei 
would I (= I also would not) say {TvoLelad-ai) a single (= any) word. 

§181. B. Final Substantive- Sentences introduced by 

wf, iva, etc. 

1. The second kind of substantive-sentences, are the filial sen- 
tences, i. e. those which denote a purpose, intention, end. These 
sentences are introduced by the following conjunctions, tog, oTicagy 
iva, cog {J, rj, 07tcogfA,i^, I vafxy. 

2. The mode used in final sentences is commonly the Subj. or 
Opt. When the verb of the principal sentence is a principal tense 
— Pres., Perf. or Fut., or an Aor. with the signification of the 
Pres. (§ 152, 12.) — the final conjunctions are followed by the Subj. 
mode ; but when the verb of the principal sentence is an historical 
tense — Impf., Plup. or Aor. — the final conjunctions are followed by 
the Opt. (but never by the Opt. Fut.). 

Tavra ypcKpu, ysypa(pa, ypa-ipcj, 'Iv' e?.'&y c, vt venias, that you may come; M- 
^ov, Iv' eiSo), die, nt sdam, say, that I may know ; — ravra sypa^ov, eyeypdcpeiv, 
sypaipa, Iv' £?u-d-0Lg, ut venires, that you might come. 'E/c rrjg rcJv UepaiJv klsv- 
-&epag ayopag Kalovfievrig ra filv lovta Kal ol dyopaloc uTreX^Xavrat elg aX- 
7.0V roTTOV, o)c fi-V fnyvviirai rj roiiruv rvpjST] ry ruv TreTratdevfj.evuv evko- 
afjcla, traffickers and their goods have been removed from the public forum of the Per- 
sians, that the disorder of these may not mingle with the correct depmtment of the edu- 
cated. "Iva aacpearspov 6 tj Xut^ rj Trdaa y Uepauv Tto/UTEia, piKpov knavet- 
fi I {paucis repetam), in onder that the entire polity of the Persians may be mare clearly 
understood, I will recapitulate briefly. Kafiftvarjg tov Kvpov cnr eKaXe t, oTtcjg 
ra ev Jlepaai g ETTCXcopca eTrir e?.o i7j. 

Remark. Hence what in Latin is the sequence or dependence offenses, in Greek 
is the sequence of modes. For example ; if in Latin the principal verb is in the 
Pres., the verb of the subordinate clause is generally in the Pres. also : and if ' 
the principal verb is a past tense, so is the verb of the subordinate clause. 
But in Greek, if the principal verb is a Pres., Perf. or Put., the Subj. is used in 
the subordinate clause; and if tlie principal verb is a past tense, the Opt. is 
generally used in the subordinate clause ; e. g. ravra ypd^u, yEypa<l>a, etc, 
Iv' e?<.-d-yg, haec scribo, scripsi, ut venias; — ravra eypa^ov, eyeypdcpeiv, 
Iv' lX-&oic, scvibebam, scripseram, \\i venires.— On the Subj. after an historical 
tense, see § 188, 4. 


3. With the final conjunctions w g and o 7i co g, also iv a, the mo- 
dal adverb civ is sometimes joined, which refers to a conditional 

, sejitence, commonly not expressed, but to be supplied ; e. g. 8id r?jg 
G^g XoiQag a^acg ijixdg, o tz co g av e i d cT) ^i e v, a re du Cfilia y,al 
TZoXtfAia voiiileiv, you will lead us through your territory in order that 
{when we set our foot on it) we may know, loth what it is necessary 
to regard as friendly and ivhat hostile. 

4. Verbs of care, anxiety, considering, endeavoring, striving, ef- 
fecting and admonishing, e. g. imiialalG&ca, cpQovTi^Hv, cpvUzreiv, 
6K07ZUV, §ovlevEG&ai, OQfh, Tiomv, nQOLtreiv, curare, firj/avao^aiy 
naQay.alsiv, naqayyillm', nqounuv, alxuGd^ai, dye, and' the like, 
are followed by the conjunction oTicog (o 71 cog fiij) either with 
the Subj. and Opt. (according to No. 2.), or, what is more usual, 
with the Ind. Fut., not only after a principal tense, but very often 
also after an historical tense ; in the latter case, the accomphshment 
of the purpose is represented as really occurring and continuing. 

^ 01 ILepatKOL vofioL kn l ixe'Aov r a l, o-n u g t7jv apxfjv fi ^/ tolovtol euovrat 
ol Tzollrau oloi izovijpov rj alaxpov tpyov e(pceG-&ai, the Persian laws take care, 
that the dtiz&is shall by no means he such as to desire any wicked or shameful act • 
'LKO'nelG'&E TOVTO, d uvSpeg 'A-&r]valoL, OTvug 111) /.oyovg epovac /xovov ol 
"Kap' rjiiCiV Tzpeaaecg, u?,?m Kac epyov re deiKvveiv e^ovaiv, consider this, thai 
our envoys will not speak only, but they will he able, etc. 

5. The final conjunctions iv a and 00 ^ (more seldom otzco g), are 
followed hj the Ind. of the historical tenses, when Si purpose is to be 
expressed, which has not been accompHshed or which cannot be ac- 

''E.xpvv ae Unyu-aov ^sv^ai rrrepov, tt u g E<pacvov rolg ■&eoIg rpayiKu- 
Tepog, it would be necessary far you to mount your Pegasus, that you might appear 
more majestic to the gods; efSovlofirjv 6' dv, Hifiuva ttjv avr^v yvufiyv kuol 
£X£tv, tv' a/2(porepo)v rjuuv uKovaavTsg tciAtj'&t} ^adlug eyvure to, dcKata 1 
would that Simon were of the same opinion as lam, that having heard both of us, you 
might eas'ily judge ivhat is just. 

CI. Exercises ow § 181. 
Contemplate thine actions as in a mirror, that thou mayest adorn the beauti- 
ful, hide the unseemly. The Lacedaemonians were not permitted (impers. w. dot.) 
to travel abroad, lest the citizens should be filled with frivolity by (uTrS) for- 
signers. Remember absent as well as (= besides, irpog, w. ace.) present friends, 
lest it may seem that you would neglect the latter also in their absence (jxirt.). 
Agesilaus took care that the soldiers should be able to endiu-e hardships. The 
president of the city must {xpv, w. ace. and inf.) see to it, that the best (men) 
bave the greatest honors. Noble (= honor-loving) and high-souled men (= of 
men) do everything, that they may leave behind an immortal remembrance of 


themselves. Endeavor to fight with all ardor, that you may surpass your fore- 
fathers in renown. ^Vould that {el yap ^(peXov) the multitude {ol ttoXaoI) were 
ahle to effect the greatest evils, that they might also be able (to effect) the great- 
est good (plur.) ; then (= and) it would be well (= have itself well, § 153, 2, a.). 
Why (ri) didst thou not seize (part, aor.) and slay me, that I might never show 
(aor.) myself to men ? 

§182. n. Adjective-Sentences* 

1. Adjective-sentences are q,djectives or participles expanded in- 
to a sentence, and, like adjectives, define more fully a substantive 
or substantive-pronoun ; e. g. ol TZoXe^ioi, ol ix rrjg TZoXecog aTzeqjv- 
yov = ol 7zo7J^ioi EKt.TT. aTZocpvyovtEg', ra TZQciyfAata, a Ali^- 
civdQog 87TQa^8v =^ ta vno AXs^avdQOV tt q a^-& evr a TiQctyiiata. 
These sentences are introduced by the relative pronouns o g, ^, o, 
grig, ^ r ig^ o r l, olog, etc. 

2. The relative pronoun agrees in gender and number with the 
substantive (standing in the principal sentence) to which it refers, 
in the same manner as the attributive adjective with its substantive ; 
but its Case is determined by the predicate standing in the subordi- 
nate sentence ; e. g. o dvrjQ o v eldeg — 37 aQsz^f tj g Ttdvrsg ol dya&oi 
ijzid'viA.ovGiv — 01 OTQaii^zai, Ig ixa^o^nE&a, etc 

Rem. 1. When a predicative substantive stands in an adjective-sentence, very 
frequently the relative does not agree, in gender and number, with the substan- 
tive to which it refers, but, by means of a kind of attraction, with the predica* 
tive substantive. The verb of the adjective-sentence is usually a verb signify- 
in o- to be, to name, to call; e. g. 'H 6 dbg irpbg eu TpsTrerac, b KaXelrac U7]?iOv- 
ciov CT 6 [la, the course turns to the east, which is called the Pelusian mouth ; here 5 
takes the gender of the predicative crofia, instead of that of its antecedent b66g. 
'Ak p a, a I Ka?i-ovvTai, K/i, e td eg TTjg KvTrpov. JlepcriKdv ^ i(j)o g, bv ilk iv d- 
K1JV KUAovacv. Aoyoi [mtjv eloiv ev eKuarotg i/fiuv, ug e?i7ri6 ag ovofiaCo- 


Rem. 2. There is an exception in respect to number in the formula Igtlv ot, 
e. g. 2,eyov(7L, sunt, qui dicant. This formula is treated in all respects as a sub- 
stantive-pronoun, inasmuch as neither the number of the relative has any influ- 
ence on that of the verb egtlv, nor is the tense changed, when the discom*se re- 
lates to past or future time. 


eariv ol {=^£vcoi) airecbvyov. 

EOT iV UV {=^ hviUv) UTZtaXETO. 

E (TT cv ig {= £V i, tg) oi'x ovrug eSo^ev. 

sartv ovg (=Eviovg) uttektelvev. 

3. The person of the verb in the adjective-sentence, is deter- 
mined by the substantive or pronoun (expressed or understood), to 
which the relative refers. "E y oj, g yQdq)co — 6v, g j{)dq}eig — 


9 dvrJQ or sneTvog, o g yQurpEi. Hence after a Vocative Case, the 
second person is commonly used ; e. g. urd qojtt e, o g rjfiug roiuvta 
\iay.a iTzoiTjff ag, O man, who injiicted such evils on us. 

4. The relative is plural, when it refers to two or more objects ; 
and when the gender of the substantives is the same, the relative 
agrees with these in gender ; often, however, it is neuter, when the 
substantives denote inanimate objects. 

'Ev EKECvri T7J fuvy re kol toj rpoTzu eleyov, kv olgTV ep iTed-pu/ifiTiv. 'Opu 
xvrbv KEKOGfiTifievov Kot 6(P'&a?ifxcJv v7ro-ypa<l>y, Kal xpojfiaTog evrpitpet, nal Kofxan 
Tpog'&irocr, a 6/) vofiifia rjv hv Islridoir. 

5. When the substantives are of different gender, the relative, 
ivhen persons are spoken of, agrees with the masculine rather than 
the feminine ; but when things are spoken of, it is usually neuter. 

'O av^p KOL i] yvvT], o I izapa ah rilSov. '"Hko/hev EKK?.?jcrtd^ovTEg nepi re 
rro?i.Euov Kal Ecpijvrjg, d f/.Eyi.aT7]v Ex^i SvvauLv kv rw rCJv uv&puTrcjv j3i(j. 

6. When the relative should be in the Ace, and refers to a sub- 
stantive in the Gen. or Dat., it is commonly put in the same Case 
as its substantive, when the adjective-sentence has nearly the force 
Df an attributive adjective or participle. This construction is called 
ittraction of the relative. The substantive frequently stands in the 
relative sentence. 

'Apiuv 6i'd-vpafil3ov Tzpurog dv& pun uv uv Tjfielg lafiEv ettocticev (in- 
stead of ovg l(TfcEv), Arion was the first among men known to t/s, to invent the dithy- 
^amh. 'O crparriyog Tjys rrjv uTpandv drcd rcJv ttoXecjv cjv (instead of dg) 
liT eta EV (= rihv irEiad-EcacJv), the general led the army from the cities, which he 
had persuaded. "Lvv rolg ■Q-f] aav polg olg (instead of ovg) 6 Traryp Kari/u- 
ir ev {= TOig VTid rov irarpbg KaraTiEtdd-Ecaiv), with the treasures which his fiither 
^eft. Kvpog Tvpogrjl^e ai)v r/ elxs dwafxE c, Cyrus came with the forrce which 
he had. 'Eyw aol VTrcaxvovfzac, ?}v 6 d^sog ev dcdu), dv&' uv (= dvrl tovtcov, d) 
%v E fiol 6av Etay g, dTJh.a TzXelovog d^ia evEpyeTrjaetv. 

7. The relatives olog, oaog, ogrigovr, riXiaogy both as 
Accusatives and Nominatives, are attracted, when the verb eivat 
and a subject formally expressed are in the relative clause ; e. g. 
olog ov el, o'log iy.sivog or o ^^w/.QccTrjg iaii. This attraction is 
made in the following manner. The demonstrative in the Gren., 
Dat. or Ace. to which the relative refers, is omitted, but the relative 
is put in the Case of the preceding substantive or of the (omitted) 
substantive demonstrative, and the verb eivca of the adjective-clause 
is also omitted, and the subject of the relative clause is put in the 
Case of the relative. Such a blended or attracted adjective-clause, 
has, in all respects, the force of an inflected adjective ; the connec- 



[§ 182. 

spu CGV a OV. 
XapH^ofiat o'iu) aol. 
kitaivu 01 ov a i. 
spo olcdv V flUV. 
Xapi^ofiai oio ig v filv. 
kTvaivu olovg i) [lag. 

tion of the adjective-clause with its siibstiintive is still more com- 
plete and intimate, when the substantive is placed in tie adjective- 
clause ; e. g. in the full and natural form of the sentencje yaQi^ofiat 
dj>dQl toiovzq), oiog gv el, by omitting the demonstrative, loiovrcp, to 
which the relative olog refers, by attracting olog into the Case of the 
preceding substantive dvdQi, and by omitting si of the relative sen- 
tence, and attracting the subject av into the Case of the relative, 
we have the common form iaQit,oiiai dvdQt olcp gol, or by transpo- 
sition xctQii^G^ac oi(g Goi dvbqi In Enghsli the above relatives may 
be translated by as or siich as. 

Gen. hpu olov aov av 6 pox- 

Dat, x^P'-^^F'^'' ^'-^ ^°^ av dpi. 

Ace. tnaiVG) olov ae av 6 pa. 

Gen. £pu oluv V fiuv av 6 pcov. 

Dat. xapl^ofxac oioig v nlv avdpaaiv. 

Ace. ercaivu olovg v jxdg av d pag. 

Rem. 3. Attraction also takes place, when olog or olog re is used instead 
of w f Te with the Inf., signifying lam of such a nature, character that [is sum quij 
with the Subj.), hence, I can; e. g. Aie/iex'&V'^ I>TO)iKU) tocovtu oig) (itjte Xv- 
rr el ad- a I, firjr' b p y i ^ e (j -d- a i, I conversed with such a Stoic as coidd neither he 
grieved nor irritated. The demonstratiye is conmionly omitted ; c. g. Mjovtjv rrjv 
TcJv avS-puiitcav y/iurrav eTroi^jcrav oi '&col olav ap'&povv ttjv (pcovfjv, the gods 
made the human tongue only, capable of uttering articulate sounds ; here the demon- 
strative TOiovTTjv, to which olav refers, is omitted. 

Rem. 4. Sometimes an attraction takes place directly the opposite of that 
mentioned in the adjective-clause, since the relative does not take the Case of 
its substantive, but the substantive, the Case of the relative which refers to it. 
This may be called inverted attraction; e. g. Ttjv ovaiav (instead of ovaia) 
7j V KareAnre rcj vlu, ov irTiStovog a^ia ectIv, the property ivhich he left to his son is 
worth no more. This inverted attraction is very common with ov6 elg bgr ig 
tiv {no one, who not = every one), after an omitted ka-rt. 


8. On the use of the modes in adjective-sentences, the following 
is to be observed: 

(a) The Ind. is used, when the attributive qualification (i. e. the 
idea contained in the predicate) is represented as something actual 
or 7^eal ; e. g. ^ Ttohs, jj ycziXetai, rj ixziGd^i], ^ xziG'&TJGEzai. The 
Ind. Fut. is very frequently used, even after an historical tense 
(§ 188, 4), to denote what should he done, or the purpose (§ 152, 6) ; 
e. g. GtQaxriyovg aiQOvvzai, ol t(p (JiiXijTTtcp n oXe ^irjG ov g iv, who 
should jight, or to fight with P. Also after negations the Greek 

ov6 elg 
ov6 evbg 

b gr tg 
or ov 

oi) ic 

av ravra TvocfjaeiEV. 

ovS evl 

bvr iv a 

oi) K 



§ 182.] SYNTAX. — Ai^i:cTivi:-si:NTi:NCES. 273 

uses the Ind., where the Laliii luis the Subj. ; e. g. nan l^m ov- 
d eig, gr LQ nq ly.avog la z i v loa Tiomv liioi, nemo, qui non po8- 

(b) The relative with uv, e. g. o? civ, ^ av, o dv, ogug dv, etc., 
is followed by the Subj., when the verb of the principal clause is 
one of the principal tenses (Pres., Perf. or Fut.), if the attributive 
qualification is to be represented as merely conceived or assumed. 
Hence it is also used to designate quality and size indejinitely, and 
also to express indefinite frequency (as often as). The adjective- 
sentence can commonly be considered as a conditional sentence, 
and the relative with dv can be resolved into the conjunction iuv 
with T/V or any other pronoun and the Subj. 

Ov^ uv [^= kav TLvac) [ieATLOv^ nveg kavruv ?) y7^ a uv t a l, Tovrocg tto?.- 
?MKig uvev avuyK.7jg t-d-eXovcn Trei-d-ead-ai, whomsoever any persons think (if any 
persons think any) superior to themselves, these they, etc. 'Xv&puiroi ett' ovSevag 
uaTiTiov avvlaravTai, tj km rovrovg, ovg av {= euv tivu^) ala^uvrai up- 
XEiv avTcJv eTTLxsioovvrar, men combine against none more than against those whotn 
they see endeavonng to nde them. 

(c) The relative (without dv) is used with the Opt., in the first 
place, with the same signification as with the Subj. and dv, but re- 
ferring to an historical tense. Hence, it is used in general and in- 
definite statements ; so also in expressing indefinite frequency, — in 
which case the verb of the principal sentence is commonly in the 
Impf. Here also the adjective-sentence may be resolved by eI with 
the Opt. 

Oi Tio/.EiiLOL rravrag E^rjg, o r g) {= eI tlvI) evtvxocev, kol rralSag kuI yv- 
valKag ektelvov, the enemy killed all, one after another, both diildren and women, 
whomsoever they fell in with ( = if they fell in with any), ^ilovg, bcov g ttoc^- 
aacTO Kal evvovg yvocj] bvrag, Kal iKavovg Kpivsie avvepyovg Eivai, b tl 
Tvyxavot (3ov?i6fj,Evog KUTEpya^Ecd-ac, 6[j.o?.oy£iTai Trpof 7ia.VT(JV Kpariarog drj 
yEvea^Q-ai ■& e p utt e ii e iv. 

(d) In the second place, the Opt. is used, when a present or fu- 
ture uncertainty, an undetermined possibility, a mere supposition, 
conjecture, assumption, is to be denoted. The adjective-sentence 
is then considered as an uncertain or douhtful condition [§ 153, 1, 
b, (^)], or forms a part of a sentence expressing a wish. . 

Tov avTov 7iEy£iv, a firj (ja(pcjg e 16 sir], dEcSEad-ai 6ei, he must avoid saying, 
what he does not fully knoio (= if he does not fully knoic). 'Ep6o c rig, tj v eku- 
crog £l6 EiTj texvtiv, any one can practise the art with which he is acquainted ( = 
ifhs is acquainted with it). 

(e) The Opt. with dv is used, when the attributive qualification 


is to be represented as a conditivnal supposition, conjecture, assump' 
Hon, an undetermined possibility (§ 153, 2, c). 

Toiif ?.ift.l3uvovrag ri/c bjXL/uag fiiad-ov' avdpa-odtarug eavrcJv uTceKaXe!, Sw- 
KpuTTjr, Sia TO uvayKalov avrolg elvat Sia?i£'}'£ad-aL, Trap' 0)v uv ?. a (So lev 
Tov fj,L(j-d-6v, Socrates said that those ivho receive a reicard for their instruction, hat' 
tered their own freedom, because it was necessary for them to converse with those from 
whom they might receive a rervard. Ovk eariv 6 t i uv rig fisl^ov tovtov kukov 
TTCf^ L, there is no evil which any one can experience, greater than this. 

(f ) The Ind. of the historical tenses- (Impf., Pkip., Aor.) is used 
with av, when it is indicated that the attributive qualification could 
take place only under a certain condition, but did not take place, 
because the condition was not fulfilled [§ 153, 2, a, (a)] ; e. g. jJ 

TToXig, rjp 01 TToXEfllOL OVK dv STTOQ'&TJiJaV, el 01 (JTQarLd^Zai i^OT]- 

'&t^(jaV) quam hostes non d.iruissent, si milites auxilio venissent. 

Cn. Exercises on § 182. 

Many acts hare become (the) occasions of very great advantages, which at 
first {=at the beginning), all supposed [aor.) to be calamities (sing.). Who 
would {§ 153, 2, c.) not praise you {aor.}, who have fought (aor.) boldly for the 
freedom of your native landl The ungrateful (men) forgot us, who conferred 
on them great benefits. There are men who (or some) are esteemed happy by 
aU more than by themselves. Cannot thy brother, Chaerecrates, said So- 
crates, please {aor.) any one, or doth he please some veiy highly 1 Cleopompus 
ravaged some (tracts, neut. plur.) of sea-coast. In the young man there dwells 
a fear which we call shame. For the acquisition of a friend, which we say is a 
very great blessing, we see that the multitude care little. There arose confused 
noises, cries and shoutings, which is (a) common (thing) to all who (§ 148, 6) 
engage in a naval battle. Of the nations mth whicii we are acquainted in 
Asia, the Persians rule, but the Syrians, Phrygians and Lydians are depen- 
dent (= are ruled). I have never yet esteemed a rich man happy {aor.), who 
{part.) enjoys nothing of that which he possesses. "We must remember not only 
the death of the departed, but also the virtue, which they have left behind. Many 
indeed commend fair words, but nevertheless do otherwise (another, neut.) and 
opposite to that which they have commended {aor.). Do nothing which thoa 
dost not understand. A rational man, if {part.) he has lost {aor.) a son or any- 
thing else which he prizes very highly, will bear (it) moi'e easily than others. 
I have sent {aor.) thee this wine, said Cyi-ns, and I pray thee to drink it {aor.) 
to-day with those whom thou most lovest. The tp-ant has given sufficient sat- 
isfaction for what he has done {aor.). The general led {aor.) the army away 
from the cities, which he had subjected {aor.) to himself. The Persians wern 
not able to fight {aor.) courageously against men so brave as were the Athe- 
nians and Lacedaemonians. In a man such as thou art, the citizens of the 
State will cheerfully confide. It is no tri-^aal matter to engage in single combat 
{aor.) with a man like thee. Socrates was one of those who listen only to rea- 
son (=: was such as to listen, etc.). The barbarians had dwellings (so built) 


as to be fitted to shelter (them) both in winter and in summer. There was no 
peril which our forefathers did not undergo for the freedom of their native land. 
There was no one present (= of the present) except Socrates, whom ApoUodo- 
rus did not move (aor.) by his weeping (part.) and complaining {uyavaKrdv). 
What one does not (fir/) possess, he cannot (§ 153, 2, c.) give (aor.) another. 
(It is) not the golden sceptre (that) preserves royal dominion, but faithful 
friends, that are the truest and surest sceptre for kings. The Phaeacians gave 
Ulysses treasures, more than he would ever (= so many as he would never) 
have gained (aor.) from Troy, if {el, w. inch aor.) he had come unharmed to his 
native land. There was then not a Spartan {gen. plur.), who, if the country 
had been in danger, would not have been ready to die for it. States are called 
very fortunate, that continue most of the time in peace. It is a great mark of 
a sovereign, if the citizens voluntarily obey him and are ready to abide by (him) 
■n dangers. A man is truly great, who can accomplish {aor.) a great (object) 
by intellect {yvuur]) rather than by strength of body. He, at sight {part, aor.) 
of whom men are stiired {aor.) and ardor and emulation seize (efimTTTeiv tivc, 
axrr. sing.) every one, he I might assert has something of a kingly nature. The 
Assyrians prayed all whom {bgng, sing.) they might meet, that they would not 
flee and leave them behind {paH. aor.)., but succor {aor.) them. We cannot 
(§ 153, 2, c.) enjoy {aor.) a man, who delights in dainty food and wine more 
than in friends. Who could hate (one), whom he knew to be considered noble ? 
Socrates always said, that there was no {ov) better way to a (= the) good repu- 
tation, than (that) by which one should become {aor.) versed (= good) in {ace.) 
that in which he wished to appear so. Those who (§ 148, 6) took pay for their 
instruction, Socrates called man-sellers of themselves, because {6ia to) they 
were obliged to converse with those from whom they could receive pay. There 
was no {ov) city there, by which they could defend themselves. 

§183. III. Adverbial Sentences . 
Adverbial sentences are adverbs, or participles used adverbially 
(§ 176, 1), formed into a sentence, and, like adverbs, denote an ad- 
verbial object, i. e. such an object as merely defines the predicate, 
but does not, like th-e object expressed by the substantive-sentence, 
complete it ; q. g. or e r o 'iaq yX'&s, t a avd-t] '&dXXEi (= tov 
saqog iXd-ovrog). 

A. Adverbial Sentences of Place and Time. 
1. Adverbial sentences of place are introduced by the relative 
adverbs of place, ov, t), OTzy, onov, sv&a, ha (ubi) ; o&ev, av&ev 
(iJMde') ; 01, 07101, y, OTzrj (quo), and, like adverbs of place, express 
the three relations, where, whence, whither. The use of the modes 
in adverbial sentences of place, is in all respects, like that in adjec- 


2. Adverbial sentences of time are introduced by the following 
conjunctions : 

a. To denote that one action is contem-poranj with another, by brt, oTiore, ug, 
TjviKa, which designate a point of time, and kv 6, ^cog, while, which designate a 
space of time. 

b. To denote that one action is pior to another, by sTrei, eTveid^, postquam, k^ 
ov, e| oTov, ex quo, and a<p' ov, since. 

c. To denote that one action succeeds another, by npiv, priusquam, eoc, eag oij, 
sic 0, egre, [J-expi ov, nexp'- orov, juexpt. 

3. On the use of the modes, the following is to be observed : 

(a) The Ind. is used, when the statement is to be represented as 
a fact; hence in mentioning actual events or occurrences. 

'fi g T/fsepa Tdx>-(^Ta ky eyov e i, a'Krf}\.-&ov (cjf rdxiora, quum primum, as 
soon as it was day, tliey departed). Ov Trporepov kiravaavTO, rcplv rov re Traripa 
kK Tov GTpaTOTiidov fi e T s-TT e flip av TO, Kal ruv (pllov avrov rovg ixsv arc e k- 
T e IV av, rovg 6' kK ryg Tro/lswf k^ efS aAov, they did not cease, before they sent 
for their father from the camp, and pjut to death some of his friends and banished others, 
'SfcdxovTO, ftsxpi' ol 'A-&7]vaioL dveTzAevaav. 

(b) The Subj. is used, when the statement of time or the asser- 
tion of the predicate, is represented as something conceived and 
general, and refers to a predicate of the principal sentence, the verb 
of which is in one of the principal tenses. The modal adverb av 
IS united with the conjunctions ; e. g. orav, ondzav, i]viyi av, Indv 
{etti^v), eTTEiddv, TiQiv dvj 8(x)g dv, ^^jCQi dv, 'igx dv. Accordingly, 
the Subj. is used with the above conjunctions from or av to tz qIv 
dv, when the statement of time is also to be represented as the 
condition, under which the predicate of the principal sentence will 
take place. But with the conjunctions, which signify till, the Subj. 
expresses an object expected and aimed at. In like manner also, 
the Subj. is used to denote indefinite frequency ; the conjunctions 
are then translated by as often as. 

'Ktt e iScLv ci) fi ovTiy 6La?.eyead-ai, ug eyib 6vva/j,ai eirea'd-ai, tote goc dia- 
"ks^ofiai, whenever you [if you) wish to discourse so that I can follow, then I mil dis- 
course with you. Ov Trporepov rravaojuaL, rr plv av iXco te Kal ttv pua u Td,g 
'A-d-7]vag, I icill not cease, before I take and burn Athens {unless I take, etc.). "Ewf 
av a C)C7} T a L rb OKCKpog, tots XPV /<^oi vavrjjv Kal Kv(S£pvriT7)v npod-vjuovg slvai 
{dum servari possit), while the ship can be saved, the sailor and the pilot should be ac' 
five (if the ship, etc.). 'Oirorav arparoTrEdEvuvTac ol (3a.pl3apoi fSaat' 
?,elg, rcKppov nepilSdXlovrai evnerug 6cd rrjv TroXvxEi-piav, as often as the barba- 
rian kings make an expedition, they easily intrench themselves by means of the great 
number of workmen. 

Cc) The Opt. is used with conjunctions of time, — (a) when the 


statement refers to an historical tense in the principal clause. When 
the Opt. is used to denote indefinite frequency \_as often as, comp. 
(b)], the Impf. generally stands in the principal sentence ; (§) when 
the statement of time is to be considered also as a condition of the 
principal sentence, and such a condition as appears as a present or 
Aiture uncertainty, as a mere supposition, conjecture, assumption or 
undetermined possibility [§ 153, 1, b. {§)']. With the Opt. the con- 
junctions are used without civ; e. g. oxe, Inei, etc. (not oruv, indv, 

Ov Trporepov eTravaaro, Ttplv eT^.oc re Kol rrv po) a e c e Tug 'Ai^^vaf. 
'Otto re {as often as, whenever, if ever) arpaTO-Kedevoivro ol f3api3apoi 
^acL^.elg, racppov n t p ie [S d/^Xov t o evTreribg dca ttjv TroXvxsipiav. 'O tt 6 r t 
rd (pilocrocpelv aiaxpbv Tjy7]aaifi7]v elvat, oi'o' av av&pu-Kov vo/uciai/uc kuavrbv 
elvat (if I hdieved it disgracefd to be a philosopJier,! would not tJdnk myself a man). 
So also, ore fiij with Opt., nisi. 

Remark. In addition to the constructions already mentioned, the conjunc- 
tion Tcpcv is constructed with the Lf., especially after affirmative sentences, 
containing one of the principal tenses, when the action is to be represented as 
an incidental or casual designation of the point of time. The subject of the Inf. 
is put in the Ace: on attraction, see § 172, 3. Aapslog, irptv alxua/.ojTovg 
yevea-d-ac rovg 'EpsTpteag, eveix^v avrolg deivbv xo?^ov, before the Ere- 
trians were taken captive, Darius cherished bitter hatred towards them. 'Hcav Aa- 
pslu, irplv (3 acr L/ievaac, yeyovoreg rpelg TraUeg, three children were bam k) 
Darius before he was king. So Tvporepov ?; and the Epic irupog, are followed by 
the Inf. 

cm. Exercises on § 183. 

The soul is freest when it leaves the body. Agesilaus offered sacrifice and 
waited until the fugitives had brought {aor.) a sacrifice to Neptune. The Athe- 
nians did not cease to be angry {kv opyy exeiv) with Pericles, until they had 
punished {aor.) him by a fine. If men have robbed (aor.) or stolen, they 
are punished. Do not decide {aor.) before thou hast heard {aor.) both parties 
(= the plea of both). We must {del, w. ace. and inf.) resolutely perform {uvv- 
etv) the journey, till we have reached {aor.) the goal. What does it profit some 
to be rich, who do not (§ 177, 5.) understand how to use riches ? Those who 
(§ 148, 6) have received favors {ev iraax^i-v, aor.) we call ungrateful, if (when) 
able to requite {aor.) they do not. No one was pennitted (= it was not 
permitted) to go {elgEpxEO-^at, aor.) to the general, if he was not (§ 177, 
5) at leisure. The Chalcidians gave way {hdidovaL), as often as the enemy 
charged, and as they fell back {u7rox(opetv, part, pres.) the eneray pressed 
on and threw javelins. "Whenever young men associated with Socrates, 
they made progress in virtue. He who (§ 148, 6) is voluntarily hungry, can 
(^ 153, 2, c.) eat {aor.) when he will, and he who is voluntarily thirsty, can drink 
(aor.) when he will; but he who suffers this by necessity, has not the power 
{i^eari, w. dot.) to cease to hunger and thirst, when he vaW. Eat not, before 



thou art liungrr, and drink not, before thou art thirsty. That (= the) death is 
without pain, which (pad.) happens {aor.) ere (one could) think {doKelv, aor.) 
of (it). The tradition is, that the island (of) Delos, before Apollo appeared 
{aor.) to men, was concealed by the sea {to izeAayog). 

B. Causal Adverbial Sentences. 

§184. a. Adverbial Sentences denoting Cause. 

1. Such as are introduced by the conjunctions of time, ore, 
6i?i6t s, CO g, i7T£i, quo7iiam, since, ETZEidrj, quoniam, since the 
cause is considered contemporary (ore, otiote, wg), with the predicate 
of the principal sentence, or prior (iTTBi, STteid^) to it. The Ind. 
is the prevailing mode in these adverbial sentences; e. g. Mtj 
fis xrELV, in s t ov/^ oiioydotqiog ^ExroQog s tfi i, quoniam — non sum, 
do not slay me, since I am not a hrother of Hector. Ot e toivvv 
tavd'' ovTcog £ / £ ^, TZQogijxsi TtQcd-Vficog l&iluv dy.oveiv, since these 
things are so, etc. 

2. Such as are introduced bj the conjunctions on and d lot i, 
because. "With these also, the Ind. is the prevailing mode ; e. g. 
'^Qa rb oaiov, ori oaiov iari, q)ike.ixai ynb zcov S^eav, tj, ott 
cp iXsiT ai, oaiov iariv, is what is holy, loved by the gods because 
it is holy, or is it holy because it is loved ? 

§185. b. Conditional Adverbial Sentences. 

1. The second kind of causal adverbial sentences, are those which 
express a condition, and are introduced by the conjunctions £ / and 
idv (jiv, dv, which must not be confounded with the modal adverb 
dv, see § 153, 2). The principal clause expresses that which is 
conditioned by the subordinate clause. As the conditioning clause 
precedes the conditioned, the former is called the Protasis, the lat- 
ter, the Apodosis. 

2. The Greek language has four different ways of expressing 
coaditionality : 

(1) The protasis has € i with the Ind., and the apodosis hkewise 
the Ind. (sometimes also the Imp.). Then both the condition and 
that which is subject to the condition, are represented as a. reality or 
fact, and hence as certain. 

Et TovTQ Xeye tc, dfiapravecg, if you say this (admitted or assumed as a 
fact), you err. "El elal f3o)/xol, elal aal ■&eoi, if there are altars (an admitted fact), 
there are also gods. 'El eari •&e6g, Go66g ectiv. Et ravra -irETroiijKag, 


eTtacvecadac u^iog el. Wl ri e I x £, Kal id 160 v. "El efSpovTr/ae, koI t/ a- 
Tpail> ev. El ravra e tt e ■n i r/ k e t, 7j /i a p t 7/ k f: i. El tovto /.t^etr, & fzap- 
l'^ay. Ei Ti e^ etc:, dog. 

(2) The protasis has e I with the Ind. of an historical tense, and 
the apodosis also the Ind. of an historical tense with a v. This 
form is used, when the reality of the condition and of that which is 
subject to the condition, is to be denied. It is asserted that some- 
thing could take place under a certain condition, but did not take 
place, because the condition was not fulfilled. 

El TL elx^v, kdldov uv, si quid haberet, daret [nunc autem nihil habet; ergo 
nihil dare jootest), if he had anything^ he would give it (but he has nothing, conse- 
quently he can give nothing). Ei tovto eXey e g (eAffcf ), ijfidpTaveg {rifzap- 
T£g) dv, si hoc diceres, ensures. El tovto e X e ^ a g, '// fj.apT e g uv ( Aor. instead 
of the Plup.), si hoc dixisses, errasses, if you had said this, you icould have erred (but 
you have not said it, consequently you cannot have eiTed). El tTreicrd^ijv, 
ovK. av Tjp^ucTTOvv, si obedissem, non aegrotarera. 

(3) The protasis has i dv with the Subj., and the apodosis the 
Ind. of a principal tense, commonly the Fut. (also the Imp.). The 
condition is then represented as a supposition, the accomplishment 
of which is, however, expected; that which results from the princi- 
pal clause is represented by the Ind. as cei^tain or necessary. 

'Eav {tjv, av) tovto 7'Ay7jg, d/xapT?] ay, if you say this (shall saj), you will 
err. (Whether you v*'ill actually say this I do not yet know ; but I expect, I as- 
sume, that you will say it, and then it is a necessary consequence that you eiT.) 
'Eav TL £ ;\; cj // e v, 66(jo /j.ev, if toe have anything (which we expect is the case, 
or which depends on circumstances) tt?e zct7Z 5'iue. 'Eav tovto le^yg, duap- 
TTjari, si hoc dixeris, errabis. 

(4) The protasis has s I with the Opt., and the apodosis the Opt. 
with dv. (The Opt. Fut. is not then used). By this form, both 
the condition, and that which is subject to the condition, is repre- 
sented as a present, mostly a future uncertainty, as an undetermined 
possihility, a mere supposition, conjecture, or assumption, without 
any reference to the thing supposed, being real or not real, possible 
or impossible. 

Et TL EXOLg, 6oLijg dv, if you have anything (it neither being assumed nor de- 
nied that you have), you icould give. El tovto Xeyoig, djiapT dv OLg dv. Ovk 
av V TV ev ey KaLfiEV ovte Tb Kavfia, ovte to ipvxog, el k^anivrig yiyvo ito. El 
dvayKalov elij ddLKelv tj ddLKeZad^aL, iXolfZJjv av fiaXXov ddLKelcrd^aL, 7) ddLKelv. 

Eem. 1. Ei with the Ind. or hdv Avith the Subj. is frequently followed by 
tbe Opt. with dv; e. g. el tovto "keyeig, dfiapTavocg dv, if you {really) say this, 
you would eir; edv tovto "ker/r^g, dfiapTavoLg dv, if you say this {as I expect), you 
wmld err ; ya the contrary, el with the Opt. is sometimes followed by the Ind. ; 
C. g. el Tovio TieyoLg, duapTavef;, if you should say this, you cetiainly err. 


Rem. 2. El y/ith the Opt. is frequently used instead of a conjunction of time 
[§ 183, 3, (c)] to denote indefinite frequency in relation to what is past. Then 
ei is translated by as often as, and the principal clause has the Ind. of an histori- 
cal tense, usually the Impf , with and without civ; e.g. El ng avrih Sokoitj 
Tuv rrpog rovro rerayfievcv (SlaKeveLv, eTzatev av,as often as any me of those 
appointed to this icorh, seemed to him to he indolent, he icould heat him. El rig 2w/cpa- 
rec -Kepi rov avrcleyoi, kirl r^v 'bno'd-eaLv krravriyev hv rravra rbv Uyov. 
Rem. 3. With the Ind. of the historical tenses, ax. is commonly omitted in 
the conclusion with expressions which denote the idea of necessity, duty justice 
possihility, freedom, inclination, thus, e. g. with zpvv, kdec, &<l>eXov, with verbal ad- 
jectiyesin-reof, 7rpocvKe{v), Kccpbrvv, eUbg ~r]v,Kalov rjv, aiaxphv ~r,v, Kalug 
^^p(^), e^vv, e(3ov?.6fivv; e. g. El ahxpov re e[iellov kpyaaaa^at, ^dvarov civ-' 
avTov Trpoatpereov nv, mors praeferenda erat. What is here expressed ab- 
solutdy by the Greek, is expressed with an implied condition in EngHsh, e. g. ekdc 
nv, It would he just, alaxpov r/v, it would he shameful. 

Rem. 4. The protasis is often omitted, and then the Opt. with dv stands with- 
out any conditional clause ; yet the protasis is contained in an adjective-sen- 
tence, or in a participle, or in some word of the sentence which maybe expand- 
ed into a conditional protasis, e. g. in the adverb ovro^c, in a preposition, or it 
IS indicated in what precedes or follows. "Og ravra Xeyot {= el ng ravra 
MyoL), dfiapravoiav, ichoever {if any one) should say this, loould err. Tavra 
?.e^ag {= eI ai) ^i^acg), d^apravotg av. Ovru {= d oijrc ixoir,aaig\ 
Y av afxapravocg. Very often, however, the protasis is actually wanting 
particularly where it can be easily supplied, e. g. by such phrases as, when or^ 
wishes, if It IS allowed., if I can, if circumstances favor ; e.g. PovXocaTjv &v 
(scil. eI SvvaijLCjjv). 

CIV. £!xercises on § 185. 
-H we strive after virtue, we are happy. If thou .vilt follow me, said Virtue 
to Hercules, thou wilt become a good artificer of noble (deeds). If thou wish- 
est the gods to be gracious to thee, thou must honor them. If- thou art eager 
to learn, thou wilt learn much {Tvolvfia^r, eIvuc). Eov all men death is (the) 
boundary of life, even though one shut {aor. part.) himself in a ceU and keep 
watcL That which is (= the) unexpected, if it be good, delights men the more 
but if It be fearful, it teirifies the more. If thou callest to mind the past, thou' 
wdt decide better upon the future. If we have money, we shall have friends 
The possession is nothing, if it is not used (= if there is not using therewith)' 
If men supposed (aor.) that thou wert ungrateful towards thy (=\he) parents 
no one would believe that he would be repaid {= receive back a favor), if (part ) 
he did thee a favor (aor.). The whole time would fail (aor.) us, if we should 
enumerate all the deeds of Hercules. If we should banish (aor.) from life the 
love of fame, what then would become (aor.) of virtue (= what would the good 
become to us), or who would strive to do (aor.) anything illustrious ? If thoa 
shouldst be ready to take hold (aor.) of philosophy, thou wUt shortly see how 
much thou wilt be distinguished from others. Wisdom would awaken (= af- 
ford) a vehement love (plur.), if it were seen by the eyes. Said Alexander: li 
I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes. If Socrates had not himself been 


[impf.) very temperate, how would he have made [aor.) others temperate? If 
ever Astyages demanded anything, Cyrus observed it first. If ever any one 
served [aor.) CyruS; when, (par^.) he liad given a command (-rrpogTUTTeLv, aor.), 
in no case (= to no one) did he ever leave {aor.} his readiness unrewarded. It 
would not be (— have itself) well, if the gods delighted more in great offerings, 
than in small. If a greater danger were to (/^eAAw) threaten (= be to) us there 
than here, then we must perhaps prefer the greatest security (= the most se 
cure, neut). 

%18Q. Adv erhi al Sentences denoting Consequence 

or Effect. 
1. Adverbial sentences of consequence or effect, are introduced 
bj the conjunction cogts (more seldom cog). On the use of the 
modes the following is to be observed : 

(a) The Ind. is used, when the consequence or effect is to be 
represented as a fact^ something actually accomplished ; tlie Inf., 
on the contrary, is used, when the consequence or effect is to be 
represented as merely conceived, not actually accomplished, but 
merely as possible or aimed at, or as the condition of the affirmation 
in the principal clause (on condition that, supposing that). 

"Apyog uv6pci)v exvp^'^V ovrcog, logre ol 6ov?i,oi avruv tcxov 'navra rii 
TrpdyfiaTa, Argos was left so destitute of men, that the slaves liad all their effects. 
'LcjKpu.TTjg 'rrpbg TO fierpluv delc&at, 7rsTcai6evfj.evog }jV ovrug, ugre ttuvv fx.i- 
Kpa KeKTTjfcevog ■rrdvv ^aSiog s x ^ i-v dpKOvvra, Soa'ates was so educated to have 
moderate desires, that although he possessed very little, he very easily had a sufficiency 
(here the consequence is not carried into effect, but is founded only on the na- 
ture of Socrates). 

Eem. 1. If the Inf after cjgre has a special subject, different from that of the 
principal sentence, this is put in the Ace, but if the subjects of both sentences 
are the same, then attraction takes place (§ 172, 3). 

Rem. 2. Instead of iogre with an Inf, a relative, particularly clog, baog, is of- 
ten used in connection with an Inf ; this relative corresponds to a demonstra- 
tive in the preceding clause, though sometimes the demonstrative is to be sup- 
plied; e. g. T oLovTog 6 ^TaGLinzog r/v, olog jitj j3 ov?ie<j-&at Tvoz-lovg 
uTTOKTLvvvvac Tuv TToliTcov, Stasippus ivas such, as n Jt to desire to put many of the 
citizens to death. 

(b) The Opt. with av is used, when the consequence or effect is 
to be represented as a contingent conjecture, supposition or assump- 
tion (§ 153, 2, c). 

(c) Finally, the Ind. of the historical tenses with av, or the Inf. 
with av is used, when it is to be indicated, that the consequence or 
effect would take place only under a certain condition [§ 153, 2, a. 
(«) and d.]. 



To^CKTjv Kai larpcicr/v Kal juavriKr/^' 'Atto/./iuv avevpev,. eind^vfi.iag Kal epuroQ 
T^ys/LtovevaavTog, ugr s Kal ovrog "Epcorog uv elrj fiad-7]T7]g, Apollo discovered 
archery, medicine and the prophetic art, under the instruction of desire and love, so that 
he was a disciple of Eros. UuvTsg ol Tco?urac 7zo7^efiLKa ott^c KareaKeva^ov, u g- 
TE TTjv TcoTiiv ovTug 7] J V] c oi) av TcoAefiov epyaaTr]pLov elvaL (sc. a el6eg), all the 
citizens were preparing weapons of war, so that you would think that the city was ac- 
tually a manifactory for war. Ol -d^eol ovtu /xoc ev rolg lepolg karj^njvav, ugre 
Kal idiO}T9]v av yvufai, on Tijg fj.ovapxcag a'nex£(y'd'at [le del, so that even a pri- 
vate man {if he had been present) might have perceived. 

Rem. 3. Instead of ugr s witli the Inf., signifying ea conditione, ut, or ita, ut, 
(on the condition that), e c6' cI)t e also, either with the Ind. Eut. or with the Inf., is 
used I e. g. 'E TT i r ov r (p vTre^iaraftat ryg upxvg, ecp' (p r'e vtt' ovSevog vfitjv 
ap ^ fiai, I ivill give up all claim to the government on this condition, that I shall be 
ruled by 7io one of you. 

Rem. 4. 'i2 g is used with the Inf. in independent or parenthetic clauses ; e. g, 
d)g e ITT EL V, so to speak ; ug je fcoc do k. si v, as it seems to me ; cjg is also often 
omitted in such clauses ; q. g. oi) tto/I/Icj 2,6y cp e Itt eZv, to speak briefly. 

d. Adverbial Sentences denoting Comparison. 

2. Comparative adverbial sentences of manner and ivay, are in- 
troduced by the relative adverbs, ca ^, m gz s, co g ttsq, o ncog, as» 
The use of the modes in these sentences corresponds w^ith that in 
adjective-sentences (§ 182, 8). 

3. Comparative adverbial sentences of quantity or degree, are in- 
troduced by the relative o 6 eg (o g o v), and with this the demon- 
strative T 6 ovr cp (r 6 ov T ov) in the principal clause corres- 
ponds ; these are translated so much — cs, but with a comparative 
or superlative, by the — the. 

T (T ov Tov 6ia<pepeLv rjjidg del rCov Sov?ujv, o a ov ol [lev dovT^OL aKovreg rotg 
dECTToraig vTn^perovacv, we ought to differ so far from slaves, as slaves unwillingly 
obey their masters. "O g cp (oaov) co^c)T£p6g rig kari, r o a ovt (p [togovtov) 
CGxppoveaTEpog eanv, the wiser any one is, the more discreet will he be. "O c (p 
[baov) (To<j) urar 6 g rcg eorc, roaovrcp (togovtov) ac)<p p ov i gt arog 

CY. Mxercises o?z § 186. 

Cyrus had soon killed off {uva?uaKu) the beasts in the park, so that Astyages 
could no longer collect others for him. The Greeks were obliged (del, w. ace. 
and inf.) to go back so far while fighting, that (during) the whole day they went 
{dLepxeG-&ai) not more than twenty -five stadia, and (d/l/la) came into the villages 
in the evening. In process of time {ug Tvpof/yev 6 xpo'^og), Cyrus became (so) 
filled \\dth modesty, that he even blushed, if he met his parents. God provided 
for men eyes that they (might) see the visible, and ears that they (might) hear 
the audible. What law is full of so gross injustice, as to deprive him of recom- 
pense who (§ 148, 6) gives away (aor.) something from his own (store, plur.)i 


and does (aor.) a humane deed? The Athenians were permitted to rule over 
the rest of tlie Greeks, jirovided that they themselves obeyed the Persian king. 
Cyrus was very eager for honor, so that he underw^ent cveiything for the sake 
of being praised. The generals stood lirm, that the enemy might not tlirow the 
wings into disorder. There are vessels at your command, so that you can sail 
wherever {o-t] uv) you will. The excellence of Nestor is well known to all the 
Greeks, so that, if I should speak of (Zeyefv) it, I should speak to (those) ac- 
quainted (with it). The cup was so strong, that it could not be broken. The 
barbarians had invested (aor.) the city so that the Greeks could not escape from 
it unobserved {/lav^avEtv, aor.). The intestines of the sick burned {Kaiea'Bac) 
so, that they would very gladly have plunged themselves in cold water. 

§187. Inter ro g ativ e Sentences , . 

1. Questions are either independent of a preceding sentence or 
dependent npon it ; e. g. i5 the friend come f and / do not Jcnow 
whether the friend has come. The first is called a direct question, 
the last, an i?idirect. Both may consist either of one member, or 
of two or more members ; e. g. Is the friend come, or is he not come ? 
Knowest thou not whether he is coming, or whether he is not coming ? 
According as the question refers to an object (person or thing) or to 
a predicate, the questions are divided into nominal and into predi- 
cative questions; e. g. who has done this? (nominal question), and 
hast thou wi^itten the letter'^ (predicative question). 

2. The nominal questions, i. e. those questions, in which the in- 
quirer wishes to receive an answer on a single point, are introduced 
by substantive or adjective interrogative pronouns, rig, noiog, nocogy 
or such interrogative adverbs as nozEQog, Ttojg, ny, nov, no&i, Ttod^ev ; 
e. g. tig ravia moujoev; — the predicative questions, i. e. those 
where the inquirer desires only an affirmation or denial of his in- 
quiry, are introduced by adverbial interrogatives, as, uQa ; e. g. a q a 
ravza syT0i7]Gag ; 

Rem. .1. Predicative questions are frequently indicated by the mere fo«e and 
by the position of the words, the predicate, or that word on which the force of 
the question rests, standing first in the sentence. Thus particularly in the case 
of negatives ; e. g. o i^ /c e-&£?i£i.g levac, do you not icish to go ? 

8. On the use of the interrogatives, the following is to be ob- 
served : 

(1) ^H, commonly in connection with other particles, implies an assertion, as- 
severation, since it supposes that that in regard to which the question is asked, 
actually exists, e. g. tj ovtol 7ro7JjiLOL ehcv, are these enemies? ^ rrov, num. 
forte, trtly ? indeed ? when the inquirer expects a negative answer ; e. g. ^ tt o v 
TeTo^.nTjK' tpyov alaxiCTov rode, has Jason indeed dared this thing ? f/ yap, is it 


not SO, is it not true? e. g. ^ yap, w 'Irrrria, kav ri epura ae luKpdrrj'g, uttokoi- 
vei, will you not answer, if Socrates asks you ? 

(2) 'A pa is properly used with questions of doubt, uncertainty and wonder, but 
often, also, with a degree of modesty with questions wholly definite ; e. g. ap 
olad-a TLvac, ol uvofeXelg ovreg codeMfiovg ovvavrat (ptXovg Tvoula'&'at, do you 
hiow any persons destitute of all recommendation, icJio are able to acquire valuahla 
friends? (to which a negative answer is expected). 

(3) Ov or fij] is joined with apa, according as the inquirer expects either an 
affirmative or rtegative answer; e. g. ^Ap' ovk eartv a(j-d-Evr]g ; nonne aegrotat? {he 
is not sick, is he?) Ans. Aegrotat. 'Apa // ?; £gtiv uo'&evTjg', numnam aegrotat ? 
{he is not sick, is he ?) Ans. Non aegrotat. 

(4) M?7 always expresses apprehension or anxiety on the part of the inquirer, 
and hence expects a negative answer ; e. g. 'A?Jia [i rj apxtreKTCdv (jovXel yeve- 
a-&aL ; Ovk ovv eyoy', e(p7], do you not wish to become an architect ? by no means, 
said he. 'A7Jm fi ?j yeo)fJ.ETp?]g em-&vjielg, £(j)?j, yeveo'&aL liyo.'&og ; Ov6e yeo- 
jierpvg, acp?], k. t. X. 

{5} Muv (arising from the interrogative ,«?/ and ovv), corresponds in all re- 
spects with the Lat. mim, and hence always requires a negative answer ; e. g. 
ficbv TeT6/]Kag ravra dpdcai, you have not dared to do these things, have you ? 
For the sake of perspicuity, the particles ovv and /J.ij — fx, uv ovv, /xcjv fi i] — are 
often joined with it ; e. g. fiuv ovv TeT6?ifi?]Kag — ; — or [luv [irj rerolfiriKag 
— ; — but when the negative ov is joined with fj-dv, the question is affii'mative 
{nonne) ; e. g. fii^v ov rtrbXiiriKaq — ; nonne ausus es — ? 

(6)0 v, non, nonne ? and ov kovv, non or non72e ergo ? with the collateral idea 
of conclusion from what precedes, always denote affij-mative questions ; e. g. o v- 
Kovv ye?MQ TjSLCTTog dg kx'&povg yzkav, is it not tlien the sweetest laughter to laugh 
at one's enemies ? 

(7) E Z r a and ett eir a are used in questions expressing indignation, astonish- 
ment and irony, and denote opposition or contrast, and yet, since an unexpected 
conclusion has been drawn from what precedes : e. g. ett e i.t' ovk oIec (ppovri- 
^Etv d-Eoig av&pcjTruv, and yet do you not suppose that the gods care for men? 

(8) Direct double questions are introduced : 

a. By TT or E p ov (rr 6 r £ p c) — //, iitrum — an ; e. g. iroTspov ovrot ifSpiarat 
elatv, rj (^lao^evol, are tlvey insolent, or hospitable? {noTEpov in the first member is 
sometimes omitted) ; b. by "Apa — s/, ne — an ; c. by M tj — ?/, whetlier not — o?- ; 
d. by 'A ^ A T i 7] (instead of aA?.,o tl ysvoir' uv, ?)) and a 1 a o r i, nonne ; e. g. 
a\'ko T I 7} "kELTZETai TO EVTEV'&Ev sjiol KLvSvvuv 6 fiEytGTog, no7ine relinqxutur 
mihi — ? is not the greatest of the dangers left to me? "A Pu 2 o r i ovv ocje (pL2,0KEp- 
i^elg (pL^AovGi TO KEpSog, therefore, do not those fond of gain, love gain? 

(9) Single indirect questions are introduced: 

a. By the inteiTOgative pronouns ogTLc, dirowg, orrocrog, oTtoTEpog, oTzcog, bizov, 
OTVT], OTTOTE, ctc. (§ 62, Rem. 1.) ; e. g. oIk olSa, ogTig egtlv — ovk ol6a, oizug rb 
TTpdyfia ETTpa^EV. 

Eem. 2. But often the direct interrogatives Ttg, Troiog, wug, etc., take the place 
of the indii'ect question, the indirect question then assuming the character of the 
direct; e. g. ovk olda, Tig ravTa ETzpa^Ev (instead of bgrig). 

b. Ei, whether, like ^, is properly used only in double question?, and denotes 


a wavering between two possibilities : but often only one member is expressed, 
while the other is present in the mind of the speaker. Hence ei is used after 
verbs of reflecting, deliberating, inquiring, asking, trying, knowing, sayiny : ofjav, oko- 
'Kelv, uKOTxela^ai, udevat, 6oj3elad-ai, etc. — TT€Cpu(7-&ai, ETTtvoelv, tpur^v — '/Jsyeiv, 
(^pa^cLV, etc. ; e. g aidipat, el 6 'E/Arjvuv vofiog kuaXlov tx^t, consider whether iJte 
Greek custom is n >t letter. Also eav with the Subj. is used in such questions, 
when things expected and yet to be proved, are spoken of; e. g. cKtipat, eav 
rode aot [xd'k'Aov upsaicrj, consider whether this would please you better. 

c. M 7], as in direct questions, whether not, is used after expressions of reflecting, 
considering, inquiring, asking, as M^ell as after those oi anxiety 2cnAfear, which also 
have the idea of reflection. In Enghsh, this jxri after verbs of fear and anxiety 
is translated by that; e. g. bpa, fxy tovto ovrug txei, see, whether this is not so. 
^povrt^cj, firj KpdrccjTov y [iol aiyav, 1 am considering whether it is not best for me 
to be silent. 

{\Q) An indirect double question is introduced by, (a) Tvorepov {irorepa) — 57 ; 
e. g. ovK olSa, Tcorepov Cy rj red-vrjicev ; (b) el — r], the same as rrorepov — ?}, yet 
with this difference, that el — tj expresses uncertainty and choice; (c) el re — 
el re, in the same signification as el — ?j, except that by elre — elre, the cor- 
responding relation of the two members is denoted, and the indecision of the 
speaker between two possibilities is made more prominent ; e. g. kuc dei^ecg ra- 
Xa, el t' evyevvg Tzecpvuag, e I r' ea-&?icbv naKfj. 

Rem. 3. On the use of the modes the following is to be observed : The Lid. 
is used in dnect and indirect questions ; the Subj. and Opt. are used in doubtful 
questions, and differ only as they are affected by the tense of the verb in the 
principal sentence ; e. g. ovk ex<^, ottol Tpu—iofiat, and ovk elxov, ottoc rpaTroifiTjv 
[§ 153, 1, b. (a)j. On the Ind. and Opt. of the historical tenses with av, see § 153, 
2, a. (a) and c. 

Rem. 4. The answer is expressed : 

a. By the repetition of the interrogative word ; e. g. 'O pag fze, SeGiroiv', ug 
Exo), Tov a^liov ; Ans. 'O p d. In a negative answer, a negative is joined with 
the interrogative word ; e. g. Ola-^' ovv ^porolg be Ka-^eorr^Kev v6/xog ; Ans. 
Ovk old a. 

b. By <{>V fii, (p?) f/ eyo), e y co y e ; negative, ov <pr] fJ.i, ovk eyuye, ov. 

c. Very frequently by y e, quidevi, iitiqiie, assuredly, certainly, which denotes 
that the answer completes the thought contained in the question, extends it fur- 
ther, continues and strengthens it, or by an additional clause, Limits and cor- 
rects it. Also by yap, though still stronger. 

d. By vai, vTj rbv A ia, Trdvv, Kapr a, sv ye, and the like. 

§ 188. Oblique or Indirect Discourse. 
1. The words or thoughts of a person, — whether this be a third 
or second person, or the speaker himself — may be repeated again, 
either without change, in precisely the same form as they were at 
first stated by the person who uttered them, — then the discourse or 
thought quoted is independent of the representation of the narrator, 


and is called direct {oratio recta) ; e. g. I thought, " all me7i are mor- 
tal" — he announced to me, '^ peace has been concluded,^* — and with- 
out a preceding verb, all men are mortal ; — or, in the second place, 
the discourse is made to refer to the representation of the speaker 
or some one else, and thus depends on a verb of perception or com- 
munication (verhum sentiendi or declarandi) in the principal sen- 
tence. The statement is then quoted as the sentiment of the per- 
son spoken of, i. e. of the person by whom it was originally uttered. 
This is called indirect or ohlique discourse {oratio ohliqua) ; e. g. 
he announced, that peace was concluded. 

I will make peace with the enemy. — Oratio recta. 

He said that he would make peace with the enemy, — Oratio obliqua. 

2. The principal sentences of direct discourse, and also sentences 
introduced by the coordinate conjunctions, e. g. /«(>, ovv, '/.OLitoi^ 
etc., are expressed, in oblique discourse, when they contain a simple 
affirmation, and denote something which happens, has happened, or 
will happen, (a) either by the Ace. with Inf. (§ 172, 1), or by oti 
and gjV with the finite verb (§ 180, 2), or by the participial con- 
struction (§ 175, 1) ; e. g. InriyyeiXe t ov g ttoIs ^lov g an ocpv- 
y sTv — 1 1 ol no7Jiiioi aTz a q)v y o lev or an s q)v y ov — t ov g 
Ttolsuiovg dno q)vy 6 vt ag — or, (b), when they express a 
command, v.^ish or desire, by the Inf. (§171, 2), e. g. sXe^e roXg 
GrgaTicozaig in id^ 8(J'& ai rolg noleuioig, he commanded the sol- 
diers to attack the enemy ; in oratio recta this would be expressed by 
the Imp. imd-eads. 

"Hdofiat, w KMapx^, ukovuv gov (ppovifiovg Xoyovg (oratio recta), I am pleased, 
dearchts, to hear you make these sensible remarks. Ttuaa(pepv7}g eXe^ev, ore tjSolto 
ctKovuv KXeapxov (ppovlfiovg Tioyovg, Tissaphernes said that he was pleased to hear 
Clearchus, etc. 

3. The subordinate clauses of direct discourse are not changed in 
indirect discourse, except that, after an historical tense in the prin- 
cipal sentence, they take the Opt., in the place of the Ind. and Subj., 
when the indirect discourse is to be represented as such, i. e. when 
the statement contained in the subordinate clause is to be viewed as 
the opinion or sentiment of the person spoken of. 

Thus, e. g. kav TovTO ?>,ey7ic, (t^aprjjGri, in oratio obliqua becomes eAefe ae, 
ei TOVTO XeyoLc, d/napTTjaead-at. TelevTtJv Dieyev, baa aya-&u Kvpog TLepaag 
TZE'n oirj KO L (Jecisset), he Jinally mentioned what advantages C. had conferred on 
the Persians. TKyaadipvTjg iop.oaev 'KyrjaiTiau, el air e ia a ct o, ecjg eX-&o cev, 
ovg tt e /j.ip e t e rrpbg (iaaiXia ayyD^ovg, dia-irpu^eG'&aL avTcl), a(j)e-d-f,vat avTovo' 
/lovg Tag kv Ty 'kaia -KoKzig ''ETilrjvldag, Tissaphernes took an oath to Agesilaus, if 


he would moke a treaty, until the messengers, whom he had serd to tJie tirKj should re- 
turn, that he icould effect that the Grecian cities in Asia should he independent. 

4. Very often, however, in Greek the oblique discourse takes the 
form of the direct, since even after an historical tense in the prin- 
cipal clause, the verb of the subordinate clause is in the Ind. of one ' 
of the principal tenses, and in the Subj., as in direct discourse. 
Here, although the actions and representations contained in the sub- 
ordinate clauses, belong to the past, they are transferred to the time 
present to the speaker. The use of the Ind. is regular, when the 
statement in the principal sentence, is present to the time of the 
speaker ; e. g. Xtya, on 6 av'&QODTiog d-pr^rog Bar iv, or instead of 
on with the finite verb, the Ace. with the Inf. is used ; e. g. 7Jy(Oj 
tov av'&QcoTrov S'V7]t6v eli^ai. 

' Aei k'K e ii£7i.e LTD 6 Kvpog, oTvuTe uvaKTjvotev, 6 iru g evxapiaroraroi Z6} oi 
efi(3?i,7]'d-yaovTat, Cyrus always took care, wlteiiecer they were with him in his 
tent, that the most pleasant subjects oj" conversation should be presented. 'E (J o |^ e r^ 
6rjii(^ TpLUKOvra £?Ja'd-at, o I rovg Tvarpiovt,- vo^ovg cvyypdipovcL, nad-' oi'C 
Tro/.tTevaovGtv, the people resolved to choose thirty men, who should draw up 
laws for the state, in accordance with which they should administer the government. 
'OpKioLg /j.e'ya?.occ k ar s ixov r o 'A-&7]vatoi, oeKa errj xpW^^'^o-i' vofioig, ovg 
av avTolg ^67^uv -d^ri t at. Tovg I'KTTsag t Ke%ev a e Kvpog (pv/Mrreiv rovg aya^ 
yovrag, e u g uv rcg ai] [mtjvti. 

5. The Greek can also use the Ace. with the Inf., instead of the 
finite verb, in every kind of subordinate clauses. 

'Lnvd-ag (pacrl rovg vofiadag, ettsi avrolg A a p el ov slg j3 a'/.elv elg r^v 
Xcopav, fiera ravra fiefzovevat avrbv Tiaaad-at, they say that the Scythian nomads, 
after Darius had made an irruption into their country, eagerly desired to take vengeance 
on him. 



§189. Introducfori/ Remarks on the Hexameter, 

1. The measure of the Homeric verse is Hexameter, -n'hich consists of six por- 
tion:5, called feet. Each of these feet is a Dactyl or Spondee. A dactyl consists 
of one long and two short syllables ( J « « ), a spondee of two long ( — — ). 
The first four feet of an Hexameter verse may be either dactyls oi spondees ; 
the fifth is usually a dactyl, and the sixth a spondee or trochee ( — « )• The 
following is the scheme : 



[§ 189. 


"Avdpa fioc 


Tzel Tpol 

r ~ 






pbv TZToTii 

og pLoka 
ed-pov £ 


2. The first sj'llable of the dactyl and also of the spondee, is pronounced witn 
a stress or elevation of voice, which is called the Arsis ; the short syllables follow 
ing the Arsis, or the long one, if the foot be a spondee, are pronounced with a 
depression of voice, which is called the Thesis. The Arsis is marked in the 
scheme by the sign ( — ). 

Eemark. The fifth foot is commonly a dactyl, but sometimes a spondee ; 
then the verse is called a spondaic verse. A succession of dactyls indicates a 
quick and lively motion, while a succession of spondees, a slow and heavy mo- 

3. In every well constructed Hexameter, there is at least one Caesura, which 
is occasioned by the ending of a word in the middle of a foot. But as the har 
mony of the verse requires that the ending of the foot and of the word should 
generally not coincide, several words of an Hexameter verse may end in the mid- 
dle of a foot, and hence there may be several caesuras in an Hexameter. 

XcoojUEvov I Kara d^vfiov | ev^uvoio | yvvacnog. 

In this line the ending of the foot and of the word coincide only in the word 
Kara. In a dactyl the word may end with a long syllable in the arsis ( _^ | w « ), 
or with the first short in the thesis ( -f « [ « ). In the former case, the caesura 
is called masculine, in the latter, femitiine. The principal caesuras are the fol- 
lowing : 

(a) The most usual and most emphatic caesura is the mjasculiiie after the ar- 
sis of the third foot ; e. g. 

a/JJ b jiEV AlMorrar ]] ^ETEKLa'&e T7]7i6-&' kovrag. 

(b) Often also a less emphatic feminine caesura occurs in the thesis of tho 
third foot ; e. g. 

avSpa fioi EVVETTE, Movaa, ]| izoTivrpoTzov, bg jiaXa 'KoXka. 

(c) A third caesura is the masculine after the arsis of the fourth foot ; this is 
usually preceded by a masculine caesura in the second foot ; e. g. 
^*'*'— _-_ ___ .«.[_ »»*'^_ 
apvvfiEvog || tjv te ipvxw 11 '<^<^^ vourov iralpuv. 

4. Beside these principal caesuras there are still other subordinate ones. 

5. Beside the caesura, the Diaeresis {SiaipEaig) also is of frequent occurrence, 
i. e. a separation of the verse, occasioned by the ending of the word and of the 
foot coinciding. The following are the principal diaereses: (a) after the first 
foot; (b) after the second foot; (c) after the third foot; (d) after the fourtli 
foot ; 6. g. 

(a) Tjcr&Lov ■ I avrhp o tolglv aipEiTiETO vogtljiov rj^ap 

(b) aXk' OTE 6i) ETog | ^Ai9-£, 7rEptTT?iOjLtEvcov Evcavruv 

(c) Evvrjiiap fiEV dva arparbv \ (^xero K7]?m ■&eolo 

(d) avdpa juoi hvEire, Movaa, TrokvrpoTvov, \ bg [idla TzoTCXd. 


§190.- Quantity (Comp. § 9). 

Pbeliminaky Remark. Only a few general rules will be given here ; the 
quantity of particular words, not embraced in these rules, may be learned bj 

1. A syllable which has the yowcIs e or o, followed by another vowel or a 
single consonant, is short by nature ; e. g. rtKoc, -d-stg, [35-^. 

2. A syllable which has the vowel v or w, or a diphthong, is long by nature ; 
so all contracted and circumflexed syllables are long by nature ; e. g. ^pwf , 
ovpavog ; ukcov (instead of ae/cwt'), erifia (from ETijuue), Trdg, olrog, tpvxor, vvv. 

3. A syllable which has a doubtful vowel, a, i, v, followed by another vowel 
or a single consonant, or at the end of a word, is short by position ; e. g. del- 
dovTe^, Sat/LLOvirj, (pvr/, fJ-uxih (pt^^oc, upyvpeog. 

4. A syllable which has a short or doubtful vowel followed by two conso- 
nants or a double consonant, is long by position ; e. g. iKiad^ai, tKarofi^T], di^d- 
<r&atf Ex^l(yTO(:, (pv?[.'Aov, 

Exceptions to No. 3. 

(a) a of nouns of the fii-st Dec, which have the Gen. in -cf , is long in all the 
Cases in which it occurs; e. g. v/J-epd, (pLAia, -dg, -a, -uv, etc. 

(b) a in the Dual of all nouns of the first Dec, is long; e. g. Nora. Sing 
?i,Eatvu, Dual /i-Eaivd. 

(c) a is long in the Gen. Sing, in -ao and Gen. PI. in -aov ; e. g. 'ArpEiddo, 

(d) the ending -ag of the first Dec. is long, both in the Nora, and Gen. Sing., 
and in the Ace. PI. ; e. g. Nom. rafxiug, Gen. ciddg, Ace. PI. du^dg. 

(e) a of masculine and feminine participles in -ag is long ; so also other words 
in -ag where vt or v have been dropped; e.g. aaovadg (uKOvaavrg), anov- 
adaa, iardg, [Sag; yiydg {yiyavrg), \iEkdg [itE'kavg). 

(f) a in the third Pers. PI. Perf. Ind. Act.; e. g. TErinf^dGi. 

(g) V is long in the Sing, of the Pres. and Impf. Ind. Act. of verbs in -v^ii, 
also in the masculine and feminine Sing, of the participle ; e. g. 6eikvv/j.i, 
eSeikvvv, dsLKvug, dEiKvvca. — Other exceptions may be learned by obser- 

5. In Homer, a mute and liquid commonly make a syllable long by position. 

6. The final syllable of a word in verse, is uniformly long by position : (a) 
when it ends with a consonant, and the next word begins with a consonant: 
e. g. K.aX KiL'&L \ GOV TpC) I ag ; also (b) when the final syllable ends with a short 
vowel, but the folloAving word begins \ni\\ a double consonant, or with two sin- 
gle consonants, which are not a mute and liquid; e. g. aJ^?; | rrjv, riv | ot'-u 
i) \ TTO ^vybv I riyavEv \ uvrjp. A mute and liquid, in this case, always makes the 
syllable in the arsis long, while the syllable in the thesis may be either long or 
short, according to the necessities of the verse ; e. g. firj /.lot j 6iJp' kpa | rd rrpo- 
^e I pS XP"^ I ceJ/? 'A^po ] dirjjg ; on the contrary, in the thesis, avTap b (o) | Tc2,ri' 

Ciov I iCTTJ \ KEt. 

7. A long vowel or diphthong at the end of a word, is usually made short in 


290 HOMEEIC DIALECT. — HIATUS. [§§191,152. 

Homer, before a word beginning with a vowel, but it remains long when it is in 
the arsis, or when the following word has the digamma (§ 193) ; e. g. v^evfj \ h 
Bev I ■&e(7(nv ; — vhg, 6 \ jxev Krea | tov^ b 6' ap' | lEvpvrov \ 'AKTopi \ uvog ;— 
avrap 6 | eyvo) \ i]aiv e \ vl (ppecrt \ <pC)V7] \ aev re {§acv = F?7(Tii^). 

8. A long vowel or diphthong in the middle of a word, before a following 
vowel, is but seldom shortened ; e. g. eTrei.'^ ( w w _ ), efiTvacog ( _ v/ w ), olog ( v « ), 

9. The arsis can make a short syllable long, both at the beginning of a word, 
e. g. acrmSoQ | dKcifia | rov Tzvp, and also at the end, — in which case it is gene- 
rally followed hj a liquid, or a cr or (5, the sound of which is easily doubled is 
pronunciation, or by a word with the digamma ; e. g. Kal izedl | d /Iw | revvra ; 
—'■&vyaTS I pd i]v (^ Vrjv). 

10. Not unfrequently in Homer, merely from the necessities of the verse, a 
short vowel in the thesis is measured as long, when it stands between two long 
vowels ; e. g. iTzo \ de^i | 77, 

§ 191. Hiatus. 

Hiatus, i. e. a harshness in the pronunciation, arising from the concurrence 
of two vowels, one of which ends a word, and the other begins the following 
word, is generally avoided by the Greeks, but especially in verse. In the Ho- 
meric Hexameter, however, it is admitted in the following cases : 

(a) With long vowels or diphthongs, either in the arsis, e. g. avruBi \ cj 'Udw | 
mm or in the thesis, in which case the long vowel or diphthong is short ; 
e. g. oIkol e | aav ; 

(b) When the vowel does not admit elision, or but seldom ; e. g. iraidl d//v- 
vEv ; 

(c) When two words are separated by a punctuation-mark ; e. g. aXV uva, el 
fXEfiovag ye ; 

(d) In the feminine caesura (§ 189, 3), after the.first short syllable in the third 
foot of the verse 5 e. g. fceiv^ | de rpv^a \ 7\.ZLa || a/z' | eaTvero j x^^P^ "^o \ 

X^'i-V '■> 

(e) In the diaeresis (§ 189, 5) after the first and fourth foot of the verse ; e. g. 
eyX^'t I '16ofJ-ev7]OQ \ — TveftTpai ctt' 'ATpei67j 'Aya/xsuvovi \ ovXov 'Oveipov, 

(f ) When the first word has the apostrophe; e. g. SevSpe* 6-&aX?iev ; 

(g) Words which have the digamma occasion no hiatus (§ 193, 3). 

§192. The Homeric Dialect. 

The language of Homer and his school is the older Ionic ; these poets, how- 
ever, were not satisfied with their own dialect merely, but selected from all the 
dialects, in accordance with the true principles of art, those forms which were 
adapted to the natm-e of their poetiy ; the regular laws of versification, also 
had much influence in forming the language. Thus they produced a peculiar 
and definite poetic language, called the Epic or Homeric. 

§§ 193, 194.] HOMERIC DIALECT. — DIGAMMA. VOWELS. 291 

§ 193. Di gamma or Labial Breathing F. 

1. The Greek language liad originally a special labial breathing, the sound 
of Avhich corresponds nearly to the English / From its form F, which re- 
sembles one gamma standing upon another, it is called Digamma (double 

2. The Aeolians retained this character the longest ; among the other Gre- 
cian tribes it disappeared very early ; its sound, however, was in some instances 
changed into the smooth labial /3, e. g. fiia, arising from Fif (later Ig), vis; in 
some instances, it was softened into the vowel v, and after other vowels coal- 
esced with these and formed the diphthongs av, ev, rjv, ov, uv, e. g. vavr instead 
oivaSg, navis, ,3ovg {j36J^g), bovs, bos, Gen. bo-vis; in others still, it was merely 
changed into a smooth breathing, which, at the beginning of the word, is indica- 
ted by the Spiritus lenis, but in the middle of a word and before p, it was not 
indicated by any character ; e. g. Fig, vis, ig ; elMo, volvo, ofig, avis, Fpodov, (j6- 
6ov ; finally, it was also changed, at the beginning of some words, into a rough 
breathing, which was indicated by a Spiritus asper ; e. g. 'ionepog, vespei-us, tv- 
vvjui, vestio. 

3. In the Homeric poems, the character denoting the breathing F, no longer 
exists ; but it is very clear that in the time of Homer, many words were pro- 
nounced with the digamma: e.g. uyvvfit, uvduvcj, cap (ver), the forms of 'EIAi2 
(video), EOLKO; diia [vestimentiim), £vvv/j.l (vestio), ecTtslv, eKrjT'.og, tog and og (suus)^ 
ov (sui), ea-rzspog (vesperus), ocKog (vims), olvog (vinum) ; this is obvious from 
several facts : (a) words that have the digamma cause no hiatus ; e. g. Trpo e-&ev 
(= Tzpo Ve-d-ev) ; (b) hence also a vowel capable of elision, when placed before 
such a word, cannot be elided ; e. g. 7ii7ZEv 6e e (= di Fe), instead of (5' e ; (c) 
the V ecpeXKVGTLKdv is wanting before words which have the digamma ; e. g. dale 
ol (= dais. Foi), instead of 6aUv oi ; (d) ov instead of ovu is found before the 
digamma; e. g. kTvel ov e-d-ev kan x^P^'luv (= ov Ve-d-ev), instead of oi';^; £i9-ev ; 
(e) in compounds neither elision nor crasis takes place; e. g. dLaemsfiev (= 
dLafsiTTE/xev), instead of Si.ei,7ie/u,EV, aayijg, instead of afayrig ; (f ) long vowels 
are not shortened (§ 190, 3) before words that have the digamma; e. g. KuXkEi 
TE GTcTifSuv Kal Eiftaai (= Kal VsLfiaai). 

§194. Change of Vowels. 

Contraction. — Diaeresis. — Crasis. — Synizesis. — A p o c o p e . 

1. The Homeric language often varies in the use of contracted and uncon- 
tracted forms, according to the necessities of the verse : e. g. uekcjv and ukuv. 
The particular instances of contraction will be seen below, under the contract 
declensions and conjugations. The contraction of orj into o takes place in the 
verbs podv, to cry, and voelv, to tliinh ; e. g. (Suaag, instead of ,8o7j(yag, ayvC^aa- 
CKEv, instead of ayvorjuaaKEv ; so also, dyduKovra, instead of oydo/jKovra. 

2. Diaeresis is the separation of a diphthong into its vowels. The use of this 
is not rare in Homer ; it occurs most frequently in those words where the two 


vowels are sepai-ated by the digamma; e.g. nraiq, avTiifj, breath (from afo), 
ktcTKG), kuKTcfievoi:, big [bfig, ovis), olofiaL (comp. opinor). 

3. The use of crasis is limited to a few cases, particularly : Kayu, rakla, oi- 
fiog, ovvena, cjpLarog, uvrog, instead of nal kyu, to. u?Jm, 6 kfiog, 6 uptarog, 6 

4. Synizesis, i. e. the contraction of two vowels into one, which is perceptible 
only in the pronunciation, but is not indicated by the form of the word, is of 
very frequent occurrence : 

(a) In the middle of words, most fi'eqnently in the followmg combination of 

vowels : ea, ea, eai, eag ; eo, eol, eov ; ew, ew ; e. g. crr^i9-£c, ijfiiag, ■&eoi, 

Xpvaeoig, red-veurt ; much more seldom in as, la, lai, lt], itj, to ; e. g. ae-&- 

Xevuv, TToXiag, 'no7uog ; oo only in bySoov ; vol only in SaKpvocat ; 7]l in 
drjloio, dTjLcov, 6r/loLac, yia ; 

(b) Between two words in the following combination of vowels : rj a, ij e, 
7] 7j, 7] Ei, T] ov, 7j ol; Ei ov \ u a, u ov ; the first word is one of the follow- 
ing : Jj, Jj, 6rj, fxri and etzel, or a word with the inflection-endings tj, u ; 
e. g. 7J ov, dr) acpvEtorarog, ju.)] uj'Koi, EDiaTrivr] r/s yuuor, uaj3£GTG) ov6' vlov. 

5. EUsion (§ 6, 3j occurs A-ery frequently, namely: 

(a) The a in the Neut. PL and in the Ace. Sing, of the thii'd Dec. ; seldom 
in the Aorist-ending -aa ; e. g. u'AEnp' e/ie ; usually in the particle upa ; 

(b) The £ in the personal pronouns e/j-e, fis, as, etc. ; in the Voc. of the second 
Dec. ; in the Dual of the third Dec. ; in endi-ngs of the verb, and in par- 
ticles, e. g. Se, te, tote, etc. (but never in Ids) ; 

(c) The I in the Dat. PI. of the third Dec, much more seldom in the Dat. 
Sing., and indeed only when the connection is such, that it could not bo 
mistaken for the Ace. ; e. g. x^^P^ ^^ ^^ opvf&' 'OdvdEvc ; in a/i/xL, vjufn 
and o-0i ; in adverbs of place in -^d-t, except those derived from substan- 
tives ; in eIkool ; finally, in all the endings of the verb ; 

(d) The in airo and inro (but never in ^rpo), in 6vo, in Neut. pronouns (ex- 
cept Tn), and in all endings of the verb ; 

(e) ai in the endings of the verb, fiai. Tat, c&aL ; 

(f ) oL in iioL, to me, and in the particle tol. 

6. Apocope [aTzoKo-r]), i. e. the rejection of a short final vowel before a word 
beginning with a consonant, occurs in the prepositions avu, KaTu, irapd, seldom 
in aiTo and vtto, and in the conjunction apa. — 'Av befox'e (3, tt, 6, fi, is changed 
into ufz (§ 8, 4) ; e. g. ap, Po/iolat, a/2 TvDiayog, afz cpovov, afifiEvu ; ndr assimi- 
lates its r to the following consonant, except that the rough mute is preceded 
by the coiTCsponding smooth ; e. g. /cad dvvajiLv, kuk KE(l)a?i?jg, Kay yovv, Karr 
(j)dlapa ; examples of arro and i>~6 are cnnTEfiipEi, vf^jSuHEtv, instead of aTro- 

niflllJEl, VTTOJBdXkELV. 

§195. Ghange of Consonants. 

1. A and i9- remain before n (contrary to § 8, 2) ; e. g. Id/iEv, KEKOpv&iih>o^y 
instead of Ictjiev, KEKoova/iivog. 


2. The metathesis of p with a preceding vowel, occurs not unfrequently ; e. g. 

KpadiT], instead o? icapdia, hearty KupTEpoc and Kparepo^, (Supckaror (from f:lpa<^vr) ; 
also in the second Aor. : t7rpa-&ov, t:6pa-&ov, tdpaicov (from ntp'&o), 6ap-&avu, 

3. In Homer consonants can be doubled, after short vowels, accordiag to the 
necessities of the verse, in the following cases : 

(a) The liquids and a on the addition of the augment, when there are three 
successive short syllables ; e. g. eXXaftov, ^^u/j.a-&ov, tvveov, laaeva ; 

(b) In composition, also, the liquids and a are doubled ; e. g. ve67,lovTo<: (from 
vsog and lovu) ; 

(c) The a in the inflection of the Dat. in a, and of the Fut. and Aor. ; e. g. 
VEKvauLv, (ppauGOiiai, KokEaaa ; 

(d) The (y in the middle of several words ; e. g. oaaov, toccov, b-nLacu, etc. 
Of the mutes, tt is doubled in the interrogatives which begin with biv ; e. g. 

STTTTWf, etc. ; — K in tteAskkov, TreXeKKucj ; — r in orri, orreo, ottev ;~^ in e6 
Setce, uSSeeg, adSrjv. 

Remark. The doubling of p, when the augment is prefixed and in composi- 
tion (§ 8, 12), can be omitted, if the verse requires it; e. g. epeC,ov (from /3fC") 
XpvGopvTog. For the same reason, though but seldom, one of the consonants, 
which otherwise usually occur doubled, is omitted ; e. g. 'Odvcevg, 'A^f^/levf, (pa- 
pvyog, instead of 'OdvcoEvg, ' KxiXkEvg, (pupvyyog. 


§196. Suffix (j)i(v). 

In addition to the marks for the Cases, the Homeric dialect has the suffix 
<j> I {v), which expresses the relation of the Dat, and in connection with prepo- 
sitions, that of the Gen. This suffix is always appended to the unchanged stem 
of the word ; e. g. 

I. Dec. only in the Sing. : ayE'krj^i, cnrb VEvprjipLV ; 
n. Dec. in Sing, and PI. ; all these forms, without respect to the accentuation 
of the Nom., are paroxytones (-o^i) : ■&E6<piv (for iS-ewv), of the gods, d7r' 
oGTEocptv (for buTECdv), of hones. 
m. Dec. almost exclusively in the PL: op£a<pi{v), upon the mountains^ Ik trrij- 
■&eG(pL (eomp. § 44), vavcpt. 

§ 197. First Declension. 

1. Instead of the long a, 7] is used through all the Cases of the Sing.; e. g. 
'n.7)VE7iO'KEL7]g., JlriVETiOTrecTi from Il7iv€?i6'n-eLa, ^pjjrprj, Bopirjg, Bopiri, BopE7]v. 

Exceptions: ■&ed, goddess, -ug, -a, -dv; 'NavcnKau, ^Ecd; AlvEiag, AvyeidCy 
''Epfistag, and some other proper names in -ag pure. The Voc. of vvfi(l>ij is 

2. Substantives in -e la and -oia, derived from adjectives in -rjc and -ovf, 
and also some other feminines, change short a of the Attic dialect into ^ ; e. g. 



ayiTjTS-elr], uvatSelrj, evtt^.olt], Kviaan, instead of d/Jj'^S-eta, uvatSeia, ev7T?iOia, 

3. The Nom. Sing, of masculines, in a great number of words, have the end- 
ing -d (like the Lat), instead of -ijg, according to the necessities of the verse; 
e. g. iTriroTu, alxfcr/Tu, fiTjrtsTa, evpvoira. The Voc. retains in all these the 
ending -a. 

4. The Gen. Sing, of masculines has the following endings : - uo, -co (con- 
tracted from -ao) and - eu ; the last ending -eo is always pronounced with syni- 
zesis, and in relation to the accent, w is considered short (§ 30, Rem. 2) ; e. g. 
'Epfietag, Gen. ''Epfieido and 'Epfiecu ; Hopsrjg, Gen. 'Bopedo and Bopew ; 'Arpei- 
Srjg, Gen. 'Arpecddo and 'Arpetdeco. 

5. The Gen. PI. of masculines and feminines, has the endings: -duv, -uv 
and -euv {ecjv is regularly pronounced with synizesis) ; e. g. KXiatduvy KXiaiuv^ 
TivTidcdv, 7rv7t,euv. 

6. The Dat. PI. : - ■?? cr ^ (v), -rig, and -atg (only in -d-ealg and aKralg) ; 
e.g. ic2,i(jl7jai{v), Trerpyg rrpbg fj.eyd?i7i(n. 

§ 198. Second Declension. 

1. Gen. Sing. : -ov and -olo; e. g. w^uov, u fxoio from w/^of, 6, shoulder. 

2. Gen. and Dat. Dual : -o llv (instead of -otv) ; e. g. u/io iiv. 

3. Dat. PI. : -o la t{v) and - o i f ; e. g. ufio ta cv, u/iocg. 

4. Attic Declension. Gen. Sing. : -uo, instead of - w ; e. g. lirjvElecbo, from 
IlTyveAecjf. In yaAwf, sister-in-law, 'A-&G}g and Kuf, the -wf produced by con- 
traction, is resolved by o ; e. g. yaloog, 'Ad-ocog, Koug. 

5. Contracted forms of the second Dec, occur but seldom, viz. vovg, usually 
voog, x^t-IJ-^P^iovg and ;t'ef^a/)/5oof, Hdv&ovg, Hdv&ov, Tlavd-Gi. "With those ia 
"Bog, -eov, Homer either lengthens the e into £i, or employs synizesis, as the na- 
ture of the verse requires ; e. g. XP^(^^<-0C- 

§ 199. Third Declension. 

1. Dat. PL : - (t l (v), -a a i [v), - eg i{v) and - eggl {v). The endings -eg i 
and - EGG i, like the other Case-endings, are always appended to the pure stem ; 
e. g. Kvv-EGGL (from kvuv. Gen. Kvv-6g), vekv-eggl (from vsKvg, v-og), ;i;f?p-ecrf. 
In neuters, which have a radical g in the Nom. (§ 42, 1. and § 44), this g is 
dropped : e. g. eits-eggl (instead of h-KeG-EGGi, from to sTrog, instead of eTref ), 
ds'nd-EGGLv (from ro dsTzag) ; v is di'opped in stems ending in av, ev, ov (§ 41) ; 
e. g. 06-EGGi. (instead of I^oJ^-eggl, hov-ihus), Ittttt^-eggl. — The ending -ggl is 
appended almost exclusively to stems, which end in a vowel ; e. g. vekv-ggl 
(from VEKvg, v-oc). 

2. Gen. and Dat. Dual: -o av (as in Dec. H.) ; e. g. ttoSoIlv. 

3. The Ace. Sing, of those in -vg, sometimes has the ending -a\ e. g. Evpsa 
TTovTov, Ix'&va, via, instead of Evpvv, Ix'&vv, vavv. 

4. The words yi^Mg, laughter, ISpug, sweat, and Epug, love, which properly be- 
long to the third Dec, in particular Cases in Homer, are declined like the Attic 
second Dec : yDM and yDiiov, instead of yE^wra, ysAu, instead of yHuTi ; 
Idpu, Idpu, instead of ISpcJra, ISpurc ; spo), instead of span. 


5. Those in - i f, Gen. -iSoc, especially proper names, often have th3 inflec- 
tion -tog, etc., and in the Dat. always ; e. g. /irjvcor, Qertog, Qeri. 

6. The neuter otf, uror, ear (§ 39), in Homer has the form ovaq, ovaToq, PL 
ovara ; the neuters ar£ap,fat, ov-&ap, breast^ and nelpap, issue, have -uror in the 
Gen. : craarog, ovd-ara, Treipara, TveipacL. In the neuters repag, Ktpag and Kpeag 
(§ 39), the T is di'opped; e. g. repaa, -auv, -aeaat ; Dat. Kepg,, PL Kepa, Kepuuv, 
KepaecGi and Kepaac ; PI. icpia, Kpeacov, KpeCov and KpetcJv, Kpiaatv. 

7. In the words mentioned under § 36, Homer can either retain or omit e, as 
the verse may require ; e. g. av^p, avspog and uvSpog, dvepi and av6pt, etc. (but 
only uvSpuv, uvSpdat and avSpeaat) ; yacTrip, -epog, -epi and yaarpog, yacTpi^ 
■yaoripa, yacrrepeg ; Ar]fi7]T7ip, -rjTEpog and -V^pog, Aj^/j.rjrepa ; -^vyaTr/p, ■&vyaTe- 
pog and -d-vyarpog, etc., ■d^vyaripEaat, but ■d-vyarpcjv ; nar?]p and (J-rjTTip, -repo^ 
and -rpof, etc. 

8. The word /.^wp, 6fooc? o/'^Ae ^oc?s, in the Ace. has t;t;cj, instead of Ix^pa^ and 
KVKEcJv, 6, mixed drinlc, in the Ace. has kvkecj or KVKeicJ. 

9. To § 41=^ belong - a v f , - e v f , - o w f . Of ypaiSf , there occur in Homer only 
Nom. yprjvg, yprjvg, Dat. ypv'l, and the Yoc. yprjv and yp-rjv. The word /3o{if 
does not admit contraction, thus : fSoEg, (36ag ; Dat. PL (So-EOGt, see No. 1. 

10. § 41. In common nouns in - Evg and in the proper name ' A.xL'^7\,Evg, tj is 
nsed instead of e, in aU the forms in which v (F) of the stem is dropped; e. g. 
I3acnl£vg, Voc. -ev, Dat. PL -svat (except apiaTTjEaav for uptavEvg), but /3acrf- 
Irjoc, -?)c, -fja, -TjEg, -7]ag (a ih. the Ace. Sing, and PL is short). Among the 
proper names, the follovsdng are to be specially noticed : 'Odvaaevg, 'OSvggtjoc 
and 'Odvajjog and 'OdvaGsog, also 'OSvacEvg (contracted), 'Odvajji and 'Odvaec, 
'Odvaa^a and '0Sv(T(7Ea, also 'OSvgt} ; UrjXEvg, Il?]2,7jog and -Eog, -ijc and -eL -?ja ; 
the others, as 'Arpevg, TvSevg, generally retain e, and contract -Eog in the Gren. 
by synizesis, and sometimes -Ea in the Ace. into -rj, thus : Tvdiog, -it, -ia and 

11. § 42. - 77 f and -Eg, Gen. - e o f. The Gen. Sing. remains uncontracted ; 
the Nom. PL is -EEg and -Eig ; the Gen. PL remains uncontracted (except when 
the ending -ec^v is preceded by a vowel, in which case contraction takes place ; 
e. g. ^axpvi^v from l^axprj^^^'^^ which is from C<^xPVVCi impetuous), also the Ace. 
PL - eag. 'ApTjg is thus declined : "Apijog and -Eog, Dat. 'Aprj't, "Apy, 'Ape'i, Ace. 
'Aprj and 'Ap^v ; Yoc. ''ApEg and 'Apeg. 

12. § 42. Proper names in - k 2, rj g contract se into t] ; e.g. 'HpaKXsijg, -KlTjog, 
rft, -7]a, Voc. 'UpciKlELg ; but adjectives in -erig, have both el and 77; e. g. 

aK7\,Erig, aK^rjElg, dyaK%7jog, but hvK.7\,Eiag (Ace. PL) from EVKlETjg, iv^^ET/g, Gren. 
ev^^Ecog from Ev^f)E7jg. So the forms dvgKlm, 'vitEpdEa, instead of -eea, occur. 

13. § 43. - w f, Gen. - w o f . In Homer the contracted forms ^pw Dat., and 
Mivw Ace., occur. Of the words in -cjg and -a, Gen, -oog, only ;t'P^? and its 
compounds, are uncontracted : XP^^g, xpot, XP^^- 

14. § 44. (a) -ag. Gen. -aog; the Dat. Sing, is uncontracted or conti'acted, 
according to the necessities of the verse ; e. g. yripal and yrjpa. But the Nom. 
and Ace. PL, are always contracted ; e. g. ^Eiza. — (b) -og, Gen. -tog; accord- 
ing to the necessities of the verse, both the unconti*acted and contracted forms 

* These numbers refer to the sections in the first part of the Grammar. — Tr. 


are used, (except in the Gen. PL, which always remains tincontracted, also in 
the Gen. Sing., except in some substantives, which contract -eog into -svg ; e. g. 
'KpefSevg, '&u.paevg^) Dat.. ■&epeL and ■&£p£t., Ka)Ckzl and ko/Cael ; Nom. and Ace 
plurals in -ea, commonly remain uncontracted, but must be pronounced with 
synizesis ; e. g. vecKea, j3e?.ea. — In aireog, K?Jog, deog, ;t'P^of, e is sometimes 
lengthened into £c, sometimes into f], thus : Gen. crTveiovg, Dat. anr/'i, Ace. (JTveog 
and a-ecoc, Gen. PI. cnetuv^ Dual OTceaat and GTrijeaac ; XP^^^ ^-^d XP^^^^ > 
/c/lea and K?ieta. 

15. § 45. -if, Gen. -log; -v r, Gen. - t) o r. The Dat. Sing, is contracted ; 
e. g. o'i^vc, iT?.Ti&vl, vEKVi ; the Ace. PL, as the verse may require, is sometimes 
uncontracted, sometimes, and indeed more commonly, contracted ; e. g. ix'^v^f 
instead of Ix'd'vag, 6pvg ; the Nom. PL never suffers contraction, but is pro- 
nounced with synizesis; e. g. Ix^vsg (dissyllable). The Dat. PL ends in -vaai 
and -VEGGL (dissyllable) ; e. g. Ix'&vaaiv and ix'd'vecaiv. 

16. § 46. -Ig and - 1, Gen. -log {Ait. -ec^g) ] -v g and - v, Gen. -vog (Att. 
-£ug). (a) Words in -eg retain the i of the stem through all the Cases, and 
are always contracted in the Dat. Sing., and sometimes in the Ace. PL , e. g. 
izoTiLg, -cog, -I, PL -ieg, -ccov, -lgl, -tag and -Ig. The Dat. Sing, has also the 
endings -el and -sl ; e. g. irbcel and tvocel, from Tcoccg ; in some words the l of 
the stem is changed into £ in other Cases also ; e. g. eira/i^eig (Ace), en-dX^e- 
<7Lv, especially in 7r67ug, which, moreover, as the verse requires, can lengthen s 
into Vj thus : Gen. TroXwg, TcoTisog and 7r6?.Tjog, etc., and in ocg, ovis, Dat. PI 
bteaoiv, oleatv, oeolv. — (b) Words in -vg, which in the Attic Gen. end in -£wf, 
have -eog, and in the Dat. Sing, both the uncontracted and contracted forms*, 
e. g. evpil, ■nrjx^h Tr/larei ; in the other Cases, the uncontracted forms are com- 
monly used, though these are generally to be pronounced with synizesis. 

§200. Anomalous Words (Comp. § 47). 

1. Vow [to, knee) and dopv [rh, spear): 

Sino-. yovvarog and yovvog dovparog and dovpog, Sovpari. and dovpi 

PL N. yovvara and yovva dovpara and Sovpa ; Dual Sovps 

G. jovvuv Sovpcov 

D. yovvaat {-aac) and yovvEcct dovpaai land dovpeacL. 

2. 'Kapa [to, head) . 

Sing. ]!l. Kapr] Gen. KaprjTog /lapr/aTog KpaTog Kpaarog 

Dat. KapTjTL KaprjaTL KpaTC Kpdarc 
Ace. Kapt] [KpaTa, Masc, Od. 8, 92). 

Plur. N. Kapd KaprjuTa (and Kaprjva) 

G. KpcLTuv ' { " Kaprjviiv) 
D. Kpaui 

A. KpdaTa ( " Kaprfva). 

8- Nai5f (^, ship) : 

Sing. N. vrjvg Plur. vfjeg and vesg 

G. vTjog and veog vrjibv and veuv 

D. vTjt ^^ vTjvac, vfjEact, vieaffc 

A. vTJa and via vrjag and veag. 

4. "^sip [rj, hand), Dat. x^Ph Ace A^tpa, Dat. PI. ;\;eipeaiv and ;^;£«/>cff(7«t». 


§ 201. Adjectives. 

1. The adjectives /3ai9£'f and toKvg have sometimes the feminine form -ea 
or-erj: (SaT&eTjc, (3a-&£7]v, uKea. Some adjectives in -if are also of common 
gender ; e. g. "Hp?? ^r/Avg kovaa, rjdvg avrjiij. 

2. Adjectives in-r] ecg, -rj eaaa, -7i ev often occur in the contracted form : 
-^f» -y<j(Ta, -7)v; e. g. rt/arig ; those in -oecg, -oetjca, -oev contract oe 
into ev ; e. g. Tredia XuTevvra. 

3. Uolvg {^ 48) is thus inflected : 

Norn. Sing. 7To?.vg and 7rov?ivg ; TroAv ; and ■no?.?.6g, "koXKov ; Gen. tvo/.eo^ ; 
Ace. 7ro?.vv and ttovTivv ; — Nom. PI. Tzolieg and TroZeif ; Gen. Tzo'kioiv ; 
Dat. TvoT^eGi, 'ndXioci and troMeaai ; Ace. TtoXeag and '7T0?.eZg. 

§ 202. (7o mp arison. 

1. The endings -urepog and -uruTog are sometimes used, although the vowel 
of the preceding syllable is long [comp. § 50, I. (a)] ; e. g. oi^vpuTarog, KaKo^ei- 
vurepog. Adjectives in -vg and -pog, have the Comparative in -iuv and -taTO^^ 
though sometimes also the regular form ; e. g. ylvKvg, ■y?.vKiO}v ; (ia&v^, Bo- 
-d-iarog ; olnrpog olnTLarog and oltirporarog. 

2. Anomalous forms (§ 52). 

a 7 a •i9- 6 f, Com. upsiuv, Ticotuv and Xutrepog, Sup. Kuprtarog 

Kanog, Com. KCKurepog, x^iporepog, ;^£p£iwv, ;^fp£'i6r£pof, Sup. rjKKyrog 

6 Til yog, Com. 6?u^(jv ; — ^/S rjtS Log, Com. ^Tjtrepog, Sup. prjlaTog and {irjiTaTOC 

j3 paSvg, Com. f^paaauv, Sup. (SapSiarog ; — ^^ aKpog, Com. fiaauuv 

Tz axv g, Com. Tracrcwv. 

§ 203. Pronouns . 

\ . Sing. Nom. 

eyw, before a vowel, tyuv 

GV, rVVT] 


£/Z£0, £//£{■', ^e£i (/z£v) 

aeo, cev [cev) 

£0, ev (ei) 

kfielo, t/j,s-&ev 

aelo, cer&ev, reolo 

eio, £-&ev 


kflOl, flOt 

aoi, TOi, reiv 

kol, ol (ol) 


kfie, jxe 

ak (ae) 

ee, e (k), fiiv 

Dual Nom. 


(7<pC)CV, c^uC, ^(pO) 

G. and D. 


c^Cd'Cv, G(p(pv 

a^utv [<j(poitv) 


vo)L and vu 

a(bC)i and a<pC> 

Gfue ((T^£J£) 

Plur. Nom. 

V[j.elg, ajifiei 

vfiEcg, vfijieg 


7]/Lteo)v, Tjfiecuv 

vfiF.ov, i'fzeicjv 

acpECJV {(7<pec}v),(T<puv 


r/fiiv, 7//UV, afifii{v) 

ifilv, v[1[il(v) 

G(pLai{v) [(76lGl{v)]y 

(j6i{v) [g<Pl{v)] 


Vficag, riiiag, a/ifze 

vfiiac, vfiuE 

a6eag {G6eag),c<l>dg 
{^(pag), ade. 

2. The compound foiins of the reflexive pronouns hfiavrov, ceavrov, etc., 
never occur in Homer ; instead of them, he uses the personal pronouns, and 
the pronoun avr 6c separately ; e. g. e/z' avTov, kfiol avrij, etxev avT^g, i avrrjVy 
ol avTrj. 

3. Possessive pronoims : reog, -tj, -6v, instead of cog ; eog, -tj, -6v and og, rj, 

298 HOMERIC DIALECT. — NUMERALS. VERBS. [§§ 204, 205. 

ov, suus, -a, -um; afibq, -t], -6v, instead of 7//j.eTEpog ; voiTEpog, -a, -ov, of us both , 
i'uog, -ri, -ov, instead of vyArepoQ ; acjycotrepog, -a, -ov, of you loth ; G(p6g, -rj, -bv, 
instead of acperepog. 

4. Demonstrative pronouns : rolo and tev, instead of rov ; roi and rai, in- 
stead of ol and al ; tuuv, instead of ruv ; tocctl, instead of rolg ; ralcrt, rtjai 
and r^r, instead of ralg ; — bds Dat. PL rolgdeaL and Tolg6ECGL, instead of rolgde. 

5. Relative pronouns: b, instead of bg; oh, bov instead of ov, irjg instead 
of ^g, yaL and ^f instead of alg. 

6. Indefinite and interrogative pronouns : (a) Gen. teo, tev, instead of nvog ; 
Dat. TEu, Tu), instead of rivi ; PL daaa, instead of tlvo. ; Gen. teuv, instead of 
Tivuv ; Dat. teolcl, instead of tlgl ; — (b) Gen. teo, tev, instead of rivog. 

(c) 3fnf : Sing. Nom. oTig, Neut. otl, ottl Plur. oTiva ■ 
Gen. otev, oteo, otteo, ottev oteuv 

Dat. orecj, orcj oteoigc 

Ace. oTLva, Neut. bTi, bTTi oTivag, aTiva and affca. 

§ 204. Numerals, 
The collateral form of [lia is la, Irjg, trj, lav, and of hi, the form iC). Avo, 
dvu are indeclinable ; collateral forms of these are 6ol6, doioi, doiai, dotd, etc 
Ucavpeg, -a, instead of TiaaapEg, -a. AvudEKa and dvoaaidEKa and dudsKa. 
''EsiKOGL, instead of eIkogl. ^OySuKovTa and hvvrjKovTa, instead of oydojJK., 
hvevTjK. 'EvvEaxi^ot and 6EKdxi?^oc, instead oi Evvaiagxl'^LOi and /xvptot. The 
endings -aKovTa and -aKoaiot become -rjnovTa, -tjkogioc. Ordinals : TpiraTO^f 
TEvpaTog, E^dbfiaTog, oySoaTog, evaTog and elvarog. 

The Verb. 

§205. Augment, — Redwpli cation. 

1. The augment is prefixed or omitted, as the verse requires ; e. g. TJvcs, i>e- 
cav, opaTo, eTie. In the Perf the temporal augment is omitted only in single 
words ; e. g. dvcoya. 

2. Words which have the digamma, always take the syllabic augment ; e. g. 
d.v6dvcd, EdSov ; El6ofj.aL, eEcadfiTjv, and also in the Part. EEcadjUEvog. The e 
seems to be lengthened on account of the verse, in EloiKvla aiid evade [sj'ade 
from dvddvu). 

3. The verbs oIvoxoeu and 6,v6dvo), take tlie syllabic and temporal augment 
at the same time, viz. kuvoxbet, yet more frequently ci^vox-, ErjvdavE and 7]v6ave. 

4. The reduplication of p occurs in ^EpvTcuusvog from dvTrou, to make foul. 
On the contrary, the Perfects mfiopa from fiEipoiiai, and Eaavjuat from gevo), 
are formed according to the analogy of verbs beginning with p. — KTuo/iai makes 
EKTTiiiai in the Perf. 

5. The second Aor. Act. and Mid. also, frequently takes the reduplication , 
this remains through all the modes, also in the Inf. and Part. The simple aug- 
ment e is but seldom prefixed to this in the Ind. ; thus, e. g. Kufivco, to become 
iceary, second Aor. Subj. KEKdjuu ; nD.ofiai, to command, ekek7\.6h7)v ; "kayxdvu, 

§ 206.] HOMERIC DIALECT. — VERBS. 299 

to obtain, Tielaxov ; ?\,a/x[3dvc), to receive, 7^e?Mj3£OT&at ; (ppui^u, to say, 7re<j)pa6ov, 

6. The following are examples of the Homeric Perfects with the Attic redu- 
plication (§ 89) ; e. g. akaoiiat, to wander, uK-a}^riiiai ; 'AXQ {uKaxi^cj), to grieve, 
aii-Tjx^lJ'O.L, aK-axriiiai ; epelTTO), to demolish, Ip-epcKTO ; ipi^u, to contend, ip-TJpi^' 

7. Homeric Aorists with the Attic reduplication (§ 89, Eem.) : uM^u, to watd 
off, 7]2,-a2,Kov, aX-aXKelv, aXa?iKojv ; ev-tTTTo, to chide, tv-evlrrov ; op-vv/ii., to er- 
cite, ijp-ope ; and with the reduplication in the middle : tpvKu, to restrain, ^p*-: 
Ka-Kov, Inf. hpvKaKEELV and hvirtru, ijvt-7ra-Trev. 

§ 206. Personal-endings and Mode-vowels. 

1. First Pers. Sing, Act. Several subjunctives have the ending -fit ; e. g. 
KTeivc)/j.i, instead of areivu, e'&e?MjLit, Idco/ixi, rvxcofti; iKcofit, ayayufiL. 

2. Second Pers, Sing. Act. The ending -c-&a (§§ 137 and 143), occurs in 
the second Pers. Pres. Ind. of verbs in -[ii ; e. g. Ti-^rjcB-a, 6iSoia-&a ; also fre- 
quently in the Subj. of other verbs ; e. g. k-d-ilria'd-a, elTTrtG-d-a, more seldom in 
the Opt. ; e. g. KTiaioLc&a, ^aTvOLod-a. 

3. Thu'd Pers. Sing. Act. The Subj. sometimes has the ending -ci{v) ; e. g. 
h&£%y(jL[v), aygm, aKakKr\aL, durjac (instead of <5w), /j,e'&ti^(jc ; the Opt. only in 

4. Personal-endings of the Plup. Active : 

First Pers. Sing. -ea (so always); e. g. TreTroiiJea, kre'&rjTzea, ydea, in 

stead of eTvenoi-d-eLv, etc. 
Second " " - e a f ; e. g. kTed-fjireag, instead of ere'&^Treig 
Third " " -ee{v); e. g. syeyoves, KaraXeTiOLTTEe, e(3ef3puKeev. 
Kem. 1. The thu'd Pers. Sing. Plup. Act. in ec, and also the same Pers. of 
the Impf in si-, occurs in Homer before a vowel, with v e^E7MV(xriK6v ; kcrr;- 
K£tv, (3£j3l7JKEi.v, TjOKEiv, Impf. from uuKEo. Comp. § 143. 

5. The second and third Pers. Dual of the historical tenses, Act. and Mid., 
are sometimes exchanged for each other : -r ov and - cr i? o v, instead of -ttjv 
and -a-d-T]v ; e. g. Sluketov, ■&up7jaaEa&ov, instead of Scukettjv, ■d-uprjaaEcr&Tjv. 

6. The second Pers. Sing. Mid. appears either in the unconti'acted form, -eai, 
-Tjai, -eo, -ao ; e. g. TiEiTTEat, 'kikaiEai, a(piKr]ai, Epvaasai, iiravpTjac, iTZETivaao, 
kyELvao, or in the contracted form -?? (from -eci, -??Q;i), -ev (from -£o), -u 
(from -ao) ; e. g. acpticij, ettIev, spx^v, Eicpsfco). The endings -ssai and -eo are 
also lengthened into - e lat and -e lo, or one £ is dropped ; e. g. fiv&Eiai, veiaif 
epELO, GTcelo ; — fivd-sai (instead of (iv&EEai), 'KdXiai, ekIeo, ettuTleo. — In the 
Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass., a is sometimes dropped, viz. fzitivai (and fi£fiv^, 
formed from fiEfivs-c-ai.), (SsfSXTjai, saavo. 

7. The first Pers. Dual and PI. ISIid. ends in -fiEG-&ov and -fXE^ov, -fiecrd^a 
And -[JLE-Q-a ; e. g. (ppa^ofj.ea'&a and -fis'&a. 

8. The third Pers. PI. Ind. Perf and Plup. Mid. or Pass., and Opt Mid. has 
the ending -arai, -qto, instead of -vrai, -vto; e. g. aK-rjxeaTai, Tr£(po(37JaTO, 
itjTaXaro, TETpacparat, apijcaiaro, yevoiaro. 

800 HOMERIC DIALECT. — VERBS. [§ 207. 

9. The tliii-d Pers. PL Aor. Pass. has the ending -ev (instead of -vaav) • e. g. 
rpdcftev, instead of erpcKpTjaav. 

10. The long mode-vowels of the Subj., viz. o and rj, are frequently shorten- 
ed into s and o, as the verse may require 5 e. g. lofiev, instead of lufj-ev, orpi- 
(peraL, instead of Grps^rjraL. 

11. The Inf. Act. has the endings -e/xevai, -e/iev and - eiv (e being the 
mode-vowel and -/Lievai the ending) ; e. g. rvTrrsftevac, rvTrri/xev, rvTrreiv ; verbs 
in -acj and -eu have -T^iievat (the 77 arising from the contraction of the mode- 
vowel e and the final vowel of the stem) ; e. g. yorjuevai {yodu), ft?ir//Lievai {(jn- 
?ieo)) ; with the ending -Tz/xevac, that of the Pass. Aorists corresponds; e. g. rv- 
'^T^fievai, instead of rvKrjvaL. In the Pres. of verbs in -p-i, the endings -nevai 
and -[J.ev are appended immediately to the unchanged stem of the Pres., and in 
the second Aor. to the pure stem ; e. g. TLd-E-/uevai, rL-&e-fiev ; lard-inevat ; rfi- 
66-fievai ; deLKvi-fievai, ; d^e-fzev, 66-fj.evac ; thei'e is an exception in the case of 
the second Aor. Inf. Act. of verbs in a and v, which, as in the Ind., retain the 
long vowel ; e. g. uTT]-[iEvaL, dv-fzevac. 

12. The Impf. and Aor. Ind. take the endings -aKov, -eg, -e{v), in the Mid. 
-<jic6/i7jv, -ov {-eo, -ev), -ero, when a repeated action is to be denoted; hence this 
is called the Iterative form; it regularly omits the augment; e. g. 6i.vev-e-(jKov, 
PocK.-e.-aK.ovTO, vcKd-aKO/iev, Ka7A-e-aKe, eXda-a-aKev, 66-cTKe, 6v-<jKe, ard-aKS. 

Rem. 2. In verbs in -w, the mode-vowel of the Ind. is used before these end- 
ings ; in those in - d o, -deuKov is abridged into -daKov, which as the verse 
may require, can be lengthened into -daoKov ; e. g. vaterdaaKov ; those in - £ w 
have - tea Kov, seldom - ea kov (e. g. Ka?JaKeTo)^ also - el e a kov (e. g. vei- 
KtiecKov) ; in verbs in -p-i the mode-vowel is omitted. 

§207. Contraction and Resolution in Verbs. 

1. A. Verbs in -do. In these, the uncontracted form occurs only in single 
words and forms ; e. g. Tzepaov, KareaKiaov ; always in v7luo) and those verbs 
which have a long a for their characteristic ; e. g. Si^rpduv, tzslvuqv, expae (from 
;j;pu-«, to attack). In some verbs, a is changed into e, viz. [levoiveov, from pe- 
voivdo), yvTEOv, from dvrdu, baoKAeov, from bpoK7\,du, 

2. Instead of the uncontracted and contracted forms, there is a resolution of 
the contracted syllable, by a similar vowel, d (g.) being resolved into ad (ag.) 
or &d {da), and o into 00 or ucj ; e. g. opdacnS-at, (instead of opda-d-ac) ; pevot- 
vag, (instead of pevoLvg.) ; opocj (instead of opu) ; SpuuaL (instead of dpuac). 

Kemark. In the Dual-forms, TzpogavdrjTrjv, avTiTjTriv, ovvavrrjrTjv, (jioltt/ttji' 
(from verbs in -au), ae is contracted into tj, and in bpxLprrjrrjv and dneL7,i]rr]v 
(from verbs in -eo), ee is contracted into t], instead of into et. 

3. When vr comes after a contracted syllable, the short vowel may follow 
such contracted syllable ; e. g. ■fjfSuovro, instead of 7](3(bvTa, ye^Movreg ; in the 
Opt. also, the protracted uo l, instead of w is found in jjj3o)0ific, instead (f ^jSd- 

Ot/IL (= f]l3(hpi). 

4. B. Verbs in - e <y. Contraction does not take place in all the forms in 
Trhich E is followed by the vowels w, w, t], y, at and ov ; e. g. (l>t7Jupev, (pcMoiui, 
etc. ; yet such forms must commonly be pronounced with synizesis. In others, 


contraction is omitted or takes place, as the verse may require ; e. g. (juAtei, 
epeo), oTpvviovaa ; alpevfijjv, yevev. Sometimes e is lengthened into ei ; c. g. 
kreXeieTo, /j-tyel'^ (instead of /iiyy, second Aor. Pass.). 

5. C. Verbs in -6u. These follow either the common niles of contraction, 
e. g. joyvov/iat, or they are not contracted, but lengthen o into o, so that the 
forms of verbs in -uu resemble those of verbs in -du ; e. g. IdpuovTai, cdpuovaa, 
vTiVCJovTag (comp. ijjScjovTa) ; or they become wholly analogous to verbs in -ucj, 
since they resolve -ovgc (third Pers. PI. Pres.) into -ouai, -ovvro into -oovto, 
-olev into - 6 cj e v ; e. g. {dpn-ovai) apovai apooa l (comp. dpouct) ; [Stjwovto) 
SrjcovvTo drjlouvTO (comp. bpoovro):, (drj'iootev) dTj'ColEv drj'iouev (comp. 

§ 208. Fo r mat ion of the Tenses. 

1. The Attic Put. (§ 83) occurs in verbs in -H^u ; e. g. Krepiovat. In verbs 
in -£0), the ending -ecj is often used instead of -ecw ; e. g. Kopieig, instead of 
KopeoELg, fiaxeovTat, instead of fiaxecrovTat. ; in verbs in -ao, after dropping a, a 
corresponding short vowel is placed before the vowel formed by contraction : 
e. g. dvTLoo, eXouai, Sajuda ; of verbs in -vo), epvovac and ravvovai occur. 

2. The following liquid verbs form the Put. and first Aor. with the ending 
• au and -a a: Kecpu, to shear off [Kepaai), keXIu, to land {Ke?iaat), el/M, to press 
(sXaaL), Kvpu, to fall upon (Kvpacj), 'APG {dpapioKco)^ to Jit (dpaat), op-vv/nL {op- 
co), ojpaa), to excite, Scacpd-eipo), to destroy {6ta(p-&ep(7ac), (pipu, to mix {(pvpau). 

3. The following verbs form the Put. without the tense-characteristic a : f^eo- 
fiai or ^eiofiai. (second Pers. /3£??), / shall live, Sr^o), I shall find, Keiu or keu, 1 
shall lie down. 

4. The following form the first Aor. without the tense-characteristic a : ;^£w, 
to pour out, exEVO. ; cevoi, to put in motion, ecaeva ; aMoiiat and dXevofiat, to 
avoid, ?]?^EvaTO, u/^Evdusvog, d?i,£aa-&at ; Kaiu, to burn, EKrja and EKEia. 

5. The endings of the second Aor. are sometimes exchanged with those of 
the first Aor. : jSaivu, to go, kjSi^GETo, Imp. (Hjgeo ; dvo/naL, to plunge into, kdvaETOy 
Imp. SvGEO, Part. dvaofiEvog ; a/w, to lead, u^ete, d^i/xEv ; iKviofiai, to come, 
l^ov ; hTiEyjiTjv, I laid myself down to sleep, Imp. Ae^o, Ie^eo ; opvv/nt, to incite, 
Imp. 6pGEo{Ev) ; (pipcj, to bear, olaE,..oh£/J.Evai ; dEidu, to sing. Imp. aEiCEO. 

6. In the first Aor. Pass, of some verbs, v is prefixed before the ending -^tjv, 
as the verse may require, viz. ScaKpiv^TJTE, Kpiv&Eig, ekHv&t] (§ 111, 6), idpvv- 
'&T]v (from ISpvu), ufiTrvvv&rj (from tvcw). 

7. Several second Aorists, in order to make a dactyl, are fonned by a trans- 
position (metathesis) of the consonants ; e. g. sSpaKov, instead of sdapKov (from 
SspKopai), £7rpa-&ov (from ttep'&o)), kSpa-d-ov (from dap-&uvo)), 7/Uf3poTov, instead 
of TjfzapTov (from djiapravu). In like manner, on account of the metre, a vowel 
of the stem is dropped ; e. g. dypofisvog, from dyEpofijjv {dyEtpu, to assemble) ; ey- 
pETo, from £yEp6fi7]v (eyeipw, to awaken) ; rvEcpvov, et:e6vov ($ENi2, to put to death). 

8. Homer forms a first Perf. only from pure verbs, and such impure verbs as 
assume e (§ 124) in forming the tenses, or are subject to metathesis ; e. g. x^'^-P^ 
KExdprjKa (from XAIPES2) ; f3d?2o) (SilSlTjKa (from BAA-). Besides these, he 
forms only second Perfects ; but even in pure verbs and in the impure verbs 
just mentioned, he rejects the /c in single persons and modes, and regularly in 




r§§ 209, 210. 

the Part. ; thus these forms become analogous to those of the second Pen. ; e. g. 
KeKUTjiog, from KaiMVO) ; Kexapv<^C, from a:«^'P"j /?e/3dwf, from fiaivu (BAG). 

§ 209. Conjugation in -fjii. 

1. Even in Homer, the forms of -ea and -6« (§ 130, Eera. 3) occur dn the 
second and thu-d Pers. Sing. Pres. and Impf ; e. g. eTid-ei, dcdolc, Scdol. — Also 
a reduplicated Put. of Si6o)/j.L occurs : StduaofiEv and ScSuaeLi). 

2. Yerbs in -vfit, form an Opt. both in the Act. and Mid. ; e. g. eKdvfiev (in- 
stead of eK6vL7]fiev), from eKSvo), ^vtj (instead of (pvirj), from (l>v(o ; Sacvvro ; so 
also (p-d-lo, (pd-iTO, Opt. of h(p-d-L}irjv, from (pS-io. 

3. The third Pers. PL Impf and second Aor. in -s-oav, -9]-pav, -o-aav, -co-aav, 
•v-aav, is shortened into -ev, -av, -ov, -vv ; e. g. evL'&ev, instead of kri-&e(jav, 
e-&ev, instead of e-&eaav ; egtuv, instead of earrjcav ; edtdov, instead of hdido- 
cav ; e6ov, instead of edoaav ; e(I>vv, instead of £(j)vaav. 

4. In the second Pers. Sing. Imp. Pres. and second Aor. Mid., Homer rejects 
a, and uses the uncontracted form ; e. g. 6aivvo (instead of Saivvao), [lapvao, 

<paO, (JVV&EO, EV&EO. 

5. The short stem-vowel is lengthened before the personal-endings beginning 
with fi and v, as the verse may require 5 e. g. md-^fzevog, didovvat (instead of 
didovai), didu'&i, Vkri'd-i. 

6. In the second Aor. Subj., the following forms are used, as the verse may 
require : 

resolved and lengthened forms : 

orew, (tteIo) 


aT7]7i, £ju,l37]7}, (bf/y, (p-d-rjy 




(TTEO)(n(v), 7iEpi.(TTfJ(0(7l[v) 

■&E0), 'd-Eiu, 8an£i(j) 
T?q/f, "d-^TiCi "^siyC 
■&E71, ■O-^rj, avrjri, jie^ELij 


■■&£CJfJ,EV, d-ELOfjLEV 

■&Ecoai{v), ■&Eio)at{v) 
d67icn{v), do)i^ 



Remakk. Instead of saTTjaav (Aor. I.), the shortened form Ecraaav occim, 
and instead of ^ardrE (Perf ), the lengthened form EaTTjTe. 

§ 210. Eliil {EZ-), to he. 

Pres. Ind. J 2. eocl. PI. 1. eIjiev. 3. e(2o-i(v) 

Subj. 1. flETEiO). 3. ET), Er)GL[v), ^CTi(v), eItI. PI, 3. E(j)at{v) 

Imp. 2. Eaao. Tnf. s/nfiEvai, sftEvat, e[xev. Part, ewv, kovca. 
Impf. Ind. 1. ea, ^a, eov, egkov. 2. E7]cr9-a. 3. etjv, v^, v^v. Dual 3. ^anjv. 

PI. 3. Eaav, Eiaro (instead of 7]vto, from vf^V'')- — Opt. 2. iotc. 

3. £01. PI. 2. eIte. 3. eIev. 
Fat Ind. I. EGOfiac (Ecaofiai,), etc. 3. ecrErat and kaelrat. 






























§§ 211, 212.] HOMERIC DIALECT. VERBS. 

Pres. Ind. 
Impf. Ind. 

Fut. Ind. 

§211. EJiii ('/-), to go, 

2. elcr&a. Subj. 2. lya-&a. Inf. Ifxevai, Ifiev. 

1. 7/i'a, t'/iov. 2. icf. 3. ^e, l€{v). PL 1. yofisv. 3. ^i'aav, r/crav, 

^tov, laav- — Opt. tot, lei?}. 
1. elcojiai: Aor. Ind. 3. etaaro and heiaaro. Dual 3. eetaacr&Tjv. 

Vekbs in -cj, which in the second Aok. Act. and Mid., in the Peep. 
AND Plup. Act., and Pres. and Lmpe., follow the analogy of Vekbs 

IN -fll. 

§ 212. (1) Second Aor. Act. and 3fid. (Comp. § 142). 

A. The Characteristic is a Yowel: a, e, t, o, v. 
/?aA/lw, to throw, second Aor. Act. (BAA-, efSXijv) ^vfi(31^T7]v, Inf. ^vfil32.7/fievaL 

(instead of -Tjvat) ; second Aor. Md. {el3l7j/ii7jv) £l3?.rjTo, ^vfz^?.T]VTo, Subj. 

^vulSlrjTat, (37,fi£Tat, Opt. (^leto (from BAE-), Inf. (SX^a'&at, Part. ^Irifievog. 

Hence the Put. (^IrjaofiaL. 
yripato or yrjpdaKo), to grow old, second Aor. Act. third Pars. Sing, kyvpa, Part. 

KTeivo), to Ml, second Aor. Act. ektuv, PI. enTujiev, third Pers. PL ektuv, Subj, 

PL KTeuftev, Inf. Kra/ievat, KTufiev, Part. Ktag ; second Aor. Md. with pas- 
sive sense, cnziKTaro, Kracd-at, KTaixevog. 
ovraco, to wound, second Aor. Act. third Pers. Sing, ovra, Inf. ovrdjuevat, ovrd- 

fiev ; second Aor. Mid. ovrafievog, wounded. 
ireTid^cj, to approach, second Aor. Mid. eizTiTjftijv, ttItjto, ■k'X.tivto. 
tt7\,t]'&o) {'Ki[i'itlT]iit), to Jill, second Aor. Mid. I-kItjto, Opt. irlEifj.Tjv (from IIAE-), 

Imp. itTJriao. 
"TTTTJaau, to shrink with fear, second Aor. Act. third Pers. Dual Kara'nTTjTTjv. 
did-dvo), to anticipate, second Aor. .Mid. (p-&a[j.Evog. 

Eemark. Prom Iji'nv come the forms ^arrjv (thu-d Pers. Dual), and vTrep- 
Bdaav (thii'd Pers. PL), with a short stem-vowel. 

AAQ, Epic stem of StSdaKu, to teach, second Aor. Act. (AAE-) eddijv, 1 learned 

Subj. daeio), Inf. darj^evat. 
<p-&i-vo), to destroy and vanish, second Aor. Mid. ^(pdifiTjv, Opt. (p-d-tfirjv, (jr&iTo, 

Imp. ^■&ia'&u, Inf. ^■d-tG'&at, Part, (pd-i/nevog. 
^t(3pu(jKa), to eat, second Aor. Act. e(3po}v. 

TT/lww, to swim, second Aor. Act. ettIcov, Part. TrZwf, Gen. -uvrog. 
kXvu, to hear, second Aor. Act. Imp. kIv'&c, kXvte, kek1v-&l, kekXvte. 
7.V0}, to loose, second Aor. ilid. Mro, Tivvro. 
TTveo, to breathe, second Aor. ]\Iid. (IINT-) a^TriDro, instead of dv£Tzvf)T0yhe 

took breath. 
CEvo), to put in motion, second Aor. IVIid. kaavfirjv, I strove, eccvo, cvto. 
Xeo>, to pour, second Aor. Mid. ;^;i)vro, x'^f^^'^og. 

B. The Characteristic is a Consonant. 
a?,'Xof£ai, to leap, second Aor. Mid. d/lo-o, uXto, hirdliiEvog, iTrtdX/ievog, Subj. 

upapiaKu ('APQ), to fit, second Aor. Mid. apfiEvoc, fitted to^ 
yivTo, to seize, arising from FeAro (from eXeIv, second Aor. of aipiu). 

304 HOMERIC DIALECT. VERBS. [§§ 213, 214. 

Sexofiat, to tahe^ second Aor. Mid. eSeKvo, Imp. 6e^o, Inf. dsx'&ai ; the fii'st Pars. 

kdE}i/xr]v and the Part. deyjievoQ, like the Perf. dsSey/iat, signify to expect. 
e2.e7uCo), to whirls second Aor. Mid. £?J?uKro. 

iKviofiai, to come, second Aor. Mid. Ikto, LK^evog and hcjuevog, favorable. 
Myofiat, to lie down, select, to count over, second Aor. Mid. eXey/iTjv, e7\.eKT0, Xekto. 
fiiacvcj, to soil, fj.idv&)jv (third Pers. Dual, instead of kfiidv-c&rjv). 
iziyvvfu, to mix, second Aor. Md. fitKro. 
opvvfzt, to excite, second Aor. Mid. upro, Imp. opao, bpaeo, Inf. op^ai. Part. 5/> 

TvaTiTiu, to brandish, hurl, second Aor, Mid. TfaAro, he sprang. 
Tzep-d-u, to destroy, second Aor. Mid. irip'&aL, instead of 7C£p-&-G-&ai. 
TtijyvviiL, to make firm, to fix, second Aor. Mid. t^tikto, KareTCTjKro. 

§ 213. (2) Perf. and Plup. Active. 

(a) The Stem ends in a Yowel. 
yiyvofiai, to become, Perf. PL yiydnEv, -are, -daat{v), Inf. yeyd/iev, Part- yeyaug; 

Plup. EKyeydrTjv. 
(Saivcj, to go, Perf. PI. j3E(3ajU£v, etc.: Plup. (SefSaaav. 
Seido), to /ear, Inf. Secdifiev, instead of SEcdiivat, Imp. SsLdf&c, SeISlte ; Plup. 

e6el8liiev, kSEldiaav. 
epxofJ-ccL, to come, ElX?piOv&fi£v. 
'&vr]GKu, to die, Perf. PL re-d-vafiev, re'&vdGL, Imp. Te-&va'&i, Inf. TE'&vayiEV and 

T£'&vd(iEvaL, Part, red-vrjcog, -urog, te'&veutl ; Plup. Opt. TE'&vairjv. 
TAAAG, to dare, Perf PL rirTia/iev, Imp. TErXad^i, Inf. TErTidfiEv, Part. TErXTjag. 
MAQ, to desire, Perf. PL fxefiarov, -dfiev, -are, -ddai, Imp. ^e/zarw, Part. fiEfiaugf 

-cJTog and -oTog ; Plup. /JiSfiaaavu 

(b) The Stem ends in a Consonant. 

Preliminary Remark. The r of the inflection-ending, when it comes iiii« 
mediately after the stem-consonant, is changed into ■&, in some Perfects. 
avuya, to command, dvuyjiev, Imp. avcox'&i', dvo)X'&(o, dvux'^^- 
kyprjyopa, I awoke (from kyEcpc), I awaken). Imp. Eyp^yop-&£y Inf. EypTjyop'&aL ; 

hence sypi^yop^arrc, instead of eypijyopaat. 
'!T£7vof&a, I trust (from TrEid-o), to persuade), Plup. EiriTn'&fj.Ev. 
ol6a, I know (from 'EIAfi, video), IS/liev, instead oila^ev, Inf iSfiEvai. 
eoLKa, 1 am like (from 'EIKi2), second and third Pers. Dual eiktov ; third Pers 

Plup. Dual EiKTTjv ; hence, Perf. Mid. or Pass. eIlkto. 
Tcaax^, to suffer, Perf. TTETzocd-E, instead of TVETvov&arE. 

§214. (3) Present and Imperfect, 

hvvci, to accomplish. Opt. Impf. avvTo{d). 

ravvo), to expand, to stretch, rdvvraL (instead of ravvETai). 

kpvu and Ecpvo), to draw, Elpvarat, instead of Etpwrai, Inf. Epvcr&ai, elpvcrd'at, 

in the sense of to protect, to guard. 
ISu, to eat. Inf. sd/iEvai. 
(jiepu, to bear, Imp. (pipre, instead of (pipere. 




The numbers 1, 2, 3, after an adjective, denote that it has one, two or three end- 
ings. — Other numbers placed after a definition, denote the page, where the word 
is more fully defined. — Abbreviations: w. a., with the Accusative; w. d., with 
the Dative; w. g., with the Genitive; Char., Characteristic. — The numerals and 
prepositions are not inserted here ; the definitions of these may be found in the 
sections where they are treated. 

A. ayvvfic, to break [^ 140, 1|. dSa, to sing, 34. 

*Af3io)TO^ 2, insupportable, ayopd, 77, market-place. ast, always. 

a[3Xdi3eLa, innocence, 88. Q.yopaXog, 6, traflicker. astK-fjg, -eg, unseemly, 108. 

ayad-ov, advantage, 27. dyopevco, to say. aerog, 6, eagle. 

dyuT^og 3, good. dypevo, to catch. a?7%, -eg, unpleasant, 171. 

aydXlo, to adorn, 56. aypog, 6, a field. aTjdi^ofcai, to be disgusted 

ayaTifia, to, statue. ayxlvovg 2, shrewd. with [§ 87, 1], 

aya/j,at., to wonder [§ 135, a/w, to lead, 23 [Aor.,§89, uTjp, -ipog, 6, air. 

p. 165]. Rem.; Perf. ^x(^, Perf. dMvarog 2, immortal. 

'Ayafiifivov, -ovog, 6, Mid. or Pass, ^y/xai]. a^sarog, not to be seen. 

Agamemnon. dyuv, -uvog, 6, contest. 'Kd-fivac, -u^v, cd, Athens 

ayav, too much, 36. doarjiiuv, -ov, inexperi- d-&2,TjT^g, -ov, b, wrestler. 

ayavaKTEu, to be dis- enced, 112. u-&/uog, ti'oublesome, 161. 

pleased, 147. dSelcpi], tj, sister. d&?uug, miserably, 106. 

dyaTTao), to love; w. d., to ddeTicpoKTuvog, 6, murder- ai^Zov, ro, prize, 37. 

be contented with. er of a brother. ddvjueo, to be dispirited, 

ayyzXia, iq, message, 138. dJfAi^of, 6, brother. 107. 

ayyiX/M^ to announce. d^riXog 2, uncertain, 29. 'Ai^cjf, -o, b, Athos. 

ayyE7,og, b, messenger. ddjjg, -ov, 6, the lower aldCu, to groan [Char., 
aye, age, come now. world. § 105, 2]. 

ayelpo, to collect [Peif., aj£/c6w,todowi-ongto,109. Aic/cof, 6, Aeacns. 

§ 89, (b)]. GcJi/cia, ^7, injustice. aWeo/za^, to reverence, 109 

ayeli], tj, herd, 36. udiKog 2, unjust al66c, v, shame, 47. 

&yevvrjg, -eg, ignoble. aSoMcrxvC, -ov, b, prater. AlyvTrrog, tj, Eg^-pt. 

ayrjpug, -ov, not growing dSoXeaxia, prating, 22. ac^Tjp, tj, ether, 36. 

old, 31. advvaTEG), to be unable. al^pia, tj, pure air. 

ayKiarpov, to, "hook. ddvvaTog 2, impossible. alfia, -cTog, to, blood. 




alveo), to pndse [§ 98, (b), 
p. 111]. 

cif, -yog, 7], goat. 

ulpeTog 3, chosen, 56. 

alpeo), to take [§ 126, 1]. 

alpug to raise. 

aiad-dvo/iai, to perceive, 
100 [§ 121, (a), 1]. 

alaxpog 3, disgraceful. 

alaxp^Q, disgracefully. 

alaxvvo), to shame, 131. 

Alaov, -ovog, 6, Aesou. 

alreo) riva tl, to ask. 

klrvTj, 7], Aetna. 

alxfiaXuToc, captured. 

alipa, quickly. 

aluv, 6, age, 34. 

uKEOfiac, to heal [§ 98, (b)]. 

aKLvuKTjg, -ov, 6, a Per- 
sian sword. 

aKfia^o), to be at the prime. 

uKfiT^, point, 106. 

aKo2,d(jT0)g, adv., "with im- 
punity, 175. 

a.Ko2,ov&eG), to follow, lii. 

aKovcj, to hear [Pf., § 89, 
(b) ; Put. ciKovtrofcai ; 
Pass, with cr, § 95] . 

aKpa, 7], summit, 90. 

uKparfjg, -ig, immoderate, 

cLKparog, unmixed. 

aKpoaofiaL^to hear [§96, 3]. 

aKpoarfjg, -ov, 6, auditor. 

uKpoTToTiL-g, -eojg, i], citadel. 

UKpog 3, highest. 

aKTLg, -Ivog, r), beam, ray. 

aK(j)v, 'ovcra, -ov, unwilling. 

a2,a2.d^G}, to shout [§ 105, 

, 21; 

aTiaoo), to make blind. 

aXyEivog 3, painful. 

aXyecj, to feel pain. 

a?i,yog, -ovg, to, pain. 

a?[.ei^G), to anoint [Pf, 

^ § 89, (b)].^ 

okeKTpvdv, -ovog, 6, a cock. 

'A.7.£^av8pog, 6, Alexander. 
aKkE,id, to ward off [^ 125, 

a/le6), to grind [§ 98, (b), 

u7.7]^eLa, 7], truth. 
dIjj'&Evcj, to speak the 

u/i7]d-7jg, -eg, true. 
a7i7]-d-Lv6g 3,. true. 
aXTj'&cJg, truly, 163. 
a?af, enough. 
ciTilaKOfiac, to be taken 

[§ 122, 1]. 
ulKy, 7], strength. 
'A?iKi[3iddT]g, -ov, 6, Alci- 

ulKL^og 3, strong. 
d/./ld, but. 
D.ItjIuv, of one anotlier 

[§ 58]. 
a7Ji,o-&£v, from another 

dJsJkog, -7], -0, another, 

alius, 58. 
dTJiorpLog, another's, 158. 
aXkoTpLQg, adv., foreign. 
akodcd, to thresh [§ 96, 3]. 
a7iGog, -ovg, rd, grove. 
a\v7:og, without trouble, 

dTiuGLg, -ecog, ?), capture. 
u/xa, at the same time. 
djiapTavo), to eiT, 124 
^ [§121,2].^ 
dij,dpT7]fj,a, TO, eiTor, 40. 
dfiapTca, 7], offence, 122. 
djiavpoci), to darken, 107. 
dfiPpoala, 7], food of the 

uiieTisLa, 7], carelessness. 
ufj.e7i£0), to neglect. 
afivrj/uoveo), to be forget- 
ful of 
dfioLjS'^, exchange, 162. 
dfioLpog 2, without a share 


aurcEAog, ?/, vme. 
ufXTiEx^l-LaL, to put on, 135 

^ [§120,3]. 

dfivvo), to keep off, 130. 

afi(ptyvoeo), to be uncer- 
tain [Aug., § 91, 3]. 

djx6iivvv[iL,to clothe [§ 139, 

^ '(b),l; Aug., §91,3]. 

dfj.(l)iai37iT£cj, to dispute 
[Aug., § 91, 2]. 

afi(j)u, both [§ 68, Rem. 2]. 

ui', with Subj., instead of 
kdv, if. 

dvafSatvo), to go up. 

dvd[3a(7Lg, a going up, 72. 

uvayiyvcoaKG), to read. 

dvayKd^o), to compel. 

dvayKalog, necessary. 

dvdyKTj, necessity, 59. 

dva^evyvvfic, to yoke 
again, 171. 

uvaKalcd, to bum, 171. 

.dvaKpd^co, to cry out. 

dvaicvTrTO), to peep up, 49. 

dva7u(7K0}, to spend [§ 122. 

2]. ^ 
'Ava^aydpag, -ov, 6, Anax- 

agoras. [90. 

dvaTvavo), to cause to rest, 
dva7TEL-&u, to persuade. 
dvaTZETO^ai, to fly np, or 

dvaTi7\,£u, to sail upon the 

high sea; (2) to sail 

dvapTcd^o), to seize, 133. 
dvapxia, anarchy. 
uvaaTpscpG), to turn round. 
uvaTL'&rj[iL, to put up, 158. 
dvaTpETtcj, to turn up, 120. 
dvaxo)pso), to go back. 
dvdpaTTodiaTTjg, -ov, 6, 

dvdpdTTodov, to, slave. 
dvdpsta, 7], bravery. 
dv6pElog 3, brave, 31. 
dvdpEicjg, ttdv bravely. 



Kve'kev&epia, disgraceful 

avarice, 112. 
uvE?i,7n(jTog 2. unexpected. 
uve/xo^, 6, wind. 
uvepuTuo), to ask. 
avev, w. g., without. 
avevpicKO). to find. 
avix^liai, to endure [§91, 

, !^- 

ave^po, to boil up. 
av7jK0VGT£u, w. d., to be 

cv^p, 6, man [§ 36]. 
av&efiov, TO, a flower. 
avT^of, TO, a flower. 
av&puTZivog, human. 
av&pcoTttov, TO, man. 
avd-puTTO^, 6, man. 
Gvtcof 2, unequal. 
uviaTTjfii, to set up, 158. 
c;voiyvvfiL, uvoiyo, to open 
^ [H40, 5]. 

dvofiotog 2 and 3, unlike. 
avofioc 2, lawless. 
avoog, -oov, imprudent, 29. 
avop^oo), to raise up [§ 91, 

dvopvTTo), to dig up again. 
dvraX'XaTTO), to exchange. 
uvra^cog 3, w. g., of equal 

'AvTi/ovof, 6, Antigonus. 
civTidLKeo), to defend at 

law [§ 91, 4]. 
avri/leyt), to contradict. 
'AvTLa^ev7]g, -ovg, 6, An- 



site, 158. 

avvu^ complete [§ 94, 1]. 

uvu, above. 

avuyecjv, to, hall. 

ovw0e?u57f, -f'f) useless. 

d^ioloyog, worth mention- 
ing. 161. 

u^iog 3, w. g., worthy of, 

afi6(j,to think worthy,l 08. 
aoidij, song. 
aTzayopcvu, to call. 
uTra/w, to lead away, 
uTratdevToc 2, uneducated. 
uTra/Jt-uTTO), to set free 

uTravTucy, w. d., to meet. 
aTo^, once. 

aTTOf, altogether, 43 [§ 40, 
uTTeLfjiL, Inf. uTretvai, to be 

absent, 167. 
UTTetfLi, Inf. cnrcevat, to go 

arcEipog 2, w. g., unac- 
quainted with, 87. 
uTTEipcog, adv., inexperi- 
uTreTiavvo), to drive away, 

tnrepxofiai,, to go away. 
a.Trex'&civofiai, to be hated 
^ [§ 121, 3]. 
diTExoficii, w. g., to abstain 

from; from 
a7r£X(J, to keep off 5 {2j to 

be distant from. 
uTTT/vT}, 7], wagon. 
dTTLGTEu, to disbelieve. 
dizLGTog 2, unfaithful, 52. 
(i7r?i,6of 3, simple. 
aTTOJSacvG), to go away. 
d7roj37i£iro), to look upon. 
dirodELKvvfiL, to show, 160. 
anoSixofiat, to receive, 89. 
dTTodTjfiEu, to be from 

aTTodidpdaKu, to run away 

U7rodc6o)/j,i, to give back, 

InzoKokEu, to call back, 


uTTOKr/pvTTu, to causc to 

be proclaimed, 122. 
uKOKpcvofiai, to answer. 


uTTOKTeivcj, to kill. 

uTzo/Mvcj, w. g., to enjoy. 

uTTo/iAVfii, to ruin, 163. 

a7r6Ai;crif, deliverance, 109. 

'Atto/IAwv, -(jjior, 6, Apol- 

dTTOTTEcpaofiai, w. g., to try. 

uTTopecj, to be in want. 

uTTopog 2, difficult ; ev utto- 
poif elvai, to be in a 

diTof)f)£Cj, to flow from. 

d7ro/5/5o7, a flowing off. 

u7roai3£vvvfii, to quench. 

aTzoa-ao, to draw away. 

d-KOGTEllu, to send, 130. 

ciTroaTEpEO), to deprive ol 

u7roaTp£(l)Cj, to turn away 

dTtoTtT^rjfxi, to put away 
161. [135. 

aTTorivw, to compensate, 

dTTOTpETTo, to tum awav, 

aTT0(l>aLVG), to show, 131. 

drro^Evyc), w. a., to flee 

ciTToxpTi, it suffices [§ 135, 

, 3]- 

a7ro;i;p6;/zGi,tohave enough 

[§ 97, 3, (a)]. 
aTCTOjiai, to touch. 40. 
dTTud-EG), to push away, 

apa ; [inten'ogative, § 1 87]. 
dpa, igitiir, therefore. 
dpyvpEog, made of silver. 
dpyvptov, TO, silver. 
dpyvpog, 6, silver. 
dpEGK(D,to please [§ 122,3] 
dpETT], 7j, virtue. 
dp-&p6u, to articulate. 
dpL-&u6g, 6, number, 72. 



ApiareiSi^r, -ov, o, Aris- 

upiareva, to be the best, 

up KEG), to suffice ; Mid. vr. 

d. [§98,(b)]. 
upKTog, 6, /), a bear. 
ap/ia, -arog, to, chaiiot. 
dpfiOTTO), to fit [§ 105, 1]. 
apveofiat, Dep. Pass., to 

aporpov, TO, a plough. 
apoo), to plough [§ 98, (c) 

and § 89, (a)]. 
&pTrdf^G), to plunder. 
apTra^, rapacious. 
apTog, 6, bread. 
apvo), to draw water [§ 94, 


apxv, a beginning, 50 ; ttjv 

^PXV'^j from the begin- 

apxiTeKTov, -ovbg, 6, ar- 

apxa/xai, w. g., to begin. 

apxo), w. g., to rule, 44. 

aaepsia, rj, impiety. 

aaelSso), w. a., to sin against. 

aazkyzia, 7], excess. 

atT&heLa, ?), weakness. 

acr&eveo), to be weak. 

acr&evTjg, -eg, weak. 

aaKSG), to practise, 107. 

acTiig, -idog, 57, shield. 

aoTeyog 2, houseless. 122. 

uaTpaizi], i], lightning. 

aaTpuTTTO), to lighten. 

acTTV, TO, city [§ 46]. 

aavvEGia, rj, stupidity. 

uavvETog 2, stupid. 

aa(pa?L'^g, -sg, firai, 48. 

aauuaTog 2, bodiless, 130. 

dra/crcjf, adv., without or- 

aTT], infatuation, 142. 

arLfjiai^cd, to despise, 44. 

artfiia, rj, dishonor. 

arpenecocjadv., exactly.147. 
'Attikj], t], Attica. 
arvxEC^, to be unhappy. 
aTvxv/^(^} ■'"0, misfortune. 
uTi'xvCj -^Ci unfortunate. 
uTvxi-ct, Vi misfortune. 
avaivo), to dry [Aug., 

J87, 1].^ 
aif&ic, again. 
av7i6g, 6, flute. 
av^dvco, to increase [§ 121, 

av^jjatg, increase. 

avog 3, dry, 158. 

avptov, to-mon'ow. 

avTOfioJiog, 6, /deserter. 

avTovoj2ia,M freedom, 90. 

avT6vofj.Q&2, free. 

avTog, self [§ 60]. 

cKpatpEoiiai TLva tl, to de- 
prive of. 

a^avfjg, -ig, unknown, 46. 

d^-&ovia, absence of envy, 

u(p-&ovog 2, unenvious, 64. 

u6Lr]fj.L, to let go, 167. 

adtKveo/iai, to come [§ 120, 

d^LGTriiii, to put away, 158. 

'AippodtTij, r], Venus. 

uippcov, foolish. 

d(pv^g, -eg, without natu- 
ral talent. 

'Xxo-iog, 6, an Achaian. 

dxapicyTLa, ?), ingi^atitude. 

uXupcdTog 2,ungratefnl,44. 

ux'&oiiat, to be indignant 

dx'&og, -ovg, to, burden. 

'Axi-^7-£vg' -£(^g, 0, Achil- 

dxpv<^~^^ 2, useless. 


Ba/3D/L.cjv ia, i]. Babylonia. 
(Sd'&og, -ovg, to, depth. 
^ad-vg, -ela, -v, deep. 

(3aivu, to go, SI [§ 119, 1]. 

(3ii?J.u, to throw [§117, 2]. . 

l3ap(3apog, barbarian, 72. 

I3apvg,lil^a, -v, heavy, 57. 

(SauLAELa, 57, queen. 

(SaoLAELa, 77, royal author- 

(SaaiXeia, to,,- palace. 

^aai7[,ELog 2, royal. 

f3a(7L2,£vg, -Eug, 6, king. 

3a(7t?.Evo), to be a king, 4i» 

fSaaKah'O), to bewitch. 

(SaaTa^u, to carry [§ 105,3]. 

puTpaxog, 6, frog. 

jB^Elvypiia, 7], dislike, 171. 

fSsfSaiog 3 and 2, firm, 50. 

I37]fia, -GTog, to, step, 72. 

(Sia, 7j, violence. 

f3ia^6fiQi, w. a., to do vio- 
lence to. 

fStacog 3, violent. 

[3t,j3?iiov, TO, book. 

piog, 6, life, 28. 

I3lotevco, to live. 

fSloTog, livelihood, 120. 

pLoo), to live [§ 142, 9]. 

(SXa^Epog 3, injurious. 

jSldpT}, 7], injury. 

jSXaKetio), to be lazy. 

(SldiTTO), to injure [Perf., 

f3?LaaTdvo),to sprout [§ 121, 
5]. - 

jSltTTO, to look at, 63 [se- 
cond Aor. Pa«s., § 102, 
Eem. 1] 

^OTj-d-ELa, 7], help. 

(3o7]'&EC), w. d., to help, 175. 

I^OTj'&Tjfia, -cTog, TO, help. 

(3o7j-&6g, 6, helper. 

Bo^Pdg, -a, 6, Boreas. 

/36(7/c<y, to feed [§ 125, 3]. 

fSoTpvg, -vog, 6, cluster of 

j3ov2,EVfia, advice, 138. 

fSov'Xevo}, to advise ; Mid., 
tc Rdvise one's self 



j8a;A^, ij, advice, 28. 
3ov?iOfj,ac, to wish, 

0ov^, 6, i], ox. 
Bpadvg, -eta, -v, slow. 
Bpaxvg, -eca, -v, short. 
(3povraa), to thunder. 
(Spovrrj, 7/, thunder. 
^poTog 3, mortal. 
Ppu)fj.a, -arog, to, food. 
Ppuacg, -Eijg, tj, eating. 

■y?]pu(7Koj, yrjpao), to grow 
44 old [§ 122, 4]. 

jiyag, -avrog, 6, giant. 
^jyyiyvofcac, to become, 22 

[§123]. ^y/ 

■yiyvcjaico), to know, 34 

[§ 122, 5, and § 142]. 
■y?Mi<^, -nog, i], owl. 
ylvKvg, -ela, -v, sweet. 
yliJTTa, 7], tongue, 23. 
yv6/i7j, 7], opinion. 

Pvveo), to stop up, [§ 120, yovevg, 6, parent. 

I]. [120. yovv, -arog, to, knee. 

(Svaao'dev, from the depth, Topyu, -ovg, tj, Gorgo. 

ypdfiita, TO, letter, 63. 
ypavg, 7j, old woman [§41]. 
ypacpo), to write, 16. 
Tpv?i/iog, 6, Gryllus. 
yvta, 7], jSeld. 

(Stjfiog, 6, altar. 


TdXa, TO, milk [§ 39]. 

yafitTT], 7], wife. 

yafiecj, to many [§ 124, 1]. yvfcvu^u, to exercise. 

yaftog, 6, marriage. yv/xvog 3, naked. 

Vavv[ji7]$7}g, -eog, 6, Gany- yvvacKelog, belonging to 

mede. women, 88. 

yap, for (stands after the 7wakfOi^,r6, little woman. 

first word of the sen- yvvrj, y, woman [§ 47, 2]. 

yaoTTjp, 7], belly. '* A. 

7avp6(j,tomakeproud,110. ^.aldalog, 6, Daedalus. 

ye, at least, 135. Sacfxoviov, to, deity. 

yeLTuv, -ovog, 6, neighbor, daifj-ov^ -ovog, 6, ?;, divinity. 

yeXdo), to laugh [§ 98, (a)], daiof^ac, to distribute. 

yeXug, -uTog, 6, laughter. SaKvo, to bite [§ 119]. 

ye/xo), w. g., to be full. SaKpvov, to, a tear. 

yevetng, -eug, i], origin. SaKpvo), to weep. 

yevvalog, of noble birth, doKTvltog, 6, ring. 

138. daKTvTiog, 6, finger. 

yevvaiug, nobly, 87. ^afj-d^u, -do, to tame 
7c/5af, ro, reward, 41 [§ 39, [§117,2]. 

Eem.]. davei^u, to lend. 

/epcjv, -ovTog, 6, old man. 6apd^dvo),io sleep [§121,6]. 

}evG), to cause to taste, 90. 6i, but (stands after the 
ysojueTp7g, -ov, 6, geoi:ae- first word of the sen- 

ter. tence). 

yv, V} the earth. 6f:r,aig, -eog, ?), entreaty. 

777T?£6j, to rejoice [§124, 2]. dec, it is necessary, 107 
yvpag, TO, old age [§ 39, [§ 125, 5]. 

Rem.]. SecSu, to fcai' [Peif. di- 

dotica and d^:6ia ; Aor 

SdicvvfiL, show [§ 133]. 
5ei7.7], y, evening. 
6£L7,6g, timid, 32. 
dcLvog, fearful, 87. 
6eLvCjg, terribly, 100. 
dsKcig, decad, 141. 
deXipig, -Ivog, o, dolphin. 
devSpov, TO, tree. 
deofzai, w. g., to want 

[§ 125, 5]. 
Seov, to, duty, 167. 
depKOjxai, to see [Peif. oe- 

dopKa, § 102, 4]. 
depu, to flay [Perf., § 102, 

4; sec-ond Aor. Pass., 


diarcoLva, 7], mistress of 
the house. 

deanoTTig, -ov, 6, master 

devpo, hither. 

dixo/Liat, Dep. Mid., to re- 

dsox, to want, 107 [§125, 
5] ; (2) to bind [§ 98, 
(b) ; contracted, § 97, 2]. 

d^'&ev, nsimelj, scilicet, 167. 

dvXog 3, evident. [no. 

dTjXocj, to make evident, 

^niiriTTip, -Tpog, 7], Deme- 
ter or Ceres. [91. 

dijfioKpaTca, 7}, democracy, 

6f][iog, b, people, 36. 

Ai]fiO(rd-evTjg, -ovg, 6, De- 

dTJTa, certainly. 

6Lapo7i7]^ 7], calumny. 

diayiyvo/, to live. 

dtdycj, to carry through, 
live. [tend. 

dtaycdvi^ofiai, w.d., to con- 

dtd67]fia, TO, diadem, 159. 

dtaipio), to di'sdde. 

SiaiTa, i], mode of life. 

diatTuo, to feed [Aug., 
§ 91, 2]. 



SiaKSifiac, to be in a state, 
to be disjDosed. 

diaKovtu, to serve [Aug., 

6ia?iVL), to dissolve, 88. 

dtafxeilSof^at, to exchange. 

dca/Ltsvu, to remain. 

Scavi/j.0), to distribute. 

diaTrpdrro), to effect. 

diap^TjyvviJLi, to break a- 
sunder, 172. 

dcadTreipo), to scatter, 131. 

dLaruTTCi, to order, 122. 

dear eAecd, to complete, 161. 

SiaTLTd-Tj/u, to put in or- 
der, 161. 

ocarpo^/j, j), nomishment. 

Staip^po), to differ from, 63. 

6ta(p-&etpo}, to destroy, 63. 

6ia<popa, ?;, difference, 159. 

diacpopo^ 2, different. 

diSaKTog 3, taught. 

di,daaKa7i.og, 6, teacher. 

dcddaKo), to teach. 

dcdpaaKG), to run away 
^ [§ 122, 6]. 

diSufit, give [§ 133]. 

(5ie?t,£7;^cj, to censure, to 
make ashamed, con- 

6L&vpajbLj3og, 6, song. 

ddarijfii, to separate, 158. 

StKa^o), to judge. 

diKaiog 3, just. 

dcKaLoavvrj, ij, justice. 

SiKaiug, justly, 160. 

6iKaoTf]g, -oil, 6, judge. 

SiKT], 7j, justice, 22. 

AcoyevTjg, -ovg, 6, Dioge- 

AcoSupog, 6, Diodorus. 

Atovvaog, 6, Bacchus. 

dtoTi, because. 

dig, bis, twice. 

6Lxa, w. g., apart from. 

6cxd/j.v-&or, double-speak- 
ing, 122. 

dixoGTaaia, i], quarrel. 
dcipdcj, to thirst [contract- 

ed, § 97, 3, (a)]. 
■dlipog, -ovg, rb, thirst. • 
Sluko), to pursue, 16. 
d/jLug, -uug, 6, slave- 
doK£0), to think, 138 [§ 124, 


doloo), to deceive, 108. 

66§a, fj, report, 23. 

dopv, TO, spear [§ 39]. 

dopvcpopio), w. a., to attend 
as a life-guard. 

SovXeca, tj, servitude. 

6ov?ievco, to be a slave, 37. 

6ov?.og, 6, slave. 

dovTioo), to enslave. 

ApaKCJv, -ovTog, 6, Draco. 

dpaTTsrevo), w. a., to run 

Spdu, to do, act. 

ing, 72. 

Spofiog, 6, running, 100. 

6vvajj.aL, to be able, 161 
[§135]. . 

SvvafXLg, i], power, 100. 

dvvarog 3, possible, pow- 

(5{if«:oAof,hard to please,41. 

dv(7T7]vog 2, unfortunate. 

dvgrvxecj, to be unfortu- 

dvgx^palvG), to be dis- 
pleased with. 

ocbfia, -arog, to, house. 

dibpov, TO, gift. 


''Eav, w- subj., if. 
eap, eapog, to, spring. 
hapivog 3, belonging to 

mw, to permit, 112 [§96, 

3; Aug., §87, 3]. 
EyjiCio, w. d.,to come near. 
h}jv-&ev, from near, near. 

eyyvg, near. 

eydpo), to awaken, 39 [§ 89, 

kyKa?\,?iCOTci,Cofiat, to be 
proud of, 172. 

£yK/\,T]ij,a, TO, accusation. 


h/KpaT7]g,-£g, continent,57 

kyKcofitov, TO, eulogy. 

eyx^Xvg, -vog, ?), eel. 

EyXo}p£l, it is possible, al- 

kyx^pi-og 2, native, 89. 

ei?eAw, to wish, 107 [§ 125, 

, ^^" 

i:-&l^o), to accustom [Aug. 

, § 87, 3]. 

E'&vogi -ovg, to, nation, 56. 

ed-og, -ovg, to, custom, 53. 

el, if; in a question, whe- 

eldog, -ovg, to, form, 48. 

'EIAO, see opdcj. 

El-&e, w. opt., that. 

eluu^u, to liken [Aug., 
§ 86, Eem.]. 

dK7), inconsiderately, 160, 

ehog £gtl{v), it is right. 

eIkotoc, adv-, naturally. 

'EIKG, see eoma. 

SLKG), to yield to, 22. 

ehuv, -ovog, ?), statue. 

eI?.ov, see alpeco. 

eDm, to press, 143 [§ 125, 

elfj-t, to be [§ 137]. 
elfii, to go [§ 137]. 
'Eini2, see ^?7//f. 
EipyvvfLC, to shut in [§ 140, 

elpyo), w. g., to shut out. 
'EIPOMAI, to inqmre 
^ [§ 125, 8]. 
Ecaa, to establish [Aug., 

§ 87, 3]. 
EigBdTJM, to throw into; 
(2) intrans., to fall into 



elcEifzi., to go into, 167. 
eigtjd^EO), to push in, 142. 
elra, then. 

elre — elre, whether — or. 
ecu'&a, see e-&c^o). 
EKug^ w. g., far. 
iKaarog, -tj, -ov, each. 
kKJSaivu, to go out, 135. 
kK^dXXu, to throw out. 
eKyovog, 6, tj, descendant. 
EKdvu TLva Ti, to strip off. 
kKEtvog, -7/, -0, that, he. 
eKicaco), to bui*n out. 
eKKaXvirro), to disclose. 
kKKXijaca, i], assembly. 
iKK2,7](7Ld^(j, to hold an as- 
EK'kELipLg (//) i/Tiiov, eclipse 

of the sun. 
knviio, to swim out. 
iKirefiTTO), to send out. 
kKiTETo/xac, to fly away. 
kKTTLVu, to drink up, 136. 
ekttIeo), to sail out. 
iKTrXfjTTG), to amaze ; Mid. 

Aor., to be amazed. 
^KTTujia, -arog, to, drink- 

kKTog, w. g., without. 
•E/crwp, -cpog, 6, Hector. 
kK^aivo), to make known, 

tK^Epci, to bring forth, 32. 
iKtpEvyo), w. a., to flee 

from, escape. 
iKuv, -ovaa, -6v, willing. 
e?[,a(pog, J7, stag. 
c/i,avvu, to drive [§119, 2]. 
E'Aealpu, w. a., to pity. 
tAByx(^, to examine, M5 

[Pcrf, § 89, (a)]. 
tAecf,), Ay. a., to pity. 
'EAty?;, ^, Helen, 
kAEvd-epla, ?), freedom. 
kXEVT&Epog, free, 59. 
iXcv&Epocj, to make free. 
EAET90, see Epxo/xac. 

l7\,E^ag, b, elephant, 43. 
k'Xlaao), to wind [Aug., 

§ 87, 3 : Perf. Mid. or 
♦ Pass. h7\Jri'Kiyiiai and e'L- 

7^iy[iai, § 89 J. 
^/l/cof, ro, a sore, 112. 
'EAKTfi and eIku, to 

draw [Put. tvifw ; Aor. 

El7\.KV(ya, kXKvaai ; Aor. 

Pass. ElXKva'&rjv ; Perf 

Mid. or Pass. eUkvc- 

[lai ; Aug., § 87, 3]. 
'E2,Aaf, -ddog, i], Hellas, 

"'EXXriv, -r]vog, 6, a Greek. 
'EX?i7jvcg, -idog, ??, Grecian. 
'EXlriaTTovTog, 6, the Hel- 
^TifiLvg, -tv&og, rj, worm. 
kliri^ci, to hope, 88. 
klirig, -idog, tj, hope. 
elirojiaL, to hope [Perf, 

§ 87, 5]. 
'EAQ, see alpeu. 
E?iudT]g, -udsg, marshy. 
Efji.(5dXl(j), to throw in • (2) 

intrans., to fall 'p. or 

EfjclipoxKo), to ensnare, 167. 
kiMEu, to vomit [§ 98, (b)]. 
EfzfiEvo), to remain with, 

E/XTTEdog, fii-m, 159. 
EfZTTEipog 2, w. g., expe- 
rienced in. 

£fimTT?i7J/Lit, to fill. 

EfiKCTipTjfzi, to set on fire, 

EjHTTiTrroy, to fall into. 

EfiTTTvo), to spit into or on. 

tix(pEpf]g, -eg, w. d., simi- 
lar to. 

EficpvTEVio, to implant. 

Eii(j)VTog 2, implanted. 

EfKpvo), to implant.,to oppose.l 10. 

hdvTLog 3, opposite. 

tvavjfj, to kindle [Pass. 

with 0-, ^ 95]. 
EvdcLa, Tj, want. 
hdEucvv/M, to show, 163. 
ivcJycj, to put on, 88. 
svEyEipu, to awaken. 
£VE(^p£vo), w. a., to lie in 

wait for. 
'ENEKQ, see (pipu. 
Evexo), to have, hold. 
Ev-da, there. 
ei-i^aJf, hither. 
Ev&Ev, whence. 
£v&v/x£ofmt, Dep.Pass., to 

ivcavTog, 6, year. 
evtoc 3, some. 
EVioTE, sometimes. 
EvlarTjfic, to put into, 158. 
Evvarog 3, ninth. 
Evvv/Lti, see d/Kpuvvvfii. 
EvoxMoi, w. d., to molest 

[Aug., § 91, 1]. 
Evrav-Q-a, here. 
tvreAAw, -o^ai, to com- 
mission, 131. 
EVTEV'&Ev, hence; rd ev- 

TEV-&EV, thereupon. 
hrid-Tj/Lii, to put in, 159. 
EVTlfiog 2, honored. 
Evrog, w. g., within. 
EVTpiiptg, -Eog, i], cosmetic 
EVTvyxdvo, w. d., to fall 

in with. 
EVV7TVC0V, TO, drcam. 
E^ai^vrjg, suddenly. 
E^aXEi^o), to wipe off, 120. 
E^afiapTavo), to err greatly. 
k^a/navpno), to obscure ut- 
E^aTraTaa, to deceive com- 
pletely, 106. 
k^amvTjg, suddenly. 
E^Eifii, E^EaTi, licet, it is 
lawful, in one's power. 
E^ELfii, egtEvat, to go out 
cfe?7rov{Aor.),to utter,! 47 



e^e/iavvu, to drive out; 

(2) to lead out. 
k^eru^o), to examine. 
i^evpicTKO}, to find out. 
i^^g, in order. 
e^LTjju, to send out, 167. 
k^iaoG), to make equal. 
k^oKsTiAo), to mislead, 130. 
^^oTilvfiL, to ruin utterly. 
£^opd-6o), to make straight, 

1.58. [160. 

h^opKEG), to cariise to swear, 
loLKu, to be like [§ 87, 5]. 
eo7i.'iTa, see D.-KOjxaL. 
eopya, see 'EPPO. 
iopr d^o), to celebrate a 

feast [Aug., § 87, 5]. 
inayjEXTiO), to announce; 

Mid. to promise. 
kTTuyo), to bring on. 
eiratvEO), to praise, 107. 
iTvatvog, 6, praise. 
iTTairLuofiaL, to accuse. 
'^TvauivuvSag, -ov, 6, 

kirdv {'eTrrjv), w. subj., if. 
iTravdyo), to lead back. 
kTTavuKeifiac, to lie upon. 
eTzava<pepo), to bring back, 

ETrapKeu, w. d., to help. 
iirei, when, since. 
kTrecddv, w. subj., when. 
kizEcdTj, since, because. 
l-rcELTa, then, 167. 
kTrepxo/J-at, to come to. 
e7nj3o7j-&£(i}, w. d., to come 

to the assistance of. 
^7rf/3ot;/ie'i)«,to plot against. 
eTn(3ovX}], rj, plot. 
^TTt Jet/cvu/zi, to show boast- 
fully, 163. 
kraSiuKo, to pursue. 
iTTf&vju.ECj, to desire, 108. 
kTndvfiia, T], desire. 
ETTiKLvdwog 2, dangerous, 
imKov(l>i^o), to alleviate. 

iTTcTiav'&, to forget. 

einfi£2,eta, i], care. 

eTTi/zePuo/zai, -ovjuac, to care 
for, 25 [§ 124, 17]. 

ETtcvoEO), to think of. 

ETZiopKEu, to swear falsely, 

ETiiopuQg, b, peijured. 

eTnTTLTTTO), to fall upon. 

tmaKOTCEu, to look upon. 

Erriarafiat,, to know, 161 
[§ 135, p. 165]. 

EiTiGTETiTiCd, to command. 

eTitcr7jfj.ri, ?], knowledge. 

k7iLCFT7]fZG)v 2, w. g., ac- 
quainted with. 

£7rcaTO?i,7j, 7j, epistle. 


£7r cteMu, to accomplish. 

ETTiTTJdeiog, fit, 145. 

ETTCTi^devo), to manage, 90. 

sTriTiTS-Tific^to putupon,161. 

eTnTpsTTO), to entrust to ; 
(2) to permit. 

ETnrpoTTEvo), w. a., to be 

eTTi^t'pcj, to bring upon, 91. 

E'KLX£i-pe<^, w. d., to put the 
hand to something. 

ETztx^ptog 3, of or belong- 
ing to, the country. 

ETTOfCaL. Comp. ETTO). 

ETTOfxvvuL, to swear by. 
ETTog, -ovg, TO, word. 
ETrorpvvo), to urge on. 
^TTw, to be busily engaged 
in, occurs in prose in 

comp. [TTEpiETTU, dLETTO), 

etc.) [Aug.,§87,3;Aor. 
Act. EdTTov not used in 
Att. prose] ; Mid. etto- 
fiat,, to follow [Impf. 
ElTTOfiTjv ; Fut. Eipofiat ; 
Aor. tarrofiTjv, £0eo-7r6- 
fX7]v ; Inf. GTTEod-aL ; 


Epafiai^toloYQ [§135,p.l65] 

EpaaTTJg^ 6, lover, 25. 

'Eparw, -ovg, tj, Erato. 

epao), to love [§135, p. 165]. 

kpydCofiaL, to work [Aug^ 
§ 87, 3]. 

hpyaGTTjpLov, rb, work- 

EpywiLti, see Etpyvvfti. 

Epyov, rb, work, 27. 

'EPPQ, to do [Perf , § 87 

EpSo), to do. 

EpEiSo), to pi*op [Perf.. 

^ § 89, (b)]. 

kpc^o), to contend with. 

Epcg, -idog, tj, contention, 

'Ep/x7/g, -ov, b, Hermes, 

epnv^o), Eprro), to creep 

[Aug., § 87, 3]. 
£p/!)0), to go away [§ 125, 

£p^up,£vog, strong. 
£^^cj/j.£vo)g, strongly.. 
Epvfia, -arog, rb, defence. 
epxofiac, to go, come 

epug, -coTog, 6, love. 
IpuTUG), to ask. 
EG^LG), to eat, 16 [§ 126, 3]. 
EGd-lbg 3, noble, 23. 
EGTTspa, 7], evening. 
EgrE, until. 
EGTLau, to entertain [Aug., 

§ 87, 3]. 
EGXCiTog, last, 88. 
tTolpog, 6, companion, 27. 
ETEpog 3, the other ja/fer, 87. 
ETL, besides, 124. 
krolpog 3, ready. 
krotfiug, adv., readily. 
ETog, -ovg, rb, year. 
ev, well, Ev TvpaTTo), to do 

well to. 



EviSoia, ^, Euboea. evxo-pLr, attractive. rj-yeuuv, -ovor, o, leader. 

ev8ov?i.oc, consulting well, £i';i;apt(Trof 2, winning. yyio/xat, to lead, 133. 

147. £vxVj V, request, 107. Tjdecjc, adv., pleasantly, 16. 

evyevTjg, of high birth, 141. ' evxofiat, w. d., to pray, 31. fjdTj, already. 
evSai/iovEU), to be fortu- t(pTji3or, 6, a youth. ridojmt, to rejoice. 

nate, 136. kcpiyfii, to send up to, 167. r/dovrj, y, pleasure. 

sidacfzovL^o), to account e0i/<:veo//ai,to arrive at,136. r/dv^, -da, -v, svfeet 

happy. efodiov, to, travelling ^i?of, -ovf, ro, custom, 110. 

evdatfiovug, fortunately. money. [tes. T^Kiara, least of alL 

evSaifxuv, -ovog, fortunate. 'Ev(ppaT7jg, -ov, 6, Euphra- yKu, I am come. 
evScog 2, serene. ex^acpu, w. a., to hate. riTiuda, rj, age, 106. 

fU(Jo««^ea>,to be celebrated, ex'&avofiac, see urrex'd'ct.- ^/Ikof 3, as great as. 
evScd, see KaTd-evSu. vofiat. ii]Xiog, o, sun. 

eve^la, rj, good condition. e;t^pof 3, hostile, 27, 58. ■>]iiai, to sit [§ 141, (b)]. 
evepyeaia, i], beneficence, exvoo^, firm. f-,^' • - ^j"^P°j ^/» day. 

138. _^/ei^^6^rona^ ; w. adv.,*Y6 4^%epo(5/j6,aof, 6,courier,108. 

evepyeria, to benefit, lOfe. w. inf., to be able [§ 125', 7]/j,i-&eog, 6, demigod. 
eveGTu, 7}, prosperity, 47."^ 11]. - ■^i'» w. subj., if. 

ei'T?wcj,tomakestraight,23 It/^w, to boil [§ 125, 12]. ^vka, when. 
eid-vg, adv., immediately, eug, as long as. 
evKleta, ij, fame. ?wf, -w, ?}, morning. 

evKoTiuC, adv., quickly. 
e{), T], good order,24. Z. 

£v?i,a(3eofiaL, w. a., Dep. Zao, to live [Con., § 97, 

Pass., to be cautious. 3, (a)]. Comp. fScou. 

ei)(iev7]g, -ic, well-disposed, ^ivvvfit, (^eu, to boil [§ 139, 7j(jvxaC(^, to be quiet, still. 
eii;Wop^ia,57, beauty of foma. (b), 2]. rjavxia, 7j, stillness, 24. 

svvofita, 7], good adminis- ^evyvvfic, to yoke, 172 ^avxog 2, quiet. 

tration. [§ 140, 3]. ^rra, i], defeat. 

etJvoof 2, well-disposed, 29. T^evg, 6 [§ 47, 3], Zeus or TjTrdofiai, w. g., to be de 
evnerug, adv., easily. Jupiter. feated, inferior to. 

evTcopog, w. g., abounding ^rjT^oo), to strive after, 108. 

in. [des. C??,«'«? V^ injury- 

'Evptmdrjg, -ovg, 6, Euripi- ^tj/uioo, to punish. 
eipiaKCj, to find [§ 122, 7]- ^tjteu, to seek, 108. 
eipog, -Gvg, to, breadth. ^cjt}, ^, life. 

ijvioxog, 6, guide, 158. 
■^TTLog 3, mild. 
"Hpa, if, Hera or Juno. 
'Hpa/cA^f, -iovg, 6, Her 

^pcjg, -uog, 6, hero. 


QaXaTTa, i], sea. 
■&dXia, 7], feast. 
iJaA^w, to bloom, 34. 

eipvg, -ela, -v, broad. 

eiaefSeo), w. a., to rever- 

ebae^fjg, -eg, pious. 

eijTaKTog 2, well-ordered. 

ebTvxscj, to be fortunate, 

evTvxvc, -ig, fortunate. 

evTvxta, 7], good fortune. 

eij0patvo), to rejoice, 28. 

ei^6poavvr], r/, mirth. 

^uvvvfti, to gird [§ 139, ■&a?.7rog, -ovg, to, heat. 

(c), 1]. 
^C)ov, TO, animal, 58. 



'H, or ; 7j — 7j, aut 

^, where. 

i]f3a(JK0), 7jf3acj, to come to 

manhood [§ 122, 8]. 
7jj37f, 7], youth. [way. 

:^7e/ioi'£t'o, to point out the ■O-av/xaaTog 3, wonderfal 


■&dvaTog, 6, death. 

d-aTTTO), to buiy. [106. 

■d-a^)^a/Jcjc, adv., boldly, 

■d-a^pico, to be of good 
courage; i^-. Ttvd, to 
have confidence in; i^. 
Ti, to endure something. 

■&av/x^^o, w. g., to won- 
der, 16. 



■Qeaoiiai, Dep. Mid., to see. 
'^Edrrjg, -ov, 6, spectator. 
■&elov, TO, deity. 
-d-elo^ 3, godlike. 
•Qelyoi, to charm, 122. 
iJeT-w, to wish, 107 [§ 125, 


■d-eneXiov, to, foundation. 

0efiL(7T0K?i?jg, -Eovg, 6, 

■&e6^, 6, God. 

■d-EpaTvaiva, ^, female ser- 

■dspansLa, r/, care. 

^spaTzevo, to honor, 22. 

^epdiTQv, -ovTog, 6, ser- 

^ipoc, -ovg, TO, summer. 

rHcjy to run [Fut., § 116, 
3; Con., §97, 1]. The 
other tenses from rpe- 
X('>, which see. 

OTJpai, al, Thebes. 

^ijp, -Of, 6, wild beast. 

i&7jpEVT7ig,-ov, 6, huntsman. 

•d-TjpEvo), to hunt, 31. 

'&7jpiov, TO, wild beast. 

•&7jaavp6g, 6, treasure- 

QrjaEvg, -Eug, 6, Theseus. 

id-fyyavo), to touch [§ 121, 

T^Aaw, to bruise [§ 98, (a)]. 

■&vriaKu, to die [§ 122, 9]. 

■&vrjT6g 3, mortal. 

^6pv(3og, 6, tumult. 

"^pavcd, to break, 100 
[§ 95, Rem. 1]. 

•d-pi^, Tpcxor, 7), hair. 

•&p6voq, 6, throne, 145. 

^pcJcTKu, to leap. 

•&vyaT7jp, -poQ, V, daughter. 

'&v}i6g, b, mind, 28. 

■d-vpa, T], door. 

-d-vpaog, 6, a thyrsus, 159. 

"^vaia, Tj, sacrifice. 

^vci, to sacrifice [§ 94, 2]. 

■&UQ, i?wof, 6, 7], jackall. 

■&oTrEvo) and ■&cj7rTu, w. a., Icxvpog 3, strong, 
to flatter. If^X'^^i to ^^ strong, 50 

laug, perhaps. 
I. iX'^^og, -ovg, to, track. 

'lao^aijDep.Mid.jtoheal. Ix'^'^Ct -"^^g, 6, fish. 

laTpLKT], 7], medicine. 
laTpog, 6, physician. 
'IjSrjpia, 7], Spain. 
idsa, 7j, appearance, 106. 
Idiog 3, own, peculiar. 
c6to)T7]g, -ov, 6, private 
man; (2) layman. 

'IQ, see elizi, to go. 

Kad-acpu, to purify, 130. 
na'&e^,, to sit dowa 
[Aug., §91,3; Fut. /ca- 
■dE6ov/iiat]. [10]« 

icJpiiw, to build, 90 [§ 94,1]. Kad-£v6to, to sleep [§ 125, 
Idpug, -uTog, 6, sweat. KCfd-rjiJiat, to sit [Aug., 

hpEvg, -£0)g, o, priest. 
lepov, TO, victim. 
lepog 3, w. g., sacred to. 
c^o), see Ka'&l^co. 
iTjfiL, to send [§ 136]. 
'f&vvu, to set right, 52. 
Uavog 3, sufiicient, able. 
'iKupog, 6, Icams. 

§ 91, 3]. 
KG'&c^o), to set [§ 125, 13] 
Ka-d-LTjfXL, to let down, 167. 
Ka-&iaT7]fic,to estabnsh,158. 
aai, and, even ; kuc — Kai, 

both — and (et — et),38. 
Katvog 3, new. 
KaipLog, opportune, 112. 

iKETEvu, to supplicate, 88. nacpog, the right time, 58- 

LKETfjc, -ov, 6, suppliant. Kaico, to burn [§ 116, 2]. 

iKVEO/iat, see u<ptKveojuaL. KaKta, ?), vice. 

IXaGKOfiac, to propitiate KaKovoog 2, ill-disposed. 

[§ 122, 10]. KUKog 3, bad, wicked. 

L?iEug, -uv, merciful. /ca/c6r?7f, 77, wickedness. 39. 

'lAmf , -dof, ^5 the Hiad, 53. KCKovpyEco, w. a., to do 
IfiaTLov, TO, gannent. evil to one. 

IfiEipc), to desire. KaKovpyog, 6, evil-doer. 

tva, that; (2) in order /ca/cow, to treat ill, hurt. 

that. KGKug, adv., badly. 

'IvdiKTJ, T], India. [dia. mXa/Mog, 6, reed. 

'Iv(5o4,oi, inhabitants of In- Kokiu, to call, name [§ 98, 
lov, TO, violet. (b) ; Opt. Plup. Mid. or 

iTTTTEvg, -Ecjg, 6, horseman. Pass., § 116, 4]. 

iTTTrevo), to ride. KalXiag, -ov, 6, Callias. 

iTTTTog, 6, horse. KuXXog, -ovg, to, beauty. 

laog 3, equal, 49. Ka2,0Kdya-&ca, ^, rectitude, 
fcrr57//i,toplace,158 [§133]. 145. 

LGTopEu TLvd TL, to in- Kokog 3, beautiful, 27. 

quire of. KaXvirTu, to conceal. 

taTopLoypddog, 6, historian. naTilbg, adv., well. 

loTog, 6, loom. Kanr]%og, 6, tj, camel. 

laxvaivo), to make emacia- KUfivu, to labor (intrans.), 

ted [§ 111, Rem. 2]. 130 [§ 119]. 


Kuv, even if, 107. Kevrpov, to, sting, 159. /cP.wY'. -tJ^rof, ^, thief. 

Kuveov, TO, basket. Ktpafiog, 6, clay. Kvao, to scrape [Cont., 

Kcnrpoc, 6, wild boar. Kepdvvvfii, to mix [§ 139, § 97, 3]. 

'^°P^''°' ^, heart. (a), 1]. Koi^w, to squeak [Char., 

KapTToofzai, to enjoy the KepSacvo, to gain, 130 § 105, 2]. 

fruits of. [§111, Aor. II; Perf. KocXaivo), to hollow out 

Kapiro^, 6. fruit. KeKepdaKu]. [§111, Rem. 2]. 

(iupra, very. Kepdof, -ovf, ro, gaih. Kotvor, common, 131 ; rd 

.\aprepea), to be patient. Kev&fxuv, -uvoc, 6, lair. kolvov, commonwealth- 

KapTepog 3, strong, 167. kev'&o), to conceal. Koivovla, r/, communion, 

KduTup, -opog, 6, Castor. Ke(l>akr], rj, head. 108. 

KaTa^antq, tj, reti'eat, 72. Ksxpvi^^vog, vsranting, 120. Koipavor, b, ruler. 
KaTaye7MQ, w. g., to laugh Kijirog, 6, garden. ko/m^o), to punish. 

at. [sleep, 138, Krjp, KTjpog, to, heart. Ko7^aKda, tj, flattery. 

KaTadapd-dvo), to fall a- Kt]p6g, 6, wax. Ko/iaKevu, w. a., to flatter. 

KUTadvo), to go down, 88. Kjjpv^, -vKog, 6, herald. Kola^, -aKog, 6, flatterer. 
KaTaKato), to bum down. nrjpvTTu, to make known KoAaoTriq, -ov, 6, punisher 
KaTaK?Mia, to bewail. (by a herald). koTlovoj, to curtail [Pass. 

KUTaKleiu, to shut, 90. Ki-&dpa, r/, lyre. with a, § 95]. 

KaTaKpvTTTO), to hide. KtTi^cKca, tj, Cilicia. /c6;i7ror, 6, bosom, 133. 

naTaMfiTTO), shine upon. KivSvvevo), to incur dan- KOfju^o, to brino-. 
KaTaXeiTTO), to leave be- ger, 88. /cottto, to cut, 120. 

hind, 120. Ktvdvvog, 6, danger. Kopa^, -aicog, 6, crow. 

KaTalvo), to loosen, 88. Kig, Ktog, 6, corn-worm. /copn-'ia'//^, to satisfy [§139, 
KaTavsnG), to distribute. klgti], t), chest. (b), 3]. 

«cra7ra{icj, to put a stop to. Kirrof, 6, ivy. Kopiv^cog, 6, Corinthian. 

KaTaireTpoo}, to stone to fcf^pTZ/^t, to lend [§ 135, 1]. Kopuf, -r;i?o£-, ;7, helmet. 

death. [122. kIcc^g), to sound [§ 105, 4 ; Koafiso), to adorn. 

KaTaTTA-^TTO), to astonish, Put. Perf /ce/c Aayfw and Koa/zof, 6, ornament, 51. 
KaTaaKEvd^G), to prepare. -yf o/zai] . Kovdog 3, light, 39. 

A:ararii3^?7/zi, to lay down, /cAaiw, to weep, 133 [§ 125, /cpa^w, to ciy out, 122 
161. ^ [122. 14]. [§ 105, 2 ; Put. KSKpd- 

KaTacpleyo), to burn down, k?mo), to break [§ 98, (a)]. ^ofiat]. 
KaTadpoveo), to despise. K?.ecg, t], key [§ 47, 5]. Kpdvoc, -ovg, to, helmet 
KaTa<pvyrj, i], refuge. K?L£iw, -oiif, i], Clio. icpareo), w. g., to have 

fcaTepyd^ofiai, to accom- /cAciw, to shut, 28 [Pass. power over, 107. 

P^sh. with (7, § 95, Rem. 1]. Arpar^p, -^pof,mixing bowl 

KaTexo), to restrain, 23. Kleog, -ovg, to, fame, 48. KpdTog, -ovg, to, strength 
KaT7]Yopog, b, accuser. KM-KTrjg, -ov, 6, thief Kpavyfj, ?;, shout, 167. 

KuToitTpov, TO, mirror. KleTTTcd, to steal [Put. kH- Kpeag, to, flesh, 41 [§ 39, 
KdTu, below. ipofiuL ; second Aor. Rem.]. 

Kavfia, -uTog, to, heat. Pass. hK7M7Z7tv ; Perf, Kpsfzafiac and Kpe/Lcdvvv/ni, 

Kdu, see /ca^w. § 102, 5]. to hang [§ 139, (a), 2]. 

/CEijUai, to lie down [§ 141, AcXivcj, to bend [§111, 6]. Kpivu, to judge, 48 [§ 111, 
(a)]. K?.0TrT/, rj, theft. 6]. [sa, 

Ke;i£i;«, to order, bid [§ 95] . Kl6m/xog, thievish, 1 22. Kpiaatog, belonging to Cri- 
KeXTiSripEg, Celtiberians. KT^ud^C), -ovg, ij, Clotho. K-piTrjg, -ov, b, judge. 



KpiTia^, -uv, 6, Oritias. 

Kpoiffof, 6, (Jroesus. 

KpoKodetkog, 6, crocodile. 

Kpofivov, TO, onion. 

KpoTcov, -uvoc, 6, Crotona. 

KpovQjto knock; 100 [Pass, 
with cr, ^ 95, Eem. 1]. 

KpvTTTog 3, concealed, 130. 

KpvTTTu, to conceal, 121. 

Kpoj^o), to croak [§ 105, 2]. 

KTao/biac, to acquire, 112 
[Eedup., § 88, Rem. 1 ; 
Subj. Perf. and Opt. 
Plup., § 116, 4]. 

KTelvcjj to kill, usuallydTTO- 
KTEivu [Perf. Act., ^1^? 
5. Instead of eKranai 
and £fCTd-&T]v, re'&vTjKa 
and drred-avov vno TLvog 
are usual]. 

KTEig, -evog, 6, comb. 

KTEvi^co, to comb. 

Krfjfia, -arog, to, posses- 

KTTJdtg, 7], possession, 51. 

KTi^a, to found, 31. 

KvpepvfjTrjg, 6, pilot. 

KvfSog, 6, a die, cube. 

Kvdvog, 6, Cydnus. 

Kv/iio), to roll [Pass, with 
o, § 95]. 

KV7i£?t,?iov, TO, goblet. 

KvpiEvcj,to be master of,88. 

KvpLog, w. g., having pow- 
er over. [clops. 

KvkTiuiIi, -oTTog, 6, Cy- 

Kvpog, 6, Cyrus. 

Kvav, Kvvog, 6, i], dog. 

/cwAuoj, to hinder. 

Kci^ri, 7], village. 

Ki^TiXku, to chatter, 172. 

KUTiXog 3, loquacious 

«M06f 3, dumb. 

h.ayx(iVQ, to acquire [§ 1 2 1 , 

AaicedaifiovLog, 6, Lace- 

Xayug, -6, 6, hare. 

XalXaij), -uTTog, i), storm. 

/iaAecj, to talk. 

./l«/lof 2, talkative. 

2,a/j,l3dvo), to take, 31 
[§ 121, 12]. 

"kafinpog 3, brilliant, 23. 

2,avd-dvc}, to be concealed 
from, 89 [§ 121, 13]. 

TidpvyB, -vyyog, 6, throat. 

Maiva, 7], lioness. 

2eaivo)f to grind, 43. 

Myco, to say, name ; /iiyo- 
fiai. [§ 88, Rem. 2] ; (2) 
to collect [§ 88, 4 j Aor, 
Pass, k/iex'&f]'^ and eM- 

7iELa, 7j, booty, 145. 

XsLficdv, -covog, 6, meadow. 

Tleltto), to leave, leave be- 
hind [Aor. EXtTTOV ; Pf, 
7i,E7i0LTza, § 102, 4]. 

Aewvic^Qf, -ov, 6, Leonidas. 

TiETTTog 3, thin. 

XEVKatvo}, to whiten [§111, 
Rem 2]. 

Ievg), to stone [Pass, with 
(J, § 95]. 

Mav, -ovTog, 6, lion. 

2,E6g, 6, people. 

Tirjpog, 6, loquacity. 

Ti-gcTTjg, -ov, 6, robber. 

2,iav, very, 122. 

Aij3v7], 77, Libya 

li-&ogj 6, stone. 

2,tfi^v, -Evog, 6, harbor. 

XifiVT], 7], marsh, 158. 

Ai|u6f, 6, hunger. 

Tioyi^ojuai, to think, 112. 

?.6yiog 3, eloquent, 112. 

Tioyog, 0^ word, 27. 

locdopeo), to scold, 109. 

?Mifiug, 6, pestilence, 158. 

Ao^TTOf 3, remaining. [5]. 

lovG), to wash [Cont., § 97, 

X6(j)og, 6, crest. 
Xoxdo), w. a., to lie in wedt. 
Tivypog 3, sad. 
Avdia, 7], Lydia. 
AvKOvpyog, 6, Lycurgus. 
7[,v/j,a(,vo/, w. a., to abuse, 

?iVfj,7j, 7], disgrace. 
AvTrecj, to distress. 
"kv-KTj, 7j, sorrow. 
IvTTTjpog 3, sad, 47. 
?ivpa, 7], lyre. 
"kvptKog 3, lyric. 
Avaavdpog, 6, Lysander, 
Avalag, -ov, 6, Lysias. 
?ivatTE?i.£0), w. d., to b€ 

useful to. 
?i,vxvog, 6, lamp, 172. 
2,vo), to loose, 22 [§ 94, 2}. 
lu^doixai, w. a., maltreat, 


Ma-&7]T7jg,-ov, 6, a pupil,28. 

M.aia-pdpog, 6, Maeander. 

/xciKap, -apog, happy. 

fcaKapl^o),tX) esteem happy. 

fiaKccpiog 3, happy, 108. 

M-CfiEdovca, 7], Macedonia. 

MaKsdovLnog, Macedonian. 

Ma/ce(J«v, -ovog, 6, a Mace- 

[laKpdv, far, 131. 

juaKpog 3, long. 

^alaKi^u, to render ef- 
feminate, 124. 

fiaTiUKog 3, soft. 

fiaTid^uKog 3, soft, 172. 

fid7uaTa, especially, 107. 

jiakTiov, rather, 64. 

Islavddvr}, tj, Mandane. 

/j,av&dvu, to learn, 24 
[§ 121, 14]. 

MavTivEia, f], Mantinea. 

[idvTig, -Eog, 6,prop]iet, 8?. 

fiapaivu, to make wither. 

[lapTvprn, juapTvpo[j,ai, to 
bear testimony [^^124,4]. 



fiapTipia, 7j, testimony. 
\tapTvg, -Tvpog, 6, witness. 
ftaarcyou, to scourge. 
jxaaTi^co, to whip [Char., 

§ 103, 2]. [38. 

fiaarl^, -lyog, i], scourge, 
ftaxTj, y, battle. 
^a;t;o/^ai, to fight, 16 [§ 125, 

fj-iyac, -a/l77,-a,great [§48]. 
fiiye-&og, -oi'f,r6,greatness. 
fi6r&7], 7/, drunkenness. 
fie^y/j-cjv, -ovoc, negligent, 

UE-&iT]iJLi, to let go, 168, 
uET&i'O), to be drunk, 136. 
'M.£-&o)VT), rj, Methone. 
HetpaKLov, TO, young boy. 
fieTiac, -aiva, -av, black. 
(lelet, it concerns, 24 

[h 125, 17]. 
fxeleTTj, 7], care. 
/liXc, -cTog, TO, honey. 
/xsTiLTTa, 7], a bee. 
/isXXo), to be about to, 88 

B 125, 16]. 
(lETiOfiai, to have a care for 

Ih 125, 17]. 
fieXog, -ovg, TO, song, 121. 
fi€/i<poiJtai, w. a., to blame ; 

"W. d., to reproach. 
fiifiiptg, -eog, 57, reproach. 
fiEv — de, truly — but, 38. 
MeviXeug, -eu, 6, Mene- 

fievevaivo, w. d., to bear 

ill-will towards. 
liEva, to remain ; w. a., to 

await ; second Perf. fj,E- 

fiova, to desire [§ 111,5]. 
fiepi^o), to di^ade. 
UEptfiva, 7], care. 
UEpog, -ovg, to, part 
fiEOTj/ifSpia, 7], mid-day. 
liEOQg 3, middle. 
ueaoTTjg, mediocrity, 57. 
^EOTog 3, w. g., full. 

/i£Ta[3a?.?M,to change,130. 

liETafto7Ji, 7], change. 

fzETaSldufzi.. to give a share 
of, 159. 

fiETa/jMTTu, to change. 

liETa^v, w. g., between. 

fj.£Ta7T£fj,7ro/xai, to send for. 

fiETUTL'&Tjfj.i, to change, 159. 

fX£Ta(l)£pcj, to remove, 

fiETaxEipl^ofiai, to take in 
hand, 65. 

(lETETZELTa, aftei-wards. 

fiETEx^, to take part in. 

fiETpcog 3, moderate- 

[lETplag, adv., moderately. 

{lETpov, TO, measure, 28. 

liEXPh until. 

[IT], not, 1 6 ; after expres- 
sions of fear, 91. 

fj.7]6afj.ov, nowhere; ft. eI- 
vat, to be of no value. 

Mydeia, 77, Medea. 

jirjdELg, -E[ua, -iv, no one 
[§ 68, Kem. 1]. 

fi7j6£7roTE, never, 112. 

M.^6og, 6, a Mede. 

[iTjKog, -ovg, TO, length. 

fiTiv, -vog, 6, month. 

fiTJvig, 'Log or -tSog, i], an- 
ger, [with. 

ixTjvio), w. d., to be angry 

fiTjTTOTE, never. 

jjiTjTTu, not yet. 

fiTjTE — i^VTE, neither — 

[iTjTTjp, -Tpog, 7], mother. 

ii7]x<^'v^oixaL, Dep. IMid., 
to contrive. 

fiialvo), to pollute [§ 111, 
Eem. 2]. 

fxtyvvfii, to mix [§ 140, 4]. 

Mtd^piduTTig, -ov, 6, ]V[ith- 

fiiKpog 3, small. [des. 

MtXTiadrjg, -ov, 6, Miltia- 

MDmv, -ovog, 6, Milo. 


/ufuo/iat, to imitate. 
/u/ji7jTf/g, -ov, h, imitator. 
M(v(jf (Gen. 'SUvcjog and 

Mivu), d, Minos. 
fit/ivTjaKG), to remind 

[U22, 11]. 
juayu, w. g., to mix with 
jjLLGECi, to hate. 
/u<r&6g, 6, reward. 
jbitG^oo, to let out 
ixvd, -ug, 7], mina [^ 26]. 
fivrjfjmfj, 7], memory. 
fj.v7]juovEvu, to remember. 
fivT/cTTip, -Tjpog, 6, suitor. 
fj,6?ug, with diflSculty. 
fiovapxia, V, monarchy. 
[lovov, only, 64. 
fiovog 3, alone. 
fiolpa, 7], fate, 141. 
lj.6paifxog 2, fated. 
Movaa, tj, a Muse. 
liovoLKTi, 7], music, 87. 
fj.ox'&og, 6, toil, distress. 
liox'^og, 6, bolt, 28. 
,uvCo), to suck [§ 125, 18]. 
IXV-&0C, 6, word, 40. 
fxvla, 7], fly. 
fivpiog 3, innumerable. 
/LivpjUT}^, -Kog, 6, ant 
fivpov, TO, perfumery, 145. 
fivg, -i'og, 77, mouse. 
fivxdTog 3, inmost, 121. 
[ivci, to close [formatiou 

of tense, § 94, 1-]. 
fiupog 3, foolish, a fooL 

Nat, truly. 
vaio), to dwell. 
Na^iog, 6, Naxian. 
vciGGO), to press togethor 

[Char., § 105, 1]. 
vavayia, ij, shipwreck. 
vavayog, 6, shipwrecked. 
vavfiaxia, ij, sea-fight 
vavTTjg, -ov, 6, sailor. . 



vavTLKog 3, nautical, 161 ; 

TO vavTtKov, a fleet. 
veaviag, -ov, 6, a youth. 
Nfi/lof, 6, Nile. 
VEKpog 3, dead, 175. 
VEKTap, -apog, to, nectar. 
VEKV^, -vog, 6, corpse, 49. 
Nefisa, 7], Nemea. 
ve//w, to divide, 145 [Fut, 

vEfiu and vefi^acj ; Aor. 

evEL/xa ; Perf. vEvefirjKa ; 

Aor. Pass. EV£[iri-&7]v 

and -£'&7]v'\. 
vEog 3, young, 28. 
VEOTTjg, -^rof, 7f, youth. 
Necrop. -opog, b, Nestor. 
VEdeTiT}, 7], cloud, 158. 
VE(pog, -ovg, to, cloud. 
vea, to swim [§ 116, 3]. 
veug, -cj, 6, temple. 
v^, yes, truly. 
vrjfia, -aTog, to, yarn, 136. 
V7jvefj.ta, 7], a calm. 
vTjcog, 7], island, 
vi^w, to wash. 
VLKao, to conquer, 106. 
VLKTi, 7j, victory. 
VLTTTO), to wash. 
vi(j)£i, it snows. 
voEO), to think. [57. 

voTjua, -a-og, to, thought, 
vo/idg, -adog, 6, tj, nomad. 
vofievg, -eug, 6, shepherd, 

vo/j.^, 7j, pasture. 
voiii^u, to think, 56. 
vofiL/xog 3, customary. 
vofiog, 6, law. 
voog, 6, mind, 29. 
voGEG), to be sick. 
voaog, 7], disease, 28. 
voTog, 6, south-wind. 
'NvfKpTj, 7f, a Nymph. 
vvv, now. 

vv^, vvKTog, 7], night. 
woTal^i.), to nod [Char., 

§ 105,3]. 

"^Evia, 7], hospitality. 
^Evog, 6, guest, 122. 
^EvocpavTjg, -ovg, 6, Xeno- 

phanes. [phon. 

Sevo^wv, -uvTog, 6, Xeno- 
^EO), to scrape [formation 

of tense, §98, (b)]. 
^Tjpaivu, to dry. 
^i(pog, -ovg, TO, sword. 
^vXov, TO, wood. 
^vpEo and ^,to shave 

^vo), to scrape [Pass, with 

<7, § 95]. 


'OSa^G), to bite [Char., 

ods, this. 
666g, 7], way. 
bSovg, -ovTog, 6, tooth. 
b6vpofiai, to mourn, 16. 
'06vaaEvg, -Eug, 6, Ulysses. 
of«, to smell of [§ 125, 19]. 
bd-Ev, whence. 
ol, whither. 
olaKL^cj, to steer [Aug., 

oUa, I know [§ 143]. 
olyvvjiL, olyu, see avoly. 
oiKEtog 3, belonging to, 

own, intimate. 
o'cKETTjg, -OV, 6, servant. 
oIkecj, to dwell, 112. 
otKTjcTcg, -Eug, fj, dwelling, 
oi/cia, ^, house. [112. 

ocKodofiECj, to build a house, 
olKog, 6, house. 
o'lKovpEO), to guard a house 

o'lKTEipo), w. a., to pity. 
olfiaL, see olofiai. 
ol/L(.d)^G), to lament [Char., 

§ 105, 2]. 
olKTpog 3, pitiable, 58. 
olvog, 6, wine. 

olvoxoog, 6, cup-bearer. j 
oloftat, to think [§125, 20] ' 
olog, such as; w. iaf., in 

stead of cjgTE, so that 
oig, biog, 6, ^, sheep. [21]. 
olxofxai, to depart [§ 125, 
'Olfl, see ^epw. 
b?of3iog 3, happy. 
bl^og, b, riches, 124. 
bXiyapxia, oligarchy, 161. 
bMyoi, few. 
bliyog 3, little, 53. 
b?i,tcr&avo), to slip [§ 121,7]. 
bX?iVfii,to destroy [§ 138,B]. 
bloXv^o), to howl [Char., 

§ 105, 2]. 
oXog 3, whole. 
bXocjyjpofiai, to pity. 
'OfiTjpog, 6, Homer. 
dfii2,£a}, w. d., to associate 

with, 131. 
bfiLlia, 7], intercourse with. 
bfivvfiL. to swear [§ 138,B]. 
bfivvu, to swear. 
b/j,oydc7Tpiog, b, brother. 
b/ioyXuTTog 2, speaking 

the same language. 
biioiOTTjg, -TTjTog, likeness. 
bfioiag, in like manner,108. 
b/xo?ioy£0), to agree with, 

b/j.6pyvvfxi, to wipe off 
^ [§140,6]. 
bvEtpog, b, dream. 
bvrjGLg, -£0)g, tj, advantage. 
bvivTjfiL, to benefit [§ 135, 

ovo/xa, -aTog, to, name. 
bvofid^o), to name. 
ovTcog, really. 
b^vg, -Eta, -V, sharp, sour. 
biidCo), to bestow, 124. 
oxTf, whither, where. 
oTTicrw, back, 138. 
birXt^o), to arm. 
bTzMTTjg, -ov, 6, heavy-arm- 
ed man. 



dnlov, TO, weapon. 

OTTOL, whither. 

dTToloc 3, qualis, of what 
sort. [as. 

OTzoaog 3, qiiantics, as great 

bizoaogovv 3, how great, 
how long, soever. 

dTTorav, w. subj., when. 

OTTOTE, when, since. 

OTZorepog 3, which of two. 

oTTov, where. 

'OIITQ, see bpati. 

oTvug, how, 109. 

opdacg, -eug, 7], sight. 

opdo, to see [§ 126, 4]. 

dpyatvu, to eni'age [§ 111, 
Rem. 2]. 

opY^, Vj anger. 

op-yi^oiiac, Dep. Pass., to 
be angry. 

bpeyo), to stretch, 122. 

ope^iC, a striving after,108. 

opi^of 3, straight, 57. [108. 

dp-&no), to make straight, 

opid-ptog 3, early. 

dpi^o), to fix, limit, 124. 

opKtov, TO, oath. 

opKog, 6, oath. 

opfiao), to rush, 106. 

dpfj.'^, 7], impulse, 57. 

bpvL-d-o-Q^Tjpag, -a, b, bird- 
catcher, 24. 

opvcg, -I'&og, 6, ^, bird. 

opvvfzt, to rouse. 

opof, -ovg, TOj mountain. 

bprv^, -yog, b, quail. 

bpvTTO), to dig [Fut. opv- 
^0) ; Pf. bpupvxa ; Pf. 
Mid. or Pass, bpupvy- 
fj,aL, § 89, (a)]. 

opxv'&H'Oc, b, dance. 

oTiog 3, holy. 

baiiTj, 7], smell. 

o<TOf, as great as, 67. 

SfTrep, ^Trep, oTrep, who- 
ever, 108. 

^Teov, -ovv, TO, boiie. 

drrtr, 7/Tir, u ri, whoever, 
67 [§ 02]. 

ba(ppaLvojmL,vf. g., to smell 

brav, w. subj., when, 87. 

oTE, when. 

on, that, because. 

ov, not, 17 ; ov, where. 

ovdafjLT]^ nowhere. 

ov6e, neither, 57. 

ovdEig, -Eftia, -iv, no one 
[§ 68, Rem. 1]. 

ovdETTOTe, never. 

ovK, not, 16. 

ovKETi, no longer, 165. 

ovv, therefore. 

ovTTOTE^ never, 131. 

OvpaviSai, ol, gods, in- 
habitants of Olympus. 

ovpaviog 3, heavenly. 

ovg, uTog, to, ear [§ 39]. 

ovnia, possession, 64. 

ovTE — ovTE, neither — nor. 

ovTO){g), thus, 87 [§ 7]. 

ovXf not, 28. 

b<pei%cd, to owe [§ 125, 22]. 

o^eTJiu, to nourish, 53. 

6(p'&a?[,/i6g, 6, eye. 

ocpig, -EO)g, b, snake. 

b(j>2.taKavu, to owe [§ 121, 

6;\;£w, to bear, endure. 
ox^og, b, the common peo- 
ple {plebs). 
6ip, bnog, 7], voice. 
b-tpE, late. 

bipiog 3, late. [47. 

o^'if, -£Wf, ^, sight, visage, 
bipo(j)dyog 2, dainty. 


nay£f, -tdof, 7j, trap, 49. 
TrdyKaKog, thoroughly bad. 
'rrd'&og, -ovg, suffering, 53. 
Tratdv, -dvog, b, war-song. 
TraidEia, i], education, 87. 
iraidevcj, to educate, 16. 

7raf(Jfov,r6, little child, 131. 
Traifw, to play, 17 [^ 116, 

nalg, -dog, b, ij, child, 39. 
TTttiw, to strike. 
TraAaf, formerly, long ago; 

ol 'Kd}ML, the ancients. 
nalalu, to wrestle [Pass. 

w. a, according to § 95]. 
TcakaLog 3, ancient. 
■koIlv, again, 159. 
TzavTaxoi), everywhere, in 

all respects. [kind. 

TtavTodarcbg 3, of every 
TzavTCig, wholly, 160. 
Tzavv, altogether, very. 
TraTTTTOf , 6, grand-father. 
•KapayyiWtd, to order. 
-napadidioiii, give over to, 

commit. [edly. 

Ttapado^ug, ac?y.,unexpect- 
irapad-f/KT], rj, something 

entrusted, 122. 
TrapacvEU, w. d., to advise, 

to exhort. 
irapaKaMo), to call to, to 

exhort. [147. 

TrapaKaTa'&TjKTj, ?), pledge, 
7:apa?ia/j,l3dvo), to receive. 
Trapdvofzog 2, conti'ary to 

TrapaTTETOfzaL, to fly away. 
irapaTcMCu, mislead, 122. 
"KapaTcTiTjaLog 3, like. 
TzapaaKEvd^o), to prepare, 

TzapaGKEvaaTLKog 3,w.gen., 

skilled in preparing. 
irapaTELvcj, to stretch out. 
TzapaTi'd-i^fiL, to place be- 
side, provide. 
TrapaTpExo), to run by or 

past. [past. 

Tcapa^ipu, to carry by or 
TzdpELjii^ inf.TrapEivat, to be 

present ; 7rapeo-n{v), it 

is lawful, in one's power. 


^apeifii, inf. TTapLsvaL, to Tre/iTrw, to send [§102,5]. m] ; wMther? where? 

go by, near. Tvevrjg, -Tjrog, 6, i], poor. ttt?/^, i], fountain. 

TTapepxofiat, to go by. TrevijTEva), to be poor. izrjyvvfii, to fix, make firm 

'Trape;\;cj, to offer, grant, 27; "nevd-eu, to grieve. [§ 140, 8]. 

Mid., 58. Tvev&LKiJg ex(^, w. g., to be "r^fjxvg, -ecog, 6, cubit, 51. 

^aptTjjui, to let pass, neg- sad about something, rrtKpog 3, bitter. 

lect, 168. [158. IIENGfl, see Traaxo). irii^u, to press. 

TvapicTTjiii, to place beside, irevia, rj, poverty. irifiTrTirjfLL, to fill [§ 135, 5]. 

TzapoivccOf to riot [Aug., rrevixpoc 3, -poor. ir^/zTrp^^tjto bum [§135,6]. 

§ 91, 1]. Tcevoiiai, to be poor. liiva, to diink [§ 119, 3]. 

■napo^vvtd, to encourage. Tre-nacvo), to make ripe, 130 TTLTriaKO), to give to drink 

7ra^/6j7(7m,^,frankness,163. [§111, Rem. 2]. [§ 122, 13]. 

Traf, every, all. TrEirpconevi], tj, fate. TriTrpacr/cWjto sell [§122,14] 

Trdaao), to scatter [Char., TceTrav, -ovog, ripe. iriTtrUy to fall [§ 123]. 

§ 105, 1]. Trepaivo), to complete, 131 Tnarevcd, to trust, 25. 

7rac7;^cj, to suffer, 141 [§ 111, Rem. 2]. TTioric, -eof, ^, belief, 133. 

[§ 122, 12]. irepalog 3, beyond. TnaTog 3, trustworthy, 27. 

'TTUTTJp, -pog, 6, father. irepag, -arog, ro, end, 147. ttIuv, -ovog, fat. 

irarpLog 2, belonging to irepau, to transport. [§ 98, TT/lafw, to cause to wan- 

the country. (a)]. der [Char., § 105, 4]. 

irarptg, -idog, t], native Trepiayo), to lead round. TT/laccw, to. form [Char., 

country. 7r£pi/3aA2w,to throw round. § 105, 1]. 

IlaTpoicXog, 6, Patroclus. TreptSpo/xog 2, running 7rXa(Tn/c^,57,sculpture, 160 

ir&Tpug, -oog, 6, uncle, 47. round. [cles. Il/ldraia, "rj, Plataea. 

'jravcj, to cause to cease, HepLKTii/g, -covg, 6, Peri- irle^pov, ro, measure of 

124 [Aor. Pass. Eitav- Trepiopau, to overlook, 100 feet. 

ad-7]v ; Pf Mid. or Pass. permit, 147. TrTielGTog 3, most 

"jTSTraviiai, to cease ; Put. rcepLTzXoog, -ovg, 6, voyage TrXsKO), to knit, weave. 

Perf. TreTTavaofcat, will round. [133. "nXeovuKtg, oftener. 

cease]. Trept^^eo, to flow round, Trleove/crT^fj-oVjavaricions. 

■KeSri, 7], fetter. nepiare^.Tio, to clothe, 130. wleove^ia, rj, avarice. 

TTsdiov, TO, a plain. TrepLTid-r}/j.i, to put or set nXevpd, ?}, side. 

ird-d-io, to persuade, 124; round. [121. Tr/lew, to sail [§ 116, 3; 

Mid.,22[Aor.^7reicri??7v, TTepLrpETro), to turn round, Cont., § 97, 1]. 

I obeyed]. TVEpLrrog 3, beyond the rclriyfj, ij, a blow, wound. 

•KEL-d-C), -ovg, T], persua- usual number, more TzTirj-dog, -ovg, ro, mnlti- 

siveness. than sufficient. tude, 72. 

TTEivaci, to hunger [Cont., -JTEpccpEpo, to carry about. tt/I^v, w. g., except, 145. 

§ 97, 3]. [try. Ilepcre^ov??, ij, Proserpine. TvlrjpTjg, -eg, w. g., full, 

■jTEipdofiaL, Dep. Pass., to TlEpaTjg, -ov, 6, a Persian. satisfied with. 

TTsTiayog, -ovg, ro, sea. UEpatKog, Persian. TzTn^cytd^a, to approach. 

TiEXoTcovvrjaLaKog, Pelo- Trerdvvv/it, to expand TrXijaLog 3, near, 109. 

ponnesian. [§ 139, (a), 3]. 'KlrjrTu, to strike, 131 [Pf. 

JltkoTTOvvrjaog, rj, Pelo- Trero^uai, to fly [§ 125, 23]. TreTT/l^ya, I have struck; 

ponnesns. irerpa, ?;, rock. Aor. Pass. ki^Xriyriv ; 

UeXoTp, -oTTog, 6, Pelops. IIETGOMAI, see rrvv&d- but in composition, kir- 

ireXraoT^f, 6, shieldsman. vofiai. /lay?/v, e.g. ^fen-^ayiyp]. 



TT/lfviSof, Tj, brick. 
TT/loof ^= TtTiOvg, 6, voyage. 
nlovGiog 3, rich. 
n7iovTeo), to be or become 

•7r7iovTi,l^o, to enrich, 64. 
nTioiiTog, 6, riches, 39. 
■jt2,vvo), to wash [§ 111, 6]. 
nveo), to breathe, blow 

[§116,3:Cont.,§97, IJ. 
7r6i9-t V ; whence ? 
7roi9-e(j, to desire [§ 98,(b)]. 
TToucj, to make, do; ew 

TTOcecj, 107. 
TTonjTTjg, -ov, 6, poet. 
TTOi/ciAof 3. variegated, 40. 
TToifj.jjv, -evog, 6, shepherd. 
TTOiOf ; 3, of what kind 1 
TToXefieu, w. d., to carry 

on war. 
TTolefiioQ 3, hostile, 88. 
Tvolefxiiiog 3, warlike. 
TToTi.efj.oc, 6, war. 
TroXiopKeo), to besiege. 
TToXcopKca, 7], siege. 
TTO/lif, -etJf, i7, city, 51. 
TToXiTEca, 7], the state, civil 

polity, 90. 
TvoTitTevo), to govern the 

state ; Mid., to live as a 

citizen, to govern the 

TroXLTTjq, -ov, 6, citizen. 
iroXcTiKog 3, relating to 

the state, 165. 
TToXXuKL^, often. 
TToAAaTrAacriOf 3, many 

times more. 
'TTo'X'Xoc, many. [lux. 

TLoTivdevKTig, -ovg, 6, Pol- 
TzoT^vKoipavia, rj, the rule 

of many. 
'rrolv?^6yoc 2, loquacious. 
'!roXvTzovog 2, laborious. 
iroAuf, much, 53 [§ 48]. 
^ttKvreXeLa, rj, costliness, 


TzolvreJ.rjg, -ff, costly, 163. 

'noAvcpdia, tj, multitude 
of friends. 

Tvolvxeipia, y, multitude 
of hands, of workmen. 

7rov£-6>,totoil,107 [§98,(b)]. 

TTOVTjpog 3, wicked, 48. 

Tvovog, 6, toil, 28. [90. 

Tzopevo), to lead forward, 

TTOp^decj, to destroy. 

TTopLariKoc 3, w. g., skilled 
in procuring. 

7Top(j)vpeog (ovg) 3, purple. 

Jloaeidijv, -cbvog, 6, Po- 
seidon, Neptune. 

TToatg^ -£Wf, 7/, drinking, 51. 

Ttoaog ; 3, how great 1 

TTorafiog, 6, river. 

TTore, once, 43. 

TTOTspog, which of two, 1 65. 

TTOTov, TO, drink. 

Tvovg, TTodog, 6, foot. 

TTpuyjxa, -aror, to, an ac- 
tion, 40. 

irpaKTLKog 3, capable of ac- 
complishing, obtaining. 

Tvpa^tg, -eug, fj, an action. 

Trpdog 3, mild, 53. 

TvpaTTO), to do, act ; irpaT- 
TO), TrpciTTOfiai Ttva ap- 
■yvpiov, to demand of 
one ; w. adv., 89. 

TTperreL, it is becoming, 24. 

irpsafSeig, nl, ambassadors. 

Trpea/SevTTJg, -ov, 6, ambas- 
sador, 121. 

Trpea^vg, -eca, -v, old. 

■jTpiacy&ai, to buy [§ 135. 
p. 165]. 

irpiv, before; w. inf., 106; 
Tvplv uv, w. subj., 88. 

Tzpiu, to saw [Pass, with 
(7, § 95]. 

TTpoacpeo/xac, to prefer. 

Trpo^aTov, TO, sheep. 

Tzpoyovog, 6, ancestor. 

Trpodidofii, to betray. 

TpoSoTTjg, -ov, 6, betrayer. 

TTpoetTTov (Aor.), to say 
before, command. 

Trpoipxofiai, to go before. 

7Tpo-&v/xia, ■?!, willingness. 

TvpoT^t/iog 2, willing. 

wpo^v/icjg, adv., willingly. 

TtpoTiei'Ku, to forsake, 121. 

7Tp6/j.axog, 6, fighting in 
front, champion. 

TTpovoecj, to consider be- 
forehand, 142. 

Tvpovoia, 7j, foresight, 87. 

irpooiSa, to know before- 

TrpogayopevUjto call, name. 

7Tpogf3aA?M, w. g., to smell 
of something. 

■Kpog(37i£Tt(o, to look at., to expect, 107. 

Tvpogeiifit, inf. Trpogelvai, to 
be present, 47. 

irpogeijuc, inf. rrpogcevac, to 
go to, 168. 

TTpogeAavvu, to advance 
towards., to come to. 

izpogTjKei^it is becoming,24. 

TrpogTjKcjv, becoming, 138. 

7rpo(77]fxacvQ,to reveal, 165. 

Tzp6(y&Ev, before ; w. g. 
IS 24]. 

TTpog-^sTog 3, artificial, 175. 

TTpogKvveo), w. a., to wor- 
ship, honor. 

rrpogoSog, ij, approach, 54. 

TvpogTriTTTu, to fall upon, 
occur, 87. 

TrpogTTveojto breathe upon. 

TrpogTroteo, to add to, 109. 

irpogTii^TjLii, to add. 

TvpogcpEpu, to bring to, 30. 

TvpoTepog 3, before, sooner. 

7rpoTi-&7]fii, to put before, 

TrporpeTTw, to turn to, 41. 

TrpotpTjrevu to prophesy. 



TcpvTavelov, to, court of 
justice at Athens. 

rrpioiog 3, early. 

jrpwTOf 3, first. 

TVTaipu, to sneeze. 

Tcraia), to strike against 
[Pass with o, § 95]. 

TTTepov, TO, wing. 

nTepv^, -yog, /), wing. 

TTTiaao), to pound [Char., 
§ 105, 1]. 

TTTcoxog, very poor, 56. 

Uv&ayopag, -ov, b, Pytha- 
goras, [pact. 

irvKvog 3, numerous, com- 

Tcv7[.r), 7], gate. 

Tcvvd-dvo/xac, to inquire 
[§ 121, 15].^ 

TTvp, TTvpog, TO, fire. 

TTvpyog, 6, tower. 

TTvpoo), to bum. 

TTw (enclitic), yet. 

TTw/lew, to sell. 

TCQ'KOTe, ever. 

TTWf; howl 


Tadiof 3, easy. 

(iadiug, adv; easily. 

^evfia, -aTog, to, stream. 

/5eo, to flow [§ 116, 3]. 

TEG, see (^ri[u. 

(ifjyvviii., to tear, break 

^Tjixa, -aTog, ro, word. 

()7]T(Dp, -opog, 6, orator. 

Plyog, -ovg, to, cold. 

f>iy6u, to be cold [Cont., 
§ 97, 3, (b)]. 

funreto, to throw. 

^iiTTCd, to throw. 

^Ig, ^tvog, 7], nose. 

I)iip, dcTTog, 7], reed. 

()o8o8aKTv7iog 2, rosy-fin- 

^66ov, TO, rose. 

^oia, i], pomegranate. 

lib-KaXov, TO, a club. 
^v&iibg, b, rhythm. 
()VGTaL,o), to drag [Char., 

§ 105, 2]. 
^uvvvfti, to strengthen 

[§ 139, (c), 2]. 


liaTiafiig, -Ivog, ij, Salamis. 


aaXTTL^G), to blow a trum- 
pet [Char., § 105, 4]. 

aalTTLKT^g, -ov, 6, trum- 

'EdfiLog, b, Samian. 

1,ap6avd7ra?i.og, b, Sarda- 

Iidpdecg, -euv, at, Sardis. 

'Zdpog, b, the Sarus. 

adp^, aapKog, /j, flesh. 

GCLTTCi, to load. 

(ja(p7jg, -eg, clear. 

aa(j>cog, clearly. 

c^evwiiL, to quench, 163 
[§ 139, (b), 4; second 
Aor., § 142]. 

ae(3ag, to, respect. 47. 

crilSojuai, to honor, 31. 

(, 6, earthquake. 

treiw, to shake [Pass, with 
(T, § 95]. 

aeXag, -aog, Tb, splendor. 

GTj/ia, Tb, sign, monument. 

G7]fiaivG), to give a sign. 

(jTifielov, TO, sign. 

(ycyao), to be silent. 

0-4757, 7j, silence. 

aibrjpog, b, iron. 

ctvam, -eog, Tb, mustard. 

GiTog, b, com. 

aiuTrdo), to be silent. 

GCU7T7}, 7], silence. 

aKOTvrjTibg 3, silent. 

GKd(pog, -ovg, Tb, trench. 

(jKeda^o), to scatter, 124. 

CKe6dvvv/xc, to scatter 
[§ 139, (a), 4]. 

GKE?jM,to dry up [§142,3] 
GKTJTTTpov, TO, sceptrc. 
CKta, 7], shadow. 
(jK?i,7]pbg 3, diy, 121. 
GKolLog 3, crooked, 23. 
GHOTzeu), -eofzai, to behold, 

GKbTog, b and ro, darkness. 
GKUTCTO), to joke, 59. 
G(}, to smear [Cont., 

§ 97, 3 ; Aor. Pass, ecr- 


GO(j)ia, 7], wisdom. [46. 

GO^LGTTjg, -ov, b, sophist, 

"ZoipoKlf^g, -eovg, b, Soph- 

GO(pbg 3, wise. 

GTiavi^a, w. g., to be in 

GTvdvig, -EQg, ij, need, 51. 

GiravLug, adv., rarely, 160. 

'S.TrdpTTj, 7], Sparta. 

^TrapTtuTTjg, -ov, b, Spar- 

', Spartan. 

GTrdco, to draw [§ 98, (a)]. 

GTZeipU, to sow [Pf. EGTTO- 

pa ; Aor.Pass.ecTTrap;/!']. 
GirevSa, to pour libations 

Mid., to make a treaty. 
GTvevScj, to hasten, 17. 
GTTovSa^o), to hasten, be 

zealous, 131. 
Girovdaiog 3, zealous, 34. 
GTZovSacug, adv., zealously, 

GTzov67j, 7j, zeal. 
GTayuv, -bvog, 7], drop, 52. 
CTudLov, TO, stadium, 131. 
GTa'&fibg, b, a station, 72. 
GTaCo), GTaTid^o), to trickle 

[Char., § 105, 2]. 
GTaGta^o), to revolt, be at 

variance, 87. 
GTuGLg, -eug, 7], faction, 51. 
GTctxvg, -vog, b, ear of com. 
GTeyTj, Tj, roof, house. 


CTello), to >send [second r^, to be conscious ; ct. ovvel/u, inf. avvievai, w. 

Aor. Pass., § 102, 2, and tlvc, to pardon. d., to come or assemble 

§114]. avyyvo)iJ.uv,-ov,w.g.,-pa,r- with. [qua! 

CTEva^o), to i5igh [Char.,- doning; (2) agreeing avve^o/xoLotj, to make e- 

§ 105, 2]. with. ovve-mdlSio/u, to give up, 

CTepytj, w. a., to love; w. ovyypd^u, to describe, 72. 162. 

d., to be contented with. (Tvyicvicaco^to confound,106 cvvepyog, b, helper. 
CTEpiid Tiva Ti, to deprive avyxaipcj, to rejoice with, avveatc, -eug, tj, under- 
one of something [§122, C7i»7;\;ecj, to pour together, standing. 

16]. [of. 133. cvverog 3, sensible, 72. 

CTepo/Lim, to be deprived cvktj, tj, fig-tree. aw^'i9^£m,77,intercourse,22. 

creptaKO), to deprive of gvkov, to, fig. ovv&airrcj, to bury with. 

[§ 122, 15]. cvTiucj TLva ti., to deprive cvv&tjkt], fi, treaty. 

OTHavog, 6, crown. one of something. cvviaTrjiiL, to put together. 

<7r^A;7, ^, pillar. t7vA/la^/3avcj, to take with, criio^vecj, to spin with, 162. 

aTTjpiCo), to make firm seize, 107. cvvoida, to know with: 

[Char., § 105, 2]. Sv/l^af, -ov, 6, Sylla. e/uavrw, to be conscious. 

CTi^cj, to prick [Char., avlXeyo), to collect. avvTarro), to an-ange, 122. 

§105,2]. (yv?i?ioyog, 6, SLSsemhly. (Tui-rpe^Y") to run with one. 

GToTiT], 7], robe. av/j.l3aiv(o, to go with, 136. cvvrvyxavco, to meet with, 

GTo/xa, -arog, to, mouth. Gv/Li,f3ov?i,£vu, to advise. happen. 

CTopivvvfiL, aTopvvfiL, to Gv/ii3ov7iog, 6, adviser. avpiy^, -tyyog, rj, flute. 

spread out [§139, (b), 5]. cvjifiaxia, rj, alliance, aid. avpl^o) (gvplttco), to whis- 

cTpaTev/j-ttj -QTog, to, ar- Gv/iftaxog, 6, ally, 106. tie [Char., § 105, 2]. 

my, 72. av/j.-nag, all together, 72. 1,vpog, 6, a Syrian. 

oTpaTevu, to make an ex- av/irr^yvvfu, to join to- ovpcj, to draw. 

pedition, 89. gether, 172. aiig, avog, b, i], boar, sow. 

CTpaTTtyog, b, a general. GVfiTrlva), to drink with. avcTKrjveo), to tent with, 

CTpaTid, 7], army. »cn'/^7ri7rr6j,to fall with, 142. eat with. 

GTpaTLUTTjg, -ov, b, soldier. ov/LCTTOv CO), to work with, cr^a^u, cr^arrw, to kill 

aTpaTOTtedevofiac, to en- 107. [142. [Char., § 105, 2]. 

camp. Gv/i(p£po), to cany with, G<palpa, i], ball. 

GTpaTOTredov, to, encamp- avfKpopd, i], an event, 138. acpulXu, to deceive, 113. 

ment, encamped army, avvayuvii^ofiai, to contend G(p66pa, very, 147. 

CTpaTog, b, army. with, G(po6p6g 3, violent. 

aTpej32.6a), to torture. Gvvaipo/Lcai, w. g., to take gcjjv^cj, to throb [Char., 

o-rpe^6),to turn [Aor. Pass. part in. §105,2]. 

kGTp^KpTjv, £GTpe(p-d-7]v ; GwanoTCkviii, to destroy Gdvpa, ij, hammer. 

Perf. Mid. or Pass., together, 163. [124. cxdw, to loose [§ 98, (a)]. 

§ 102, 6]. Gvvapixb^cd, to fit together, cxo^alog 3, lazy. 

CTpcJvvvjLti, to spread out Gvv6enrvog, b, table-coni- goj^o, to save, 52 [Per£ 

[§ 139, (c), 3]. panion. Mid. orPass. o-fcrucr/za^,- 

CTvyeo), to hate. GvvdeGfiog, 6, band; con- Aor. Pass. eGud^rjv]. 

^vjSaptTTjg, -ov, b, Syba- junction. [142. loKpuTTig, -ovg, b, So- 

rite. GvvSiaTpcjSa), to live with, crates. 
<n yytyvuGKO), to think Gvvetfic, inf. Gvvelvac, to GUfia, -arog, to, the body 

with, agree with ; e/xav- be with. gutt^p, -vpog, 6, preserver. 



auTT/pta, i], preservation. 
<70)<j)pov£(j), to be of sound 

mind, 165. 
aoxppoavvTj^ 7, modesty, 59. 
(ju<ppo)v, "wise, 36. 


Td2.avTov, to, talent (a 

raXapog, 6, little basket. 
TavraTiog, 6, Tantalus. 
Ta^iQ, -B(og, V, order, 121. 
TaireLvog 3, low, humble. 
raTreLvoo), to humble. 
rapaTTO), to throw into 

confusion, 122. , 
Tapaxv, V, confusion, 122. 
rdrro), to arrange, 122. 
ravpog, 6, bull. [40. 

ravTo'Xoyia, tj, tautology, 
Tti^pog, 7], grave. 
raxa, quickly, 131. 
TaxE(^C, quickly. 
raxoQi -ovg, to, quickness, 
racjf, Tau, 6, peacock, 
re — KUL, both — and, 44. 
Teyea, i), Tegea. 
Teivoi, to stretch [Pf. te- 

Toxa ; Pf. Mid. or Pass. 

§ 113]. 
reipo), to wear out, tire, 22. 
TEtxog, -ovg, TO, wall. 
TEKfiaipco, to limit. 
TEKvov, TO, child. 
TslevTalog 3, last. 
reXevTao), to end, die. 
teIevt^, j], end, death. 
teMu, to accomplish, 107 

[§98, (b)]. ^ 
TEkog, -ovg, TO, end, 131. 
TEfivo), to cut, divide, 130 

[§ 119]. 

Tspag, -aToc, to, wonder. 
TEpTTU, to delight, 34. 
rerpaivo, to bore [MHj 
Bem. 2]. 

TETTi^, -tyog, 6, grasshop- 

TExvdofiai, Dep. Mid., to 

TExvrj, 7], art. 

T£xvtTi]c, -ov, 6, artist. 

T'^Ko, to melt, 133. 


TTjTisLKovTog, so large, 67. 

TTjTiov, far. 

Tiupa, i], turban. 

Tcd^7j/j.i, to place, 159; v6- 

Mid. -dfirjv ; Pass. eTpe- 
(pd-Tjv ; ETpanov, -6fJ,Tjv, 
sTpdTvrjv ; Pf. Act. re- 
Tpo(j)a ; Pf. Mid. or Pass. 
TETpa/xfiai, § 102, 5, 6]. 
Tpsipo), to nourish, 25 [Put. 
S-peifjcj ; Aor. e-d-peipa ; 
Pf. TeTpo(f>a, § 105, 2 ; 
Pf. Mid. or Pass, te-^-, ibid., 6; Aor. 
Pass. £Tpu(l)7]v (seldom 


fiovg TL-d-ecrd-ai, to make Tpsxo), to run [§ 126, 5]. 

laws [§ 133]. rpecj, to tremble [§98,(b)]. 

Ti'&TjVTi, 7], nurse. Tpipo, to rub. 

Hktco, to beget [Put. re- TptTjprig, -vpovg, i], trireme. 

^ofiat ; Aor. etekov ; Tpt^u, to chirp [Char.» 

Perf. TETOKO]. 

TLfidcj, to honor. 
Ti[i7i, 7f, honor. 
TifiLog 3, honored, 56. 
TCfjupEO), to help. 168. 
Tifiupia, 7], punishment. 

§ 105, 2]. 
TptTvovg, -odog, tripod, 145. 
Tpoi^7]v, -Tjvog, ^, Troe- 

TpoTvacov, TO, trophy. 
Tponog, 6, way, manner,67. 

TLVci, to expiate, pay Tpv^ij, 57, luxury, 22. 

[§119,4]. Tpv<p7}T7ig, -ov, 6, luxu- 

ry rpwcr/cw, to wound [§122, rious, 24. 

1 6] . Tpuyo), to gnaw [Put. Tpu- 

T'Xrjvai, to bear [§ 135, 7]. ^ofiai ; Aor. ETpayov]. 
TOi, indeed, 136. — \jTvyx dv(d, to obtain [§ 121, 


Toivvv, hence, therefore. /\ 16]. 

Tolog 3, of such a nature. TVfiBog, 6, tomb. 

TOLovTog 3, such [§ 60]. tvttto), to strike. 

Tolfidci, to dare, 106. rupavvff, -i(Jof, 57, tyranny. 

To^EVfia, -aTog, to, arrow. Tvpavvog, 6, tyrant, 91. 

To^LKT], 7], archery. Tvpl3rj, tj, crowd, bustle. 

To^ov, TO, bow. Tv^Xoo), to make blind. 

roTTog, 6, place. TvxVi V> fortune, 23. 

ToaovTog 3, so great [§ 60]. 

TOTE, then. T. 

TpaycKog 3, tragic. 'TaKiv&ag, 6, hyacinth. 

Tpdyog, 6, goat. v/Jp^C^^^', w. a.,to be haugh- 

Tpayudia, rj, tragedy. ty towards one, to mal- 

TpaTVE^a, 7], table. treat. [51, 

TpEKu, to turn; Mid., to ^f3pig, -sug, i], insolence, 

turn myself; (2) for ijipiaTfig, -ov, 6, insolent 

myself, i. e. to put to man. [health, 

flight [Aor. ETperpa; iyiaivu, to be in good 


vdcjp, TO, water [§ 47]. 0aCT/cw,to assert [§122, 17]. ^pa^cj, to say, tell, 124. 

vei, it rains. (pav?.og, bad, evil. <Pp^v, -tvor, tj, mind, 36. 

vio^, 6, son. (peidofiat, Dep. Mid., w. g., ^poviu, to think, 107. 

viraKoi'siv, w. d., to obey. to spare. (ppovTiCco, to care for, 27. 

virupxo), to be at hand, to <peva^, -uicog, 6, impostor, (ppovrc^y -idog, i/, concern, 

be, 41. ^ep£Kv67]g, -ovc, b, Phe- 39. 

iTrefcaTTj/j-c, to remove ; recydes. ^pvyla, ij, Phrygia. 

Mid., to go or come ^epw, to beai', 23 [4 126, 6]. ^pt'l, -vyof, o, a Phrygian. 

out from. (pEvyu, to flee, 17 [§ 116,3]. <pv7.aKri, i], guard, watch. 

v7repa7ro-&v^GKO), w. gen., (pvf^h to say [§ 126, 7 ; in- (j)v?>,a^, -Kog, b, a guard, 51. 

to die for one. flection, § 135, 8]. (^vXclttu, to guard, 36; 

inepdx&oiiaL, to be much (l>-&avo), to anticipate, 136 Mid., w. a., to guard 

grieved. [§119,5]. against something, 122. 

v7r£p(3dXlo), to throw be- tp'&eipc), to destroy [§ 111, ^vari[ia, -arog, to, breath. 

yond, exceed. Pf. Act. ef^d-opa ; Pf. ^vcLg, -eug, ij, nature. 

vTtep^aaia, rj, trespass. Mid. or Pass. E(p-&ap- ipvTevo), to plant. 

v7r£p^0avof2,haughty,llO. fiat; Put. Pass. ^iJap^- (pvu, to bring forth, 88 

iirepopdu, to look over, cofj-ai and second Aor. [§ 142, 10]. 

to despise. Pass. k^-&apT]v, in the ^wvew, to produce a sonnd, 

iiripippuv, haughty, 36. sense of to perish]. speak. 

vTnjpETeo, w. d., to aid, ^-d-ovog, 6, envy. (puv^, rj, voice. 

serve. (ptdTiTj, ij, drinking-cup. ^wp, <j>upbg, b, thief. 

iTTcaxvEOfiaL, to promise (piXdv&pQTzog 2, philan- 0cjf, (puTog, to. light. 

[§ 120, 3]. thropic, 43. 

vTTvog, b, sleep. [ing. (ptTiEC), to love. X. 

vTzoypacpTj, Tj, paint, paint- <pLXia, ^, friendship. Xaivu, to yawn, 130. 

virodrjiia, -aTog, to, san- ^i/liof 3, friendly. ;t<^ip6;, to rejoice, 17 [§ 125, 

dal, 108. ^i7\.0KEp6r]g, -sg, fond of 24]. 

■vTtb-d-EaLg, -Eug, i], hypo- gain. ;j;a/law, to loosen [§ 98, 

thesis. ^ikona-&fjg, -ig, fond of (a)]. [22. 

virofiivrj), w. a., to await, learning. x^'^^'^^g 3, troublesome, 

endure. (pclo^Evog 2, hospitable. ;^;aA£7rcjf, adv., with diffi- 

'{nTO(pEpo), to endure. (j>t^oao(pEu,to philosophize. culty. 

iTTOXcopeco, to go back. (jtiXog, 6, a friend, dear. ;j;a/lii^6f, 6, bridle. 

vGTspalog 3, following. (pLkoxpvi^oavvT], i], avarice, x^^f^^g, b, brass. 

varepog 3, later, following. <j>2.v^(j, to bubble [Char., x^^'^^°^ 3, brazen. 

v(paivu), to weave [Perf. § 105, 2]. ;j;apie£f, graceful. 

v<pa-yKa ; Perf. Mid. or (pofSeo), to frighten, 109. ;tfapin.Tcjf, gracefully. 

Pass. v(l)a<jfiai\. <pb[3og, b, fear. x^P'-^'^H-^'-j to gratify, 37. 

(npog, -ovg, ro, height, 48. ^oiviKEog [ovg) 3, purple. X"P'r» -~i-~og, v, favor, 39. 

v^ow, to elevate. (pocTaco, to go to and fro. ;^facr/ccj, toyawn [§122, 18]. 

<j)ov£vg, -Ecjg, b, murderer. ;^£i|U6Jv, -uvog, b, winter. 

$. (poveva, to murder. x^'^P> -pof > ^> iiand [§ 35, 

$ArQ, see Ecrd-ia. (j)6vog, 6, murder. Rem. 2]. 

(jfaivu, to show, 121. <popl3v, ^, pasture, food. x^^poofidi, to subdue, 110. 

0avep6f, evident, 168. 0opew, to carry. ;\;f/li(Jwi', -ovof, ^, swallow. 

^dpfiaKov, to, remedy. (popficy^, -lyyog, ^, harp, x^^) to pour [§ 116, 3]. 



Xnpo(^} to deprive of, 113. xp^^^f to anoint [Pass, ipevarjjc, -ov, 6, liar. 
X'&k, yesterday. with c, § 94, 1]. iprjv, ip7]v6g, 6, wasp. 

X'&'^v, -ovog, y, the earth, XP^'^°^i 6, time. i}j^(j)LG/j.a, -arog, to, de- 

133. ;:t;pt»(Tioj^, ro, gold. cree, 160. 

XLTuv, -tjvog, 6, coat. XP'^<^og, 6, gold. tpvxv, ^, the soul. 

Xiuv, -ovog, ?}, snow. xP^<^^og {ovg), -ea {?}}, -eov ipvx^^S, -ovg, to, cold. 
Xoevg, xo^C, o, measure,44. (ovv), golden. 

Xoipetog 3, of swine. XP^/^^y -aTog, to, skin. Q. 

XoTioofzac, to be angry at. xP^'^'^'^H-h to color [§ 139, 'Q.t6f] {(^6fi), tj, song. 
Xd'hog, 6, anger, 172. (c)]. u^eu, to push [§ 124, 6]. 

XOpevo, to dance. X^P^f ^» countiy, region. uKvg, -sla, -v, quick, 

^ifopof, 6, dance. X^pk, w. g., separately, ufiog, 6, shoulder. 
Xoco, to heap up [Pass. apart from. cjv£0/iat,tobuy [Aug.,§87, 

with (T, § 95]. ;^GJOio/i6f, 6, separation. 4. Comp. •7rpmo-i9-ai]. 

Xpdo/j,at,to use [§96, Eem.; wviOf 3, for sale ; Td, uvia, 

Cont., § 97, 3, (a)]. *. wares. 

Xpau, to give an oracle "favu, w.g., to touch [Pass, dg, as, when, how, because; 

[§ 96, Eem.; Cont, §97, with ff, § 95]. c5f rd;^;icrra, as soon as 

3, (a)]. Tpdu, to rub [Pass, with a ; possible ; with indefi- 
Xpsta, 'fi, need, 22. [2]. Cont., § 97, 3, (a)]. nite numbers; — that; 

XPV, it is necessary [§ 135, 'tpeyu, to blame. in order that [§ 181]. 

XP^<^, w. g., to be in want. ipEvdijg, -eg, false. ugirep, as, just as. 

Xpv/J-f^^ -dTog, TO, a thing, ipevdopKog 2, perjured ; to ugTe, so that. 

property, 41. tjjEvSopKov, perjury. cj(j>e2,eia, i], advantage. 

XPV'^i'l^og, useful, 56. ipevSog, -ovg, to, a lie. w^eXew, w. a., to benefit. 

Xpn^^lJ-oavvri, poverty, 39, ipevdu, to deceive, 47 ; dfeXt/uog 2, useful. 
XpVf^Tog 3, useful, 41. Mid., 89. wV> ^^of> ^j eye, counte- 



The numerals after a Greek word, denote the page where the meaning of the 
word is more fully given, or where another word of the same signification may 
be found. Por the proper use of the prepositions, the student will depend prin- 
cipally upon the definitions given in §§ 163 — 167. 

A. ahle,tohe,Svvajuai,l(7x^(^y abroad, to travel, &irodij- 
Abandon, e/c/lei7rcj, npo- olog re eifj.i, ex^- f^^^- 

TiEiTcu, KaTaXeiiro), em- abolish, Avw. absence, in the, aTzov. 

TielTTCj, a<pL7]ni. abounding in, evTzopog 2. absent, dTrwv. 

ability, dvvafiig, -eug, if. about, irepi, a/x<l)i. absent, to be, aireifiu 

abide by, rrapafievo), kti- Abradatas, 'Af3paddTag, abstain from, aTrexofiat. 

fievo). -ov, 6. abundance, af^ovia, i. 


accompany, ^7ro//ai. adorn, Koc/j-eu, ayuXkut, Alcestis, 'AlKTjcTig, -loc 

accomplish, E^tpya^ofiai, ugkeu. and -ZcJof, ij. 

releu, Siar., Tcepaivu, adorn with (invest), a/i- Alcibiades, 'AAKtftiadTic, 

uvvo) ; to accomplish, as (^uvvvfii tlvu. tl. -ov, 6. 

a journey, Karavvo) ; = Adranum, 'Adpavov, to. Alexander, 'A/le^avdpof, 6, 

to effect, dtaTTpdrTO/nai,. adult, reXecog 3. alike, 6/j.otcjg. 

according to, in accord- advance, TrpojSaivo), dpf^acj. all, irdr, dndc. 

ance with, Kara. advantage, cj^e/le^a, ^, ov- alleviate, ETrcKov<l>i^o) ; to 

account of, on, dia, em, rjuig, -eug, 7]. alleviate, as grief, ■&epa- 

ivEKa, vTxep. , an, aya-&6v, to ; ad- "Kevu. 

account, on this, Slo, tovto. vantages, Td. aya^a. alliance, avfinaxia, v. 

accuse of, ypinpojiat, Karrj- , for the, of, Trpof . allow, eau. 

yopeo), di(jK(j. advantageous, xRWi-fJ-oc 3, allowable, to be, i^earc. 

accuser, narriyopog, b. XPV<^toc 3, d)(l)i?ufiog. ally, an, cvfifiaxog, 6. 

accustom, e^l^o. advice, (Sovlrj, if, (3ov?iev- almost, oxedov, bXiyov 

Acheron, 'Axepcov, -ovTog, fza, to. deZv. 

b. advise, (SovXevo), cv^^ov- alone, /iovof ; ady.,fi6vov 

Acherusian, 'kx^povcwg. Xevu tlvl. already, Tjdr]. 

achieve, E^epyd^o/Lcai, 6ia- adviser, avfj,(3ov?iog, b. also, nai. 

Trpu-TTo/iac. Aeolus, AloXog, b. altar, Pu/xog, b. 

Achilles, 'A;^i/l/l£i;f,-ewf, 6. Aeschines,AicT;^iv;7f , -ou, 6. alternately, ev fiepei. 

acquainted with, to be, Aetna, Actvt/, tj. although, Kav or koI iav, 

oloa, ETricrTafxat. Aeson, Alacjv, -ovog, b. Kaiwip. 

acquire, KTccofiai, irpog- Aethiopian, an, AlMoipy always, uel. 

TTOtEG), Tiuyxavo). -co-rrog, b. am (to be), eI/uI, yiyvofxai, 

acquisition, KTTJatg, -ewf, fj. aifair, irpdyfza, to ; = oc- virdpxo), l^" "w. adv. 

acquit, (l-koIvelv. cupation, npd^tg, ij, Amazon, 'Afia^uv, -bvog, 

Acropolis, 'AKpoKoXig, affirm, 0??//^. 57. [-ov, b. 

-E(^g, V- affliction, ird'&og, -ovg, to. ambassador, Trpecr^^ewr^f, 

across, passage, TrdpoSog, aflford, 7rape;\;«, 7rape;\;o//af. ambassadors, 7rpecr/3eif, 0/. 

V- afraid, to be, (po^iofiac. amid, ev. 

act, an, irpd^ig, -EO)g, ij, after, ixeto,. among, kv, Trapd. 

Trpdyfia, to ; = work, afterwards, etteitg, fisTe- amputate, uTTOTEfivo). 

epyov, to. TZECTa. Anaxagoras, 'Ava^ayopaj*, 

act, to, TcpaTTO), dpdu. again, av-d-ig, TrdTitv. -ov, b. foL 

action, see act. against, uvtl, -rrpbg, etti. ancestors,Trpoyeyev7][ievoi^ 

add, TzpogitoiEO), irpogTc- Agaraemnon,' Ay a/nifivcov, ancient, Tralaiog 3. 

■&T]iui, EinTL'&rjiii. -ovog, b. and, Kai. 

administer, dioiKEO), ttoXl- age, rjliKia, r), 106. anger, bpyr], tj, xoXog, b. 

TEvo) ; to be an admin- , old, yrjpag, -aog, to. angry, to be, bpyi^ofiaiy 

istrator, oIkecj ; to ad- Agesilaus, 'Ayrjuilaog, kv bpyy ex(^' 

minister the govern- -dov, b. angry with, to be, ax;d-0' 

ment,(5ioi/c£a) ttjv ttoXlv. agreeable, rjdvg, -ela, -v. fiat, 88. [to. 

administration, good, ev- agriculture, yecopyia, rj. animal, fwov, to, ■&T}piov, 

vofiia, 7j. aid,to render, /?07;i?c6),w.d. announce, dyyiXXu, 88. 

admire, -d^avfidCo), dyafiac, Ajax, Aiag, -avTog, b. annually, kgt' hiavTov. 

108. alarm, to, KaTaTvXrjTTa. anoint, aXei<pG), XP^^^ 



another, aXlog. 

ant, /j-vpfiT}^, -JZ/cof, 6. 

Antisthenes, 'AvTcad-ivrjc, 

-ov^, 6. 
any one, rig. 
any thing, re. 
any where, ttov ; in a sen- 
tence with a negative, 

anxiety, see care. 
Apollo,' AttoA/Iwv, -wvof, 6. 
appear, (pacvo/uac, 138. 
appetite, yaarrip, -epog, ij. 
appoint, aTTodecKvv/ui ; = 

appoint something to 

one, opi^o), 124. 
Apollodoms, 'AttoXXoSo)- 

pog, 6. 
apprehend, cvHaiifiavci. 
approach, to, TrXTjata^o), 

approbation, SoKifiaaia, tj. 
approve of, kiraiveu, 89. 
Arabia, 'ApajSla, 7. 
Arabians, 'ApafSeg, ol. 
Araspas, 'Apaarrag, -ov, 6. 
Arcadian, 'Ap/caf, -adog, 6. 
Archestratus, 'Apxearpa- 

rog, 6. 
archer, ro^orrig, -ou, 6. 
archery, to^lktj, t]. 
ardor, aTzovdrj, tj, d-v/xog, 6. 
argument, Xoyog, 6. 
Ariaeus, 'Apialog, 6. 
arise (= to be), ytyvo/nat. 
Aristides, 'AptaTeidrig, -ov, 

Aristippus, 'ApiaTtTTTrog, 6. 
Aristogiton, 'Apiaroyel- 

rciVy -ovog, b. 
Aristotle, 'AptaTOTsXrjg, 

-ovg, 6. 
armament, aroXog, 6. 
arms (weapons), ottAo, tcc. 
army, arpaTtd, tj, arpa- 

Tog, 6. 
around, Trepi, uju(l>i. 

arrange, StararTu, gvv- 

rdTTO), 124, 159. 
arrogant, v^piarrig, -ov, 

arrow, ro^evfia, to. 
Arsamus, 'Apaafiog, 6. 
art, TexvT], ?j. 
Artaxerxes, 'Apra^ep^ijg, 

-ov, 6. 
Artemis, 'Apre/nLg, ~l6og, rj. 
artificer, epydarTjg, -ov, 6, 

kpydrrjg, -ov, 6. 
artist, rexvLTTjg, -ov, 6. 
as, d)g, t^girep. 
as long as, ewf . 
as much, roaovrog. 
as soon as, o)g Tuxtora. 
as well as, Kai — Kac. 
ascend the throne,e/V^acri- 

Xeiav KaraaTTjvai. 
ascertain, Trvv^dvoiiat. 
ashamed, to be, aldeofiai,, 

Asia, 'Aaia, rj. 
ask, epurdo), aireu, 88. 
aspire after, dpeyo/iac,w.g., 

Slukslv, w. a. 
assert, (l)Tjfj.c. 
assist, Tzapaarrivai, avfi- 

■novECd, 175 ; = to de- 
fend, afxvvd). 
assign to, dldcofii. 
associate with, oficXiu, 

assured, to be (think), vo- 

fii^o, 7]yE0[JiaL. 
Assyria, 'Aaavpia, ij. 
Assyrian, 'Aaavptog, 6. 
astonish, KaTaitXrjTTO). 
Astyages, 'Aarvdyrjg, -ovg, 

at, Trapd. 

Athenian, 'Ad-jjvalog, 6. 
Athens, 'A-&7)vac, at. 
Athos, 'A-Q-ug, -u, 6. 
Atlantis, 'ArXavrig, -cdog, 

attack, an, 7rpog(3o?\.7J, rj. 
attack, to, eKLTid-cuat, 161 
attempt, to, Tveipdofj-at ; 

= do, Tzoieu. 
attend to, kTccfieMo/iaif 

Attica, 'Attlkt], tj. 
attractive, evxaptg, -Irog. 
auditor, ciKpoarijg, -ov, 6. 
audible, uKOvarog 3. 
author, alriog, 6. [fj. 

authority, royal, (SaaiXeta, 
avail, 6vva[iai, laxvcj- 
avarice, wTieove^ia, fj, <j)i- 

Xoxprjf'OC'VVTj, TJ. 
avert, aXe^a, dfivvu, airo 

avoid, ^evyo). 
await, TrpogdoKao), vrroui- 

vo), w. a. 
awake, to be, hyprjyopevai. 
awaken, eyeipu, dviarTjfii ; 

= to afford, TvapexOf 

OTrd^G). ' 
away, to lead, uTrdyQ. 


Babylon, Baf3v?Mv, -uvog, 

back, oTTiCTw ; go back, 

bad, KaKog, rrovTjpog, ^av- 

Xog, 32. [to. 

bad, the (abstract), kokov, 
ball, (7<palpa, tj. 
banish, £K(3d?iX(o. 
banter, Trai^o. 
barbarian, a, jSdpfSapog, 6. 
base, TaTTELvog, KOKog, iro- 

Basias, Bacriag, -ov, 6. 
basket, Kdveov, to. 
bathe oneself, 2ovofiac. 
battle, f^dxv, 5^. 
be, to, elfii, yiyv(fiaiy Ix*' 

w. adj. or adv. 



be with, avvEifii. 

bear (cairy), ^epcj, (popeo, 
iSaara^o) ; ^ endure, 
TX?}fic ; = bring forth, ' 
produce, ^vu, uvacpvu, 

beast (wild), d^rjpiov, to. 

beat, Kpovcj, 100. 

beautiful, KaMg 3 ; beau- 
tiful persons, ol KaXoL 

— — , the, Ka?i6v, to. 

beautifully, /ca/lcjf. 

beauty, Ka2.6v, to, koXXo^, 
-ovg, TO. 

because, oti, 6l6tl. 

because of, ^ca. 

become, yiyvofiai. 

becomes, it, 7rpof^/cei. 

becoming, TrpogfjKuv. 

, it is, Ttpog^KSi. 

befitting, TtpogriKav. 

before, 7rp6. 

(conj.), Tzpiv, TrpoTe- 


beforehand, to observe, 

beg off, h^aiTEOfiai. 

beget, TtKTO). 

begin, apxofiat. 

beginning, apxv, V- 

behalf of, in, vrrep. 

behind, oTriao) ; to leave 
behind, KaTaXeiTrco. 

being, to come into, yiy- 

believe (trust), Tret'&o/iiai ; 
= think, T^yiofiaL, vo- 
fit^o), doKel w. d. 

believe in gods, ■&eovc vo- 

believed, to be, inaTevo- 
belly, yaoTTjp, -epog, ij. 
beloved, to be, see to love. 
benefactor, evepyhrj^, -ov, 

beneficence, evepyeaia, rj. 
benefit, to, oxpelm^vivTifii. 

benefit, evepyeaia, rj, x''-- 
pig, -CTog, 7] ; to confer 
a, evepyeTeo) w. a. 

bereave, orepcw, uttoot. 
Tivu Tivog, u(l)aLpeojj,aL. 

beside, irpog w. d. 

besides, ert, nT^riv, 145. 

besiege, TrolLopKicj. 

best, to be the, upiaTevcj. 

bestow, diSufu, ottu^u. 

betimes, evd-vg. 

betray, TrpoSiduizt. 

betrayer, -TrpodoTrjg, -ov, 6. 

between, fieTa^v. 

beware of, (hvlaTTOjiat 
w. a., EvXafSeonai tl. 

beyond, prep., inrep. 

beyond desert. Trap' a^iav. 

bid, KeTiEvo) w. a. and inf 

bind, Secj. 

bird, opvLc;, -i-&og, 6, i]. 

birth, yevog, -ovg, to. 

bite, daKvu. 

black, fielag 3. 

blame, to, hMyxf^, tpeyo). 

blessing, a, aya-&6v, to, 
EVEpyeaia, ^. 

blind, adj., Tv<pl6g 3. 

, to make, TV(p?.6c}. 

blood, alfia, to. 

bloom, uKfi^, 7]. 

bloom, to, '&a7J\,u. 

blow, to, -KVEU. 

blow, a, TvTiriyTj, 7. 
blush, to. £pv&paivo{iat, 

w. Aor. and Put. Pass, 
boar, KccTzpog, 6. 
boastful display of, to 

make, £Tri6£iKvv/j,i,. 
body, the, acj/j.a, to. 
, in a (= together), 

Boeotia, BotuTia, rj. 
boil, to, ei/'cj, ^ivvvfxt. 
boldly, TS-a^^aXEog. 
boldness (of speech), irap- 

fiT]aia, 7]. 


bolt, /-cox^oc, i. 

booty, /lEia, 7. 

bore through, TpvTruu. 

borders, fj-E^opia, tu. 

bom, to he,(l>vvai,yiyvofiac 

both, UJ160). 

both — and, nai — Kal, te 

— Kal. 
boundary, nepag, -UTog, 

TO, /IE-&6pca, TU. 
bow, TO^OV, TO. 

bowl, mixing, KpaTvjp, 

-Vpog, 6. 
boy, Tiralg, 6. 
bracelet, "^eXKlov, to. 
Brasidas, Bpacidag, -ov, 6. 
brass, ;);;a/'i,/c6f, 6. [41. 

brave, avdpEtog, yEvvalog, 
bravely, avdpEtug, yEv- 

vaiag. [^. 

bravery, avdpca, rj, apeTTj, 
bread, apTog, 6. 
break, P'^yvv/ii, diapr/., Ka- 

Tayvvjui, 100. 
up an encampment, 

ava^Evyvvfic, opfiaco. 
in pieces, dia^^^y- 


breathe, Trvecj, E/nTiVEO). 
bridge, to throw a, over 

^Evyvvfzi w. a. 
bridle, ;^a?>.iv6f, 6. 
brilliant, 2.a/j.Trp6g 3. 
bring, ayu, (pEpu, KOfii^u. 
forward, as a charge, 


on, ETrdyo). 

to, 7rpog<l>£po). 

up (= educate), nac- 

6evu, Tpicpcj. 
brother, ad£2.<p6g, 6. 
brute, f36(7K7jfia, to. 
build, iSpvoi, KTi^o), 112. 
bull, Tavpog, 6. 
burden, ax^og, -ovg, to. 
burdensome, (^apvg, xa^E' 

iTog, apyalEog, 22. 


hw:n,Kato),'rrtfi7rp7]fii,l71. cause (= affairs), Trpuy- citizen, TcoMvijg, 6. 

burn down, KaraKaiu, Ka- jua, to. city, noXtg, tj. 

raipMyu, e/.im7rpT^fiL. cauterize, Kaiu, uttok. clear, to ( = free from wild 

bury, ■&aTrTO). cease, rravofzat, dLaletTro. beasts), k^Tjfiepou ; = 

business, epyov, ro, izpay- Cecrops, KsKpcrtp, -otcoc, 6. purify, Ka-&aipco. 

fia, TO. Celaenae, KeXaLvai, at. Clearchus, KHapxog, 6. 

but, Se, oKka. celebrate ( = praise), £7rai- cleave to, exofiac w. g. 

but also, uXXa Kai. vsu. Cleonymus, Klecjvv/xog, 6. 

by, i'TTo, 6td, irapa, 'npog. in song, d8u, -bfiveu. Cleopompus,K/l£67ro^7rof, 

celestial, ovpaviog 3. 6. 

C. cell, oIk16lov, to. Clitus, KTielTog, 6. 

Cadmus, Kddfiog, 6. censure, ipeyu, fxs/Lccpoftal close (adj.), eyyvg. 

calamity, dTvxia., Vj k-O-- "^^i eycaTiscj. , to, icXecu. 

Kov, TO. centre, fj-eaog 3, fieaoTrjg, clothes, eadfjg, -rjTog, rj. 

call, to, /caAfu, a7rayop£t;w, -7]Tog, i]. cluster (of grapes), /?6- 

29 ; = name, ovofid^o). certainly not, or never, ov Tpvg, 6. 

call to mind, [ivrjiiovevu fir] [§ 177, 9]. cold, ipvKog, to, f)lyog, to. 

TL. Cliaerecrates, XatpeKpu.- (adj.), tpvKpog 3. 

Callixenus, KaXM^svog, 6. TTjg, -ovg, 6. collect, av?i?ieyo), avvi<7T7j- 

calumny, 6i,al3o?i.^, r). Chaldaeans, 'X.a%8aloL, ol. jit. 

can (be able), Svvaiiai. Chalcidian, Xa2,KiSEvg, colony, cnrotKia, tj. 

capacity, Svvafiig, rj ; in -ecog, a. combatant, dd-Xi]T'^g, 6. 

a private, I6ia ; in a chance, tvxVi V- combat, fJ-dxr], tj ; to en- 
public, 6j}/xoaia. change, to, hetcTOmttu, gage in single combat, 
Carduchians, 'Kapdovxoi, /isTaP dX2,o), 58, 159. fj.ovofiax£(o w. d. 

ol, adj., -tog. character, Tpoirog, 6, hd-og, come, epxoju,ai, d<piKveo- 
care, iirL/^eTieca, rj, (ppov- -ovg, to. «- ' . fiat ; = I have come, 

Ttg, -tSog, rj, /aept/iva, tj, character of Deity, tcI tov am present, fjKu. 

40. d-sov. [v6). in or into, elgepxo- 

care, to, care for, take charge, to take in, lafifSd-, elgst/j.!,. 

care for, eTrt/ieXofiai, charge, to (= attack), £7ri- come into existence, y/y- 

(l>povTi^G), 27. TL-&efiaL w. d. vofiai. 

careful, to be (w. inf), chariot, dpfxa, to. tog&\hQY,Gvvepxofiat. 

(PpovTi(^(j) w. g. charioteer, Tjvioxog, 6. to a knowledge of, 

carefully, e7rijiie2,C)f.^ charm, Tepirov, to. ytyvCxjKCd. 

carousal, 7r6(7ti-,-.-£{jf, /j>; Charmides, Xap^aidj^f , -ou, command (= office), dp- 
carry, ^epci, (iaoTa^u. 6. xVi V- 

about, TtEptcpepo. cheerfully, fjSeug. command, to; /ceAevw, etcl- 

onwar,7roA£/i£w w.d., Chian, XiOf, 6, TaTTCd, npogT. ; ofgen- 

off, a-Kayti. child, 'Kolg, 6, tj, tekvov, erals, napayyE/Ho). 

Carthage, Kapxv^^Vf ro. [-sg, command, to be at one's, 

-ovog, TJ. choice (adj.), 7ro?LVTE?i7jg, rcdpELfii. 

cast down, to, ^ltttu. choose, alpio/iac ; = will, commander, EntTaKT^p, 
castle, uKpa, ^. iSovXevofiai, e-^eTio, 48. -vpog, 6 ; = a general, 

Catana, KaTuvrj, tj. Cilicia, KiTiiKia, tj. cTpaTTjyog, 6 ; to be a 

catch, -d-TjpEvcj, dypsvo). circumference,7r£pi/i£7-pof, commander, apxa. 

Caucasus, KavKdaog, 6. tj. commend, knaivEu. 



common, kolvoc 3. 
common origin, Gvyyevr/r^ 


companion, iralpoc, 6. 
compare, dfiOLou tlvI tl, 

eiKU^U TLvi TL. 

comparison with, in, Tcapa 

w. a. 
compassion upon, to have, 

KareTi^eeu Tcva. 
competent, l/cavog 3. 
complete, to, dtaTeMu. 
compulsion, avdyKTj, tj. 
comrade, iralpog, 6. 
conceal, airo-, KaraKpvTt- 

TO), KEvd-d), 88. 
concealed, KpvnTog 3. 
concerns, it, fie^iei. 
concerned, to be, (ppovrc- 

C" w. g. 
condemn, Kplvu ; to death, 

confer blessings, ev ttoleo) 


great blessings, iieyaka 


confide in, e-kltpettu, tte- 

confidence, to have, in, 

confine (=shut up), ku- 

ra/c/Lcicj, Ka'&Eipyo). 
conformably to, uetu w. g. 
confused noises, ■Qopvlioi, 

ol. [w. d. 

congratulate, (TvvrjSo^ac 
conquer, viKuu, 88. 
conscious, avvsiSug ; to be 

conscious, avvotSa. 
consider, gkotzeu, voeco, 

133 ; be considered, vo- 

considerate ( = moderate )j 

/xerptor 3. 
— — , to be, aocppovEu. 
consideration, "Koyiuiibq, 6. 
constitutionally, vojiliiuq. 

construction (building), 

0tK066/27]ai.C, £(Jf, ^. 

consult an oracle, fiavrev- 

consume, uvaXianu. 
contemplate, ■&£upeo), gko- 


contend (fight), fxaxo/iat. ; 
as in music, with des- 
tiny, etc., Epi^o) w. d. 

contentedly, very, avrap- 

contention, Epig, -iSog, rj. 

contest, [laxr], rj, uyuv, 
-C)vog, b. 

continue, Si,aT£?Jc), 6cuycj. 

continually, ueI, gvv£X(^c ; 
also by dcarslEu, with 
the Part. 

contrary to, rcapfi. 

contrive, fCTixccvaofiac. 

control, icvpcEvo) w. g., 
KpaTEU w. g. 

conversation, 6iu2,oyoQ, 6 ; 
= instruction, o/nLXia, rj. 

converse with, dia7\,£yoiiai 


convict, to, EkEyx^^ £^£%. 
convince, tteI'&c) w. a. 
cooperation, with the, of, 

GvvEpyovvrbg rcvog. 
com, GLTor, 6. [6. 

, ear of, GTaxvc, -vog, 

coipse, VEKVC, -vog, 6, ve- 

fcpog, 6. 
correct (adj.), dp-&6g 3. 
correctly, 6p-&ug. 
corrode, egMu. 
corrupt, to, 6ia<p-&ELpci. 
Cotyora, Korvupa, rd. 
counsel, (SovXr/, i]. 
country, x^P^^i JVi Tt one's 

country, Tzarplg^ -Idog, 57. 
— : — , of the, belonging t ) 

the, Tvdrpiog 3. 
-, native, ■narplg, -tdog., 


courage, f/pfr^, 37, \}v/i6g,d. 
courageously, T^a/j^jakiug. 
courier, uyyEAog, u, r//j.e 

podpo/iog, b. 
course, ^pbyLog, b ; = jour 

ney, b&bg, i/. 
court, d-vpaL, ai. 
of justice, (SiKaoT^- 

pCOV, TO. 

COW, (3ovg, Tj. 
creature, C^ov, to. 
credit, to, irei^ofiai. 
Crete, Kpr/tri, 7/. 
crime ( = insolence),^/5/)ff, 

-Eug, ^. 
Critias, KpoTtag, -ov, 6. 
croak, KpcJ^u. 
crocodile, KpoicodEiXog, 6. 
Croesus, KpolGog, 6. 
Crotonian, KpoTuviuTijg, 

-ov, b. 
crown, a, GTE<pavog, 6. 
crush, -^pavo). 
cry, a, Kpavyrj, 7/. 
cry out, Kpd^u, dvaK. ; to 

cry out to, (3odo) tlvl. 
cubit, 'n:rixvg, -Ecog, 6. 
culture ( = education),7raf 

dsia, Tj, TzaidEVGLg, ij. 
cultivation, see culture. 
cup, KVTrE?Jiov, to. 
custom, Mof, -ovg, to^ 

7]-&og, -ovg, TO ; it is an 

established customj vo- 


Cyaxares, Kva^dovc, -ovg 
(ace -??v), 6. [b. 

Cyclops, Kvnlorp, -uKog, 
Cyrus, Kvpog, b 


dainty food, o-ipoi>, to. 
dance, to, ;^opei'6;, 6px£0- 

danger, kivSdvoc, 6. 

, to incur, or be in 

danger of, KivdwEva. 


dare. To^jiau. delight in, ripTrofiai, ayak- desei've, a^ioQ elftc. 

Darius, Aapelog, 6. ?io/xac. deserving, u^ioq. 

dark (= black), ^eAGf. deliver, ccj^w, dTraAZar- , to think, c^iot;. 

darkness, vv^, vvKTog, rj. tcj; = to free from, desire, a, e7n-&vft(.a, Jj, bpe- 
daughter, d-vyuT?]p, -rpog, kTievd-epou. ^ig, -eag, tj. 

71. up, 7iapadL6o)/j,t. desii'e, to, sttl'& ; = 

day, viJ-spa, rj. delivered, to he (= to he ■wish„5ovAo//ai; =pray, 
dayhreak, at, ufta 7jfiepa. saved), cu^ofzac. evx^^fiat. 

dead,a7roT£-&v7}KcJg,veKp6g deliverance (= safety), desirable, c/pero^. 

3; to he dead, re-&v7j- aurjjpia, y ; = freedom desirous, to he (=wish), 

K£vac. from, arcoXvaLg, 7]. £d^E?M. 
deal, a great deal of, TToAvf. Delos, A^Aof, fj. despair, to, anoyiyvcJaKO), 
dear, ^i/lof 3. demand,to (=ask),ai-ecj. cn^v/ieu ; of oneself, 
death, '&avaToc, 6. demean oneself to one, uTroytyvuiaKo kfiavrov. 
, toputto, aTTO/creivw. 7rpog(pepofiaL rcvt ; Idad- despise, drifia^o), Kara- 
deceive, e^aTrardo, 47,108, ly to, ^(Pio^povcjf ex(^ (ppovecj. 

113. w. d. despised, to he, Kara^po- 

decide, Kplvu, Sluk., 6ia- Demeter (Ceres), Ajjfi-^- veofiat. 

ytyvcoGKG). Trip, -^poc, V- destiny, fioXpa, tj. • 

— — upon, l3ov2,evo/j,ac. Demosthenes, A7]fioa'&e- destroy, ^d-eipo), dia^., Ka' 
declare, d7ro(paivop,at, cnro- VT]g, -ovg, 6. raXvcj, bXkvfML ; =s 

deLKvviiL. deny, apveofxaL. overthrow, dvarpsTTO. 

decree, a, ij'^(f>i-crfia, TO. depart, aTrei^ut, uTvaXldr- determine (= resolve), 
deed, irpdyfia, to, epyov, TOfiat, direpxafiac. yiyvuaKU. 

TO. departed (=dead), diro- determined, it is, (Jo /c a. 

deem, voftt^o) ; to he deem- Ted-vTjKcog. devote oneself to ( =tum), 

ed worthy, d^iov/nat. dependent, to he ( = he ru- rpeiro/iac. 

deep, ISa'&vg. led),dpxOtUat,KpaT£ojuai. Diana, 'ApTE/xig, -tSog, rj. 

defeat, rjrra, tj. deplore, K?ialo. die, to, "^vrjoKio, dirod-.y 

defence (by speech), d/To- deposite, rii?77,ui ; in some- reXevTau. 

"koyia, TJ. thing, £v rtvt. for, v7r£pa7TO-&v7JaKcj. 

defend, (pv^idTTo ; to de- deposited, a thing, rrapa- differ from, Smcpspo) w. g. 

fend oneself by speak- Kara-d-fjKT], ?). different, dLa^opog 2 ; to 

ing, d7rc?\,oy£OfiaL ; by deprive, (JT£p£cj, ucpaLpio- run in different direc- 

force, or fortress, dfcv- fiac, 113. tions, StaStSpdaKO). 

vojiat. derive (= enjoy, e. g. ad- from, to he, 6ca<j>£pu. 

defe.ndant,d7ro?i,oyoi)/zei'Of. vantages), aTTolavu; difficult, l3apvg, -£La, -v, 
deformed ( = disgraceful), derive gain, /cepdaivo. dvcr/coZof 2. 

alaxpog 3. descendant, £iiyovog, 6, 57. dignity (gravity), jSdpog, 

degenerate, to, fj.ETa[3o/i^v descended from, eKyovog, -ovg, to. 

ETTL TO naKov XafijSdvcj. o, 57. dig through, diopvTTU 

deity, ■&£lov, to, daifxo- describe, avyypu(f)0). SiaaKd-n-To. 

vLov, TO, ■&£6g, 6. desert, beyond one's, Trap' diligence, a-novd^, 7. 

delay, to, //e/l/lo. d^iav. diligent, GrrovSalog 3. 

deliberate, to, f3ovX£vojuat. desert, to, /cara/leiTrw, drco- diligently, Girovdau 'f . 

delight, to, £V(ppai.vo), Tip- (pEvyu. Diodorus, Aiodupc^, 6. 

Tw. deserter, (pvydg, -uSog, 6. Diogenes^AioyivTjc-ovCtO 



DiphridftS, AifpcSac, -a, 6. 

direct, to, Id-vvu ; = to- 
wards something, /ca- 
Tev&vvo) ; oneself, rpe- 
no/ ; = to manage, 

disappear, a(j)avL^o/, w. 
Aor. Pass. 

disclose, EKKaXvTVTcj. 

discourse, Tioyog, 6. 

discourse, to, diaMyo^at. 

discover (= show), (paivcj. 

discreet, (ppovi/xog 3, ovve- 
Tog 3. 

disease, vouoc, fi- 

disgrace, Ivimt], ?j. 

disgraceful, alaxpog 3. 

disgracefully, alaxpt^Q- 

dishonest, izovripog 3. 

dishonor, ariiila, rj. 

dishonorable, ahxpog 3, 
aeLnrjg, -eg. 

disorder, rapaxv, v ; to 
throw into disorder, ra- 

dispel, /l{icj. 

dispirited, to be, a'&vjuio). 

display, aTrocpaivojuai,, utto- 

displease, cnrapeGKu tlvl. 

displeased with, to be, ax- 

dispose (= arrange), rex- 

disposed, kindly, evvovg 2. 

disposition ( = feeling), 
■yvo)/j.7j, 7], (ppeveg, al. 

dissension, dtxocjTaala, rj. 

dissipate {= scatter), gke- 

dissolute, uKparrig, -eg. 

dissolve, KaTa?^vo), di,a?.vu. 

distance, at a, from, 7rp6- 

distant, to be, froTa^drrexa. 

distmguish oneself, be dis- 
tinguished for, diadepo). 

distinguished for, inicij- 

jj-og 2. 
disturb, Tapdrro), ovyxt(ji. 
disturbance, rapaxv, tj. 
divide, /lepi^cj, vifiu, Ka- 

divine, -^elog 3. 
divination, fiavriKy, ij. 
dOj Trpdrru, ttouu, dpdu. 
do good to, EviroLeo) rivd, 

Evep-yerecj rtvd ; do 

wrong, ddcKecj, KUKug 


dog, Kvcov, Kvvog, 6, ^. 

domestic, 6 oIkoi. 

dominion, dpx'^, v, Tjysfio- 
vla, 7]. 

door, -d^vpa, ij, tzvItj, tj. 

double-speaking, dixojuv- 
■&og 2. 

doubtful, to be { = fear- 
ful), (pojSeofcac. 

Draco, ApuKCJV, -ovrog, b. 

draw, cvpo). 

draw up (of an army), 
rdrro) ; (laws), avy- 

dress,, ij, Ifidrcov, 


dress in, d/Li.(piivvvju.i. 
dried up, eaicTiTjicug, -via, 

drink, to, irtvu. 

out or up, eKKcvG). 

drive, eXavvo). 

away, d7rE2,avvo}, 

dru'&eu. [■&eo). 

in, elge2,avv(i), elgu- 

out, k^elavvCi). 

drunkenness, fied-Tj, tj. 
during, KCTd, kv. 
duty, 6eov, to, 167. 
duty or part of any one, 

it is, elfii w. g. 
dwell, o'cKeo), valu ; = to 
be, eliil ; = be in, Tzpog- 
EijLL ; = lie, KEi/iai. 

dwelling, oUia, 7, oIko^, 
0, olKrjjia, TO. 


Each, ^KacTog. 
each other, dXX^Xcjv. 
eager to learn, (juXo/ia- 

^Vg, -eg. £2. 

for honor, (piTiOTlfio^ 

eagle, deTog, 6. 

ear, ovg, UTog, to. 

earn, to (= work out), 

earth, the, 77, ^, x^*^* 

X'&ovog, Tj. 
earthen, KepdfiEcog 3. 
earthquake, CEiafiog, 6. 
ease, '^avxia, ij. 
easily, ^adtug. 
east, icjg, -a, tj. 
easy, ^ddtog 3. 
eat, £a-&i(j). 

echo, vx(^, -ovg, 7]. [4.] 
edge, EGxarog [§ 148, Eem. 
educate,7rafde{icj, StddaKO). 
education, TracSeca, ij, 61- 

SaaKaXia, tj. 
educated, TreTracdev/xevog. 
effect, to (= accomplish), 

effeminate, to render, jua- 

efforts ( = by themselves), 

KU'd-' eavTOvg. 

Egyptian, AlyvrrTcog, 6. 
either — or, rj — ?}. 
elder, see old. 
elegance (=gracefulness), 

Xdpig, -iTog, 7]. 
elevate, vipoo. 
eloquent, ISyiog 3. 
else, everything, dXlogy 

TiOLTcdg 3. 
embassy, 'iTpeaSEia, tj. 
embrace, dcnrd^ofiac. 
employ, xp^^o/xac w. d. 


employed in, to be zeal- entreat, iKerEvcj. Euxinus Pontus, Ey^et- 

ously, (jTrovSdCcj. entreaty, deTjGig, -ewf, ij ; vog Jlovrog. 

empty itself (of a river),, to gain release by, efai- even, Kai. 

efif3d?i?M, e^ijjftc. TEOfjLac. — — if, koI kwi'. 

emulation, (pcXorc/j-ta, 57. entrust to, k-KirpeTTO. now, koI vvv. 

encampment, orparoite- enumerate, Karapf&fiEu. though, koL kav. 

60V, TO. envy, (pd-ovoc, 6. evening, deih]., j]. 
, to break up an, dva- , to, (p-d-oveo ; envy event, ov/icpopd, 57. 

t^evyvvfiL. [w. d. one something, or on ever (= always), cef. 

encounter, to, viroar^vaL account of something, every, irdg ; = quisqv^ 

encourage,7rapa/ca/L£a), TTG- (p'&ovt-u tlvI tlvoq. eKaarog. 

pa^uv&eofiat. Epaminondas,'E7rajUia^cjv- everything, ttuv. 

end, relog, -ovc, to ; end, 6aq, -ov, 6. everywhere, rravraxov. 

e. g. of war, KardXvatg, Ephesus, "Ecpecog, ij. eyident,6})?iog 3, (pavepog 3. 

-^"5") V- epic poetry, TrotrjaLg tqv evidence, rsKju^piov, to. 

end of Hfe, TelevTij tov sttuv, or Ta etttj. evil, KaKog 3, Tvovijpog 3, 

(3iov. equal, laog 3. <pav7Mg. 

endeavor, to, TrsLpdo/, , to make, i^taoo). evil, an, kukov, to, KUKta, 

Dep. Pass. equivalent, to be, uvTu^tog jj. 

endure, 0epw, vno^spu, elp-i. evil-doer, Kanovpyog, 6. 

vTvofievo). ere, Trptv. exact from, to, dTzaiTeco 

enduring, very, KapTept- erect, to, 6p-&6(o, s^opd-ocj ; H Tcva, irpctTTo ri rtva. 

tiog 3. as a statue, dvaTi-&7jfii, exalt, vipoa. 

enemy, TroXefxtog, 6, ex- dvtaT9]/ii. [6. examine, e^eraCw, e^e7;\;w. 

"^pog, 0. Eretrian, 'EpsTpuvg, -Ecog, examination, slsyxog, to ; 

energy, divaficg, -Eug, fj. err, d/LcapTavco. = deliberation, Kpiaig, 

enfeeble, re^pw, KaTdyvvfii. escape, to, dTco(f)Evyu w. a. -f«f, 7. 

engage with (of an army), especially, ^a^aora. excellence, KaXoKayaMa, 

avjitfiiyvvfiL. establish, KaMoTrifiL. 7], dpETrj, 7. 
in a naval battle, established custom, it is, excellent, dya-&6g. 

vav/j.axeo) ; in single vojii^ETaL. except, tcItiv. 

combat, fiovo/iaxEu. esteem, to, TLfidu, ■&£pa- excess (= luxury), Tpv- 

enjoin upon, evteIXu. ttevu ; = value much, 0^, 57 ; excess in any- 

enjoy (= taste), dTrolavo nocioftai 'KEpl rcollov ; thing, duElyELa, rj. 

w. g., yEvojiai w. g.; = consider, think, vo- exchange, to, [lETaXkaT- 

allow one to enjoy (par- ^iC"- rw ; = to exchange 

ticipate in) something, happy, /^a/capifcj, C??- one thing for another^ 

fieTa8ido)Ui tlvl rivog. Xou. avTiKaTalTidTTo/iat tI 

enlarge, '7T?iaTvvco. esteemed, ufiiog 3. Tivog. 

enlist, (7z;77pa0w : intrans., estimable, as^^^of 3. [6. excite, e/e^pw. 

cTpaTEvo/iac. Euphrates, EixppaTTjg, -ov, exclude, u7TE?iavva}. 

ewrich, TrTiOVTc^o). Europe, Ei^poTr^, ^. execute (= accomplish), 

enslave, SovTiou. Euryalus, Evpva?iog, 6. ETrtTElEo, dcavvo. 

enslaved, to be, 3ov?,evc}. Eurysthenes, Evpvcr&ivTjg, exercise, to, yv/nvdCo), aa- 

enter, £lg(3dX?.o ; = to -ovg, 6. keo ; = make trial of; 

take a course or way, Eurystheus, EvpvaiS-evg, TTEipdofxac. 

ToiTTo/xac odov. -iug, 6. exercise, daK? uig, -eug, h- 


exhort, ^porpino,^ napa- fasten, Mu. fix (= determine), op.> ; 

mle^. [ fat, nicv, -ovor. = to make firm, tt^v- 

existence, to come into, fate, fcolpa, if -, = fortune, vv,u. 
expeet(=hope),a..T.>; rv;,,, ^. fiagon, xoev,, 6 [Hi]. 

- look for, vTroTTTevt,, fated, it is, ec/zaprat w. d. flatter, KoXaKeva> 
npojSoKau. father, ^arr^p, -rpCr, 6. flatterer, /coAaf, -a/cof, 6 

expedition, to make an, fault, d/.apna, ^. flattery, /co;ia/cem, ^. 

(Trparei;6;. favor, x^P^^, -Irog, ij. flay, 6ep(^. 

expenence, ^^Trapfa, ^. , a, ^i.pyeam, ^7. flee, ^evyc. 

exploit Trpay^a, ro. on, to confer a, do to, away, a^ocl>evyu w a. 

exposed to,see stratagems. ev nou<. w. a, evepye- flesh, Kpea,, -i^,, ro, cd.c 
exj>vess,to,i>pa;oj,iKcl>aivco, rec. w. a. [cjxco. -picog ij ' ' '" 

ano<paivu, 160. , to receive a, ev 7r«- fling, ^Lt<, 

extent, apc^f^o,, b, nlr,- fear, ^ofto,, 6, 54. flock (=herd), dyiXv, i}. 

or, -oi^r, TO. ^ to, 0o/5£o/zGi,dedoi/ca. flourish, to, ■&dl7M 

extenor, .r^^^/^ara, ra. fearful, 6ecv6g 3; to be, flow, to,p£^. 

extol, ec, vi^o, i^acpeco. ^o,8iof^ac. by, ^apa^piu. 

extraordinanly,(Je.z.cD,,100 feet, ^6Se,, oL [xog, 6. flower, a, dvM, -ovg, ro 
eye, o<p^a7,f,og, 0. fellow-combatant, ovfiim- dv^sixov, ro. 

fetter, a, 7raJ?7, ^. flute, avllg, 6, avpiy^, 

^' few, bUyoL, -at, -a. -i-yyog, rj. 

Face, npoac^nov, ro, b^^cg, field, ley peg, b, yvia, rj. fly away, dva^iroiiai, iKn. 

. ''"f'J^: , ^^^^' t^^' /^";i:o^«^- foUow, errofzac w. d., ^/co 

fail, aKlecTTco, irpol., Ka- fill, 7r.>7rA^/^i, e^Tr.VA^a^ Aoi;,?£« w. d. 

raA^,^7ra filled with, iiearbg 3, ttA^- folly fmadness), uavla, ij. 

fair (= beautiful),.a7.or3. ,,,, -.,. f,^^ ,f 1^^^^^ ^^^^ 

faithful, TTi^rof 3. find, e^picr/cw, 141. ^k, -eg. 

faU, to, TT^Vrw. fine(=:beautiful),/caA6f3. fond of war'^aoTrdAe^of 2 

away,a7ro-,7rep#e«. Me, a, xPW^ra, rd, ^ma, food, /?pd5^a, to, f3opd, -h 

— back (= retreat), ^; to punish by a, C??- fool, /2C>pog. b. 

anoxcpec.. ^,6«. foolish, /z<3po, 3. 
upon ef^nc^rc. fir, ^.i^/c;;, fj. foot of, at the, Wo. [vap. 

/?an6,, e/z/3a;i;i6;. , to set on, k!J.m^pr,f,c. forbid, d7rayopevo>. 

falsely, to swear, ^TT^op/ce^. firm,/3.>.or3; standfii-m, force, miHtary, dvvauig 
tame, ev/cAe^a, ^, A:7.f:or, vTrofzevo). .^^^^ V- 

-eovg, j6; = report, finnness, Kaprepia, 7. (violence), (3ia, ij. 

, ?'"'' ^- , , first, TrpcSror 3; adv. TrpS , to employ, /?mCo/za^ 

tammo, ///.of, 0. ^o^;, ^rpwra, ra. forefathers, Trpoyeyevvfie- 

famous, £i;/cAf;?r, -f'r, <pa- first, at, ev ap;i;^. .^ot, oL 

P '''H'^^^" ^^^^' ^' ''^'^''^' ■'^°^' '^^ forehead, fzercoTrov, r6. 

far (of distance), /.a/cpar, fit (proper), emr?j6ecog, foreign, dUorpcog 3. 

rrjlov;^ahCom.rroli. Uavbg 3. foreign to (= besides), 

.ar,sofarfrom,az.n. fit, in a, of madness, ^^v w. g., x^^pk y^. gl 
tare, to, vrparro, w. adv., /zaivbfzevog, dac^ovcbv. i^co w. o- 

^ e. g.ev to fare well. fitted {= of such a na- foreigner, leVof, b. 

:ast, to hold, exofzat w. g. ture), mnvrog. foresee, Trpoopa.,. 



forever, aei; to be for- 
ever (= abide in), eiiii, 
diaTpipcd. [w. g. 

forget, Xav&avo/iiai, cTri/l. 

former ( = old), rraTiawg 3. 

forthwith, tjjv Tax'iOTrjv, 
6Jf raxtara. 

fortify, TEixi^ii. 

fortune, rvxi], ^. 

, good, EVTvxla, 7}. 

fortunate, eiidaifzcov, -ovog, 
evTvxvCi -^C- 

— — — , to be, Evrvx^cj, £v- 

forward, to bring as a 
charge, KarTjyopio). 

found, to, KTi^u, Idpvo). 

foundation, Kprjirlc, -tdog, 
ij; metaphor., ■&efie?[,cov, 


fountain, rrrj-yTJ, tj. 
frankness, Trap^rjaia, rj. 
free, kTievd-epog. 

, to, Tivu, kXev&epCo}. 

from, aTToTivo). 

freedom, kXev&epia, tj ; of 

the state, avrovojuca, i]. 

of speech,7rap/377(7/'a,57. 

freemen, kXevd-epot, oL 
friend, ^tXog, 6, kpaarrj^f 

-ov, 6. 
friendship, (piMa, tj. 
frivolity, ^adiovpyca, rj. 
frog, ^uTpaxoc, b. 
from, uTCo, ek, Tvapd. 
fruit, KapiTog, b. 
fruits, first, airapxai, at. 
fugitive, <pvyac, -adog, b. 
fulfil, teXeo). 

full, [XEGrbg 3, irlTjprjg, -eg. 
full power, siovaia, ij. 
furnish, ETrapKEu. 
future, the, to fiiTiXov. 

Grain, KspSog, -ovg, to, kt^- 
cig, -Eug, ^. 

gain, to (= acquire), ktu- 
ofzaL I = get gain, /cep- 
daivco ; to gain release, 

gaUant and noble, Kalog 
KOL aya&og ; yEVvalog 3. 

gape, KEXV^a, 130. 

garden, KTJTrog, b. 

garland, cvEcpavog, b. 

garment, IfiaTcov, to, cto- 

It], 7}. 

gate, irvXr], rj, ■&vpa, ij. 
general (common), kol- 

vog 3. 
general, a, GTpaTrjyog, b. 
generation of men, ye- 

VECL, 7]. 

generously, d<p-&6v(jg. 
get out of the way of, ec- 

Kcj bdov. 
giant, yiyag, -avTog, b. 

gift, dcJpOV, TO. 

give, dc6o}/j,t, Tid-jjfii. 

a sign or signal, ct]- 


one a share of any- 
thing, fiETadidtj/iii Tivi 


a response, XP^^- 

back, airodidcofiL. 

-^-^ "way, EvdtSofii. 
gladly, very (=by all 

means), TravTCjg. 
go,l3aLvo),7ropEvofiat, Ttpog- 

Eifii, 89. 
about, 'KEpL^alvu, £/5- 


back, avaxupEco. 

away, a-Eiui, airep- 

Xo/uai, a7roj3aivu, olxo- 

down fas the sun), 


forward, Trpocivat. 

into, ElaELfit ; as a 

contest, etc., hdvu. 
, over (as to another 

party), aTripxofiai, aizo* 

through, Siepxofiai. 

round, TrEplsifit. 

goal, TEpfia, -aTog, to. 

goat, al^, -yog, b, ij. 

goblet, KvireXkov, to. 

God, a god, dEog, b. 

goddess, ■d'Ea, ij. [to. 

gold, xp'^^og, b, xpv(rcov, 

golden, XP'^<^^(>C, -ovg 3. 

gone, to be, 

good, aya'&og, Kokbg ; ol 
aya-&oi, the good; rd 
ayad-bv, the good (ab- 

good will, Evvoia, tj. 

govern, KpaTsco w. g., ap- 
XO) w. g. 

government, 7vo7uTEia, tj ; 
= a governed province, 

ttpxv, V- 
governor's residence, ap- 

X^loV, TO. 

graceful, x^^P'-^'-C: kmxa- 

ptg, -iTog. 
gracefully, x^^pi-^vTug, kv:L- 

Graces, x^-pi-Tsg, at. 
gracious, i'kecdg [§ 30]. 
grain, alTog, b. 
grant, to, Sldofii, TrapExo). 
gratify, X'^pi'^ojuat. 
gratitude, EvxaptcTTia, ^, 

Xaptg, -iTog, tj. 
gravity, fiapog, -ovg, to. 
great, fieyag. 

greatly, fiEyaXcjg, dsivcog, 
great deal, TroTivg. [to. 
greatness, fiEys'&og, -ovg^ 
Grecian, 'EA/ljyvi/cof. J 

Greece, ''E7i2,ag, -adog, tj. 
Greek, a, "'EXkrjv, -rjvog, 6. 
grief, ?iV7rrj, tj. 
grievous, x^^^'^og 3. 
grind, lEaivu. [ij. 

ground, the, ;i:^wv, -ovog, 



gross, [xsyag. 

growing old, not, ayijpu^, 


grow up, av^uvofiac, with ■ 

Pass, Aor. 
guard, the, ^vlaKTj, ij. 
guard, tO; ^vXarro), diacp. 
, against, to be on 

one's guard.^v/larrouai. 
guardian, fvla^, -/cof, 6. 
guide, a, i/yefiuv, -Svog, 6, 

7/viqxoc, 6. 
, to, Id-vvu, Karev&v- 

vo), Tjyeoiiai. 
guilty (= wrong doer), 

Gyges, Tvyrir^ -ov, b. 
gymnasium, •KalaioTpa, ^, 


Hades, cJ??f, -ov, L 
hair, i?pi^, rpLxoQ, i]. 
halcyon, d/l/ciiwv, -ovog, rj. 

hand, x^i-P, X^i-Pk, V- 
happens, it, GVfj.f3alvet,Tvy- 

X^vet, (TVfj.TTiiiTei. 
happiness, evdaifxoviaj t]. 
happy, Evdaifiuv. 
, to be, evdatfwver.)^ 


, to esteem, /xaiiapL^o). 

harbor, /u/lctjv, -hog, 6. 
hard (difficult), ;ya/le7r6f 3. 
hardship, rrovog, 6. 
hare, Aaywf, -w, 6. 
Harmodius, 'ApjioSiog, b. 
harmony, bp,6voLa, ?;. 
harp, rpopiu^, -r/yog, rj. 
harp-playing, KL-d-apipdia,?], 
ha=te, (ynovdrj, ^. 
Isasten, airevdcd. 
hastily, to flee, olx^ixaL 

(l>Evyuv [§175, 3]. 
hate, to, fj-taeu, kx'&alpo). 
hated, to be, li'Ktx'^^'-vop'O.u 
hateful, nLG7]Tbr 3. 
haughtiness, vjipig, -sag J], 

haughty, vTzeptppuv, vire- 
pTjfavog 2. 

have, ex(^, KmrTjiiai. 

head, Ke(^a7i,ri, tj. 

heal, luop.aL, a/ciofiat. 

health, vyieta, i]. 

hesLV^uKOvcjAKpouopat w.g. 

heart, Kapdla, i), K/jp, kt}- 
pog, TO ; = feeling or 
disposition, ipvxv^ V- 

heat, ■&a?^v:og, -ovg, to. 

heaven, ovpavog, 6. 

Hector, 'E/crup, -opog, b. 

heed, to take, evXajSiopaL 


height, vipog, -ovg, to ; = 

summit, uKpa, ij. 
Helen, 'EXevij, 57. 
Hellas, 'EAyLa^-, -u6og, ij. 
Helle, "EAA??, tj. 
Hellenes, "E^JlT^yef, ol. 
Hellespont, ''EDJ^rigTcovTog^ 

help of, witn the, ovv. 
Hera (Juno), "Hpc, rj, 
herald, KTJpv^, -vaog, b. 
herd, uye7\.r,, 7]. 
herdsman, vopevg, -iog, b, 

TTOiprjv, -ivog, b. 
Hermes (Mercury), 'Ep- 

pr^g, -OV, b. 
hero, ^pwf, -ojor, 6. 

hide, KpVTTTC), UTTOK. ['2. 

high-souled, peyaXbipvxog 

highly, very, Kal irdvv. 

highly, to esteem more, 
•Kspl fzei^ovog Troceopai ; 
to reverence or piize 
highly, Ttepl 7ro/U,o{} 

hill, y7J?<,0(pog, b. 

hinder, elpyu. [b. 

hired laborer, ■&7Jg, -QiiTbg, 

Hipparchus, "IrcTrapxog, b. 

his own (business, posses- 
sions), T(X iavTOV. 

historian, 'iaTopioypa<l»og,b. 

hold (have), lx(^ ; hold 
fast, ex^pac w. g. ; take 
hold of (= toucli, en- 
gage in, effect), uttto- 
jJUli w. g. 

hold before, 7rpo/3uA?..w. 

iold out (= sustain the 
attack), vTzocTTjvaj.. 

holy, iepog 3. 

home, olKog, b. 

Homer, "Opr/pog, b. 

honor, to, Tipau. 

honor, Tipri, i]. 

honor-loving, (pc^oTlfiog 2. 

honorable, evbo^og 2, ko- 
?lbg 3, (pavepog 3. 

honored, Tipiog 3. 

hoof, b7r?i7J, 7]. 

hook, uyKKjTpov, to. 

hope, ¥}^.^:ig, -i6og, ij. 

hope, to, klTTL^cj, eKTTofiat. 

horn, Kepag, to [§ 39]. 

horse, tTTTrog, 6. 

host, ^ivog, b. [3. 

hostile, TcoXepiog 3, hx^pb^ 

house, olKog, 6, olKta, ij. 

household, ouiog, b. 

howl TTWf ; in an indi 
rect question, bircdg ; 
how much, baog 3. 

human, uv&puTrivog 3j 
human race, r5 y^vog 

humane, <pi?Mv^pu7rog 2. 

hunger, ?upbg, b. 

, to, be hungry, ttsi- 


hunt, to, ■&i]pevu. 

hunter (huntsman), i9^- 
pevTTJg, -ov, b. 

hurtful, 8?Mj3ep6g 3. 

husband, ^vijp, av6p6^^ 6. 


If, el, kav, i]v, dv. 
ignorant, a/ui'&^Ci -If* 



illness, vocrog, i]. 
ills, KaKa, ra. 
illustrious, la[n:p6g 3. 
imitate, ixtfiio^ai ; = em- 
ulate, C,ri2,6(ji w. a. 
immediately, eiy&vg, Tcapa- 

immoderate, aKpdr^g, -£f . 
immortal, cf&dvarog 2. 
impel, TrpoTpeTTu. 
impiety, uaej3eta, ij. 
implant, eficj/urevo). 
implanted, efidvrog 2, 
impose upon (enjoin), 

TTpof rarrw,evr£/l/l6j w.d. 
impossible, advvaTog 2. 
impostor, <}>eva^, -aKog, 6. 
imprudent, avoog [§ 29, 

impure aKa/d-aprog 2. 
in, ev. 
in order to, by Put. Part., 

or a final conjunction, 

as tva, ug. 
iQ.eicti.\itj,a7rpayfJ,0(7vv7}, 7, 

dpyia, tj, ()aarC)V7i, tj. 
incite, TtpoTpiiro). 
increase, to, av^dvo/iai. 
incur danger, Kivdwevo. 
indeed, /nev ; indeed — ^but, 

/xsv — 6e. 
indictment, ypa^, tj. 
indolent, to be, oKveu. 
industrious, airovdalog 3. 
inferiors, rairetvorepoL, oL 
inglorious, ddo^og 2. 
inhabit, o'tKeo). 
inimical, ex'^P^C 3.